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Adverse Childhood Experiences And Cigarette Smoking: Demographic Moderators, Taylor Cosanella 2020 Loma Linda University

Adverse Childhood Experiences And Cigarette Smoking: Demographic Moderators, Taylor Cosanella

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Research suggests that there is a dose-response relationship between ACE score and cigarette smoking, such that as ACE score increases, so does smoking behavior, but little is known about what factors moderate this relationship. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine demographic characteristics as potential moderators of relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and cigarette smoking. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2013 California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The sample included 2,604 U.S. adults (54.8% female; Age: M = 53.3, SD = 8.10; 83.6%; Caucasian, 6.4% Asian, 5.9 ...


Out Of School Time (Ost) For Latinx Youth: A Qualitative Research Study In Spartanburg, South Carolina, Sandra Lopez, Hector Ortiz, Marianna Gonzalez, Mayra Lomeli-Garcia, Jay Stevens, Naya Taylor, Laura Barbas Rhoden, Christine Sorrell Dinkins, Gianella E. Quiñones 2020 Wofford College

Out Of School Time (Ost) For Latinx Youth: A Qualitative Research Study In Spartanburg, South Carolina, Sandra Lopez, Hector Ortiz, Marianna Gonzalez, Mayra Lomeli-Garcia, Jay Stevens, Naya Taylor, Laura Barbas Rhoden, Christine Sorrell Dinkins, Gianella E. Quiñones

Community Based Research

This project was undertaken as a result of conversations initiated by staff members in a variety of organizations with initiatives underway to support and improve outcomes for youth in Spartanburg, South Carolina. These organizations include the Spartanburg Academic Movement (SAM), Mary Black Foundation (MBF), and public schools. Conversations pointed to the desirability of qualitative data to contextualize quantitative data related to both educational outcomes, particularly college access and attainment, and public health, including mental health and teen pregnancy, with a focus on Latinx youth.


Mexico: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Mexico: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

No abstract provided.


Multigenerational Social Mobility: A Demographic Approach, Xi Song 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Multigenerational Social Mobility: A Demographic Approach, Xi Song

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Most social mobility studies take a two-generation perspective, in which intergenerational relationships are represented by the association between parents' and offspring's socioeconomic status. This approach, albeit widely adopted in the literature, has serious limitations when more than two generations of families are considered. In particular, it ignores the role of families' demographic behaviors in moderating mobility outcomes and the joint role of mobility and demography in shaping long-run family and population processes. This paper provides a demographic approach to the study of multigenerational social mobility, incorporating demographic mechanisms of births, deaths, and mating into statistical models of social mobility ...


The Selective Impact Of Changes In Age-At-Marriage Laws On Early Marriage: Policy Challenges And Implications For Women’S Higher-Education Attendance, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Selective Impact Of Changes In Age-At-Marriage Laws On Early Marriage: Policy Challenges And Implications For Women’S Higher-Education Attendance, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This study explores the extent to which changes in age-at-marriage laws are effective in curbing early marriage and, if so, whether delays in age at marriage brought about by legal changes increase women’s likelihood to participate in higher education. To answer these questions, we combine individual-level data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) with longitudinal information on policy changes from the PROSPERED project for six low- and middle-income countries from three broad regions: Benin and Mauritania (Sub-Sharan Africa), Tajikistan and Kazakhstan (Central Asia), and Nepal and Bhutan (South Asia). We adopted regression discontinuity ...


Explaining Popular Support For Wind Energy In The United States, Jessica Crowe 2020 Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Explaining Popular Support For Wind Energy In The United States, Jessica Crowe

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

In the last 35 years, wind energy in the United States has transformed from being fringe and experimental to becoming a mainstream, viable, and efficient source of electricity. In this article, we compare wind energy acceptance to acceptance of other energy sources, in particular solar, coal, natural gas, and oil. Through an online survey of 1317 adults throughout the United States, we also examine the impact of individual- level characteristics such as gender, race, age, socio-political factors, and value orientation on a person’s support for renewable energy policy. We find that support for wind energy is higher than for ...


Commentary: Using Law More Effectively Towards Abandonment Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua 2020 Population Council

Commentary: Using Law More Effectively Towards Abandonment Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered a harmful cultural practice and a form of violence against women. Kenya has an FGM/C prevalence rate of 21 percent, but levels vary by ethnic group. Kenya has adopted a robust legal framework for the prohibition of FGM/C, including passage of the Prohibition of FGM Act in 2011, a detailed law that criminalizes carrying out FGM/C and associated offenses. Kenya relies on the human rights–based approach and criminalization in its legal framework for the prohibition of this practice. Despite extensive legal provisions, Kenya has prosecuted fewer than 100 ...


Lessons From A Five-Year Research Programme On Fgm/C And Their Relevance For Policy And Programmes In Kenya, Dennis Matanda, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Samuel Kimani 2020 Population Council

Lessons From A Five-Year Research Programme On Fgm/C And Their Relevance For Policy And Programmes In Kenya, Dennis Matanda, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Samuel Kimani

Reproductive Health

The Sustainable Development Goals target the elimination of all forms of harmful practices, including female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) by 2030. Kenya has made progress in addressing the elimination of FGM/C through ratification of global instruments and enactment of the Prohibition of FGM Act in 2011 and other supportive laws. The Act created the foundation for the establishment of the Anti-FGM Board, which provides policy leadership and coordination of anti-FGM/C programs in Kenya. More recently, the President of Kenya issued a decree for accelerated elimination of FGM/C by 2022. This synthesis report highlights how evidence generated ...


Important Lessons On Fgm/C Abandonment From Four Research Studies In Egypt, Nada Ramadan, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Abeer Salem 2020 Population Council

Important Lessons On Fgm/C Abandonment From Four Research Studies In Egypt, Nada Ramadan, Nahla G. Abdel-Tawab, Abeer Salem

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) continues to be a widespread practice in Egypt. According to the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, the prevalence of FGM/C was 92 percent among ever-married women aged 15–49. However, Egypt continues to witness a drastic surge in the medicalization of FGM/C, with 74 percent of women aged 19 years and younger circumcised by medical practitioners, compared to 55 percent in 1995. This policy brief provides key results and recommendations of four studies conducted by the Population Council/ Egypt under the Evidence to End FGM/C project, in coordination with Egypt ...


Why People Move To And Stay In New Hampshire, Kenneth M. Johnson, Kristine Bundschuh 2020 University of New Hampshire

Why People Move To And Stay In New Hampshire, Kenneth M. Johnson, Kristine Bundschuh

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

Migration is important to New Hampshire’s demographic future. Traditionally, the state has grown both because of migration into it and because of the surplus of births over deaths. However, recently all of New Hampshire’s population growth has been due to migration.

In this brief, authors Kenneth Johnson and Kristine Bundschuh analyze data from the University of New Hampshire Survey Center’s Granite State Poll to examine the characteristics of two groups of current New Hampshire residents—recent migrants and established residents—to understand why people move to and choose to stay in the state. Their findings illustrate that ...


Gentrification And The South Bronx: Demographic And Socioeconomic Transformations In Bronx Community District #1, Lawrence Cappello 2020 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Gentrification And The South Bronx: Demographic And Socioeconomic Transformations In Bronx Community District #1, Lawrence Cappello

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction:

In recent decades skyrocketing real estate values throughout New York City have prompted residents to seek out reasonably priced housing and speculative investment opportunities in traditionally poorer neighborhoods. This is commonly referred to as “gentrification."

This report examines the extent of gentrification in the South Bronx neighborhoods of Melrose, Mott Haven, and Port Morris – officially designated Bronx Community District #1 – widely known as one of New York City’s prominent Latino areas. It presents key socioeconomic and demographic trends between 1990 and 2017. It also looks at topics such as employment, income structures, poverty rates, language acquisition, race/ethnicity ...


Notes From The Editorial Office (Volume 35, Issue 1), John J. Green 2020 University of Mississippi

Notes From The Editorial Office (Volume 35, Issue 1), John J. Green

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


U.S. Population Growth Slows, But Diversity Grows, Kenneth M. Johnson 2020 University of New Hampshire

U.S. Population Growth Slows, But Diversity Grows, Kenneth M. Johnson

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

In this brief, author Kenneth Johnson reports that in 2019 the U.S. population grew at the lowest rate in a century because there were fewer births, more deaths, and less immigration. Fertility rates diminished regardless of race or Hispanic origin and immigration declines were also widespread. As a result, the growth rate of both the minority and non-Hispanic White population diminished. Yet, the racial diversity of the population continued to grow, according to Census Bureau estimates released on June 25, 2020.

This increasing diversity reflects two important demographic trends. The minority population is growing, and the non-Hispanic White population ...


Domestic Work, Sexual Abuse, And Exploitation In Tanzania, James K. Matheka, Elizabeth Shayo, Annabel Erulkar 2020 Population Council

Domestic Work, Sexual Abuse, And Exploitation In Tanzania, James K. Matheka, Elizabeth Shayo, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Domestic work is characterized by excessive working hours, extremely low pay or no pay at all, and conditions that make the profession exploitive in many cases. Evidence is emerging that domestic work is a feeder profession for sex work. One study of more than 2,000 commercial sex workers in Ethiopia found that 42 percent were former domestic workers. However, little is known about transitions to commercial sex work or commercial sexual exploitation in Tanzania. The objective of the research detailed in this brief was to expand the understanding of child domestic workers and commercial sex workers/girls who are ...


The Southwest Megapolitan Triangle: Immigration And Population Growth, Yanneli Llamas, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Southwest Megapolitan Triangle: Immigration And Population Growth, Yanneli Llamas, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Demography

This Fact Sheet analyzes population changes in three Mountain West metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs): Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA; Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ; and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV. Collectively, these three major metropolitan areas are known as the Southwest Megapolitan Triangle. This Fact Sheet illustrates population changes between 2010 and 2018, using data provided by Brookings Institution senior fellow and demographer, William H. Frey, in his report titled, “As Americans spread out, immigration plays a crucial role in local population growth.” By 2019, more than 20 million Americans called this region home.


A Sequence-Analysis Approach To The Study Of The Transition To Adulthood In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Maria Sironi, Nicola Barban, Luca Maria Pesando, Frank F. Furstenberg 2020 University College London

A Sequence-Analysis Approach To The Study Of The Transition To Adulthood In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Maria Sironi, Nicola Barban, Luca Maria Pesando, Frank F. Furstenberg

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This study investigates whether young people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have experienced processes of de-standardization of the life course similar to those observed in high-income societies. We provide two contributions to the relevant literature. First, we use data from 263 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 69 LMICs, offering the richest comparative account of women’s transition to adulthood (TTA) patterns in the developing world existing to date. In so doing, we shift the focus from individual life-course transitions towards a holistic approach that allows us to characterize the life-course complexity by detailed sequences of events, namely first ...


Can Gentrification Improve Education For Low-Income Minority Students?, Edir Coronado 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Can Gentrification Improve Education For Low-Income Minority Students?, Edir Coronado

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Gentrification is the process of investment into disinvested neighborhoods. The development of gentrification brings a reduction in crime, new job opportunities, and better government services, but these new neighborhood amenities are not available to all residents within the gentrified location. Newark, NJ one of the poorest municipalities in the northeast has long been one of the faces for urban blight and is one of the most troubled cities in the state of New Jersey in terms of crime, poverty, and academic performance.

Out of gentrification expensive chain stores, high priced rental units, and charter schools are born. Structurally the neighborhood ...


Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: What Is It Good For?, Herbert L. Smith 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: What Is It Good For?, Herbert L. Smith

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

If you know when someone was born, and you know what time it is, you know how old they are. If you know how old someone is and when they were born, you know the date on which they are being observed. If you know someone’s age as of a given time, you know when they were born. These are ineluctable features of algebra (age ≡ period – cohort) and geometry, as reflected in the Lexis diagram (Chauvel 2014, 384-389). There are many ways that one can turn the problem (e.g., cohort ≡ period – age) and thus many alternative forms of ...


Rural Poverty And Disability In Lmics, Raghav Gaiha, Shantanu Mathur, Vani S. Kulkarni 2020 University of Pennsylvania, GDI University of Manchester

Rural Poverty And Disability In Lmics, Raghav Gaiha, Shantanu Mathur, Vani S. Kulkarni

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Disability is neither a purely medical nor a purely social phenomenon. Rather, it is an outcome of their interplay. The main contributions of our study are two-fold: (i) a synthesis of the extant literature on the links between poverty and disability in LMICs. However, the studies focused on these links in rural areas are sparse. (ii) As rural economies-specifically, agriculture- continue to play an important role in economic growth, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of factors associated with rural disabilities, their association with rural employment and, finally, whether disabilities are associated with rural poverty. We use panel data ...


Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices And Impact—Round 3, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices And Impact—Round 3, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This presentation provides an overview from the third round of data collection from a phone survey conducted May 10–11, 2020, in five informal settlements in Nairobi (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, and Mathare). Total number of interviews completed was 1,750 (87 percent of Round 1); 37 percent of participants were male, 63 percent were female. Almost all resided in the same location as in the previous interview three weeks prior. The presentation covered myths and misconceptions on COVID-1; risk of being infected; what individuals would do if they had symptoms of COVID-19; testing; stigma; movement outside the home; handwashing ...


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