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The Color Ceiling: African Americans Still Fighting For Equity And Equality, Osaro Airen Ph.D, LPC, NCC 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Color Ceiling: African Americans Still Fighting For Equity And Equality, Osaro Airen Ph.D, Lpc, Ncc

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

There currently exists a unique ceiling-effect that has plagued the African American community for a number of years but due to the group being placed under the Glass Ceiling umbrella, the true nature of their issues have been vastly overlooked. To bring to light the true nature of these issues, the author created the term, Color Ceiling. The Color Ceiling refers to the invisible barriers that impede financial equity, employment equity, and promotional advancement for African Americans in the workplace specifically higher education.


Slow Journalism? Ethnography As A Means Of Understanding Religious Social Activism, James V. Spickard 2017 University of Redlands

Slow Journalism? Ethnography As A Means Of Understanding Religious Social Activism, James V. Spickard

Working Papers

This article, originally presented as a talk at Harvard University's Weatherhead Center, poses the question: What makes ethnography more than just slow journalism in the study of religion? It traces this concern to the political subtext of ethnography's origins in both sociology and anthropology: as an aid to imperial &/or middle-class domination of other peoples. Having discovered this, anthropologists (and a few sociologists) have changed their approach to their interview partners (no longer 'subjects'). This requires several epistemological moves, including a willingness to acknowledge our own projections about our research partners and to recognize that we are as ...


Immigration, Integration And Ingestion: The Role Of Food And Drink In Transnational Experience For North African Muslim Immigrants In Paris And Montréal, Rachel D. Brown 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Immigration, Integration And Ingestion: The Role Of Food And Drink In Transnational Experience For North African Muslim Immigrants In Paris And Montréal, Rachel D. Brown

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation is motivated by two research questions: (1) how can food act as a means of reimagining, recreating, reaffirming, and expressing, sometimes complicated and contested identities for minority religious immigrant communities in highly secular contexts? (2) What impact does the context of reception, particularly the host society’s unique and complex history and interaction with colonialism, immigration, secularism, and nationalism, have on these identity negotiations? To examine these questions, I conducted a comparative ethnographic study of the foodways of North African Muslim immigrants in Paris, France, and Montréal, Canada, in 2012-13.

The results presented here show that food is ...


The Socioeconomic Impact Of Indian Gaming On Kumeyaay Nations: A Case Study Of Barona, Viejas, And Sycuan, 1982 - 2016, Ethan L. Banegas 2017 University of San Diego

The Socioeconomic Impact Of Indian Gaming On Kumeyaay Nations: A Case Study Of Barona, Viejas, And Sycuan, 1982 - 2016, Ethan L. Banegas

Theses

This study will use the reservations of Barona, Viejas, and Sycuan to measure the socioeconomic impacts of gaming within the Kumeyaay nation. It will also draw on information available from other gaming tribes. To organize my research, I will use the following categories: health, education, economics and infrastructure. Within these four topics I will cover: investment capital, poverty, higher education, internet access, alcohol addiction, suicide rates, obesity, diabetes, and other socioeconomic indicators. Once this is accomplished I will assess the social and economic impact of gaming on Barona, Viejas, and Sycuan and include the possible implications to heal historical trauma ...


The Fashionable Functions Reloaded: An Updated Google Ngram View Of Trends In Functional Differentiation (1800-2000), Steffen Roth, Carlton Clark, Jan Berkel 2016 ESC Rennes School of Business

The Fashionable Functions Reloaded: An Updated Google Ngram View Of Trends In Functional Differentiation (1800-2000), Steffen Roth, Carlton Clark, Jan Berkel

Prof. Dr. Dr. Steffen Roth

Using the updated Google Book corpus dataset generated in July 2012, we analyze the largest available corpus of digitalized books to review social macro trends such as the secularization, politicization, economization, and mediatization of society. These familiar trend statements are tested through a comparative analysis of word frequency time-series plots for the English, French, and German language area produced by means of the enhanced Google Ngram Viewer, the online graphing tool that charts annual word counts as found in the Google Book corpus. The results: a) confirm that the importance of the political system, religion, economy, and mass media features ...


Islam In Higher Education: Exploring The Intra Religious Interactions Between Shia & Sunni Students, Ghaith Khadour 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Islam In Higher Education: Exploring The Intra Religious Interactions Between Shia & Sunni Students, Ghaith Khadour

Sociology Major Research Papers

No abstract provided.


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xv, Dylan Parson, Steven Simpkins, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Emily Grabauskas, Kristóf Oltvai, McLane Sellars 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xv, Dylan Parson, Steven Simpkins, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Emily Grabauskas, Kristóf Oltvai, Mclane Sellars

Denison Journal of Religion

"'To Free the Truth': The Depth of Latin American Theology of Liberation" by Dylan Parson, '16

"Liberative Creation: Finding Alternative Meaning in Genesis 1:1-2:3" by Steven Simpkins, '16

"From Ancient Greco-Roman Culture the Contemporary LGBTQ Community: The Transfer of Sex and Power Dynamics" by Ibrahim Ibrahim, '18

"Tree Worship: Accidental Conservation of Biodiversity through the Protection of Biodivinity" by Emily Grabauskas, '18

"The Salt March Today: Gandhian Lessons for Social Media Activism" by Kristόf Oltvai, '15 and McLane Sellars, '16.


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xiv, Cheyanne Cierpial, Luke Hillier, Mimi Mendes de Leon, Victoria Newman, Sunder Willett 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xiv, Cheyanne Cierpial, Luke Hillier, Mimi Mendes De Leon, Victoria Newman, Sunder Willett

Denison Journal of Religion

"Interpreting Sati: The Complex Relationship Between Gender and Power In India" by Cheyanne Cierpial, '16

This essay stresses the importance of context sensitivity when considering seemingly controversial issues. Cierpal uses the act of Sati, widow burning, to illuminate the need for such context sensitivity. The controversial act takes place when one’s husband dies. Sati is literally translated to “virtuous woman,” and the wife performs the ritual in order to serve, provide for, and protect her husband. Sati can bee seen as a “ritual necessary in order to regain and achieve ultimate devotion to her husband.” Many Western feminist scholars ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xiii, Jonathan Szu-Yu, Ted Nelson, Victoria Newman, Dylan Parson, Joshua Rager, Jamie Zito 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xiii, Jonathan Szu-Yu, Ted Nelson, Victoria Newman, Dylan Parson, Joshua Rager, Jamie Zito

Denison Journal of Religion

"Traducianism? Creationism? What Has An Ancient Debate To Do With The Modern Debate over Abortion?" by Ted Nelson

This essay examines Church Fathers’ positions on origin of the soul and relates their arguments to today’s debates over abortion and when the murder of a soul should be punishable by state law. The essay begins chronologically, starting with Origen, a third century theologian, and his idea of pre-existence of souls. Origen draws from Paul’s letter to the Romans and the Book of Jeremiah to explain that souls were not created by God, but rather had existed on an equal ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xii, Taylor Klassman, Joshua Ragar, Carly Matas, Jessica Ann Began 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xii, Taylor Klassman, Joshua Ragar, Carly Matas, Jessica Ann Began

Denison Journal of Religion

"Eros Created, Eros Contaminated, Eros Condemned" by Taylor Klassman

"Peyote and the Psychedelics: 20th Century Perceptions of the Religious Use of Psychoactive Substances" by Joshua Rager

"Modern American Evangelical Conceptions of Girls' Virginity: Their Origins in Patriarchal Property Discourse of Deuteronomic Family Laws" by Carly Matas

"Top Down or Bottom-up? Religion, Economics, and Social Justice" by Jessica Ann Began

"Understanding the Response" by Mimi Mendez de Leon


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xi, Claire Navarro, Dylan Reaves, Joshua Ragar, Kimberly Anne Humphrey, Taylor Klassman 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Xi, Claire Navarro, Dylan Reaves, Joshua Ragar, Kimberly Anne Humphrey, Taylor Klassman

Denison Journal of Religion

"A Case for Heresy" by Claire Navarro

This article serves as a reminder to mainstream Christians about the origins of the word "heresy." While today heresy has an immediate and profoundly negative connotation, this was not always true. Originally, the root of the word heresy implied a "choice," or a "different school of thought." This implied a difference, but not necessarily incorrectness. For instance, the word "hairesis" was used by Josephus, a first century Jewish historian, to describe the three branches of Judaism"Sadducees, Essenes, and Pharisees. While these three sects had different understandings of their faith, there was not ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. X, Kimberly Humphrey, Eleanor Swensson, Olivia Cox, Olivia DePreter, Bror Welander 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. X, Kimberly Humphrey, Eleanor Swensson, Olivia Cox, Olivia Depreter, Bror Welander

Denison Journal of Religion

"Gustavo Gutierrez's Liberation Theology: Traditional Catholicism from the Perspective of the Afflicted Poor" by Kimberly Anne Humphrey

This article turns to the Liberation Theology of Gustavo Gutierrez to explore a Catholic theology that directly addresses the problem of life in the Third World. Gutierrez focuses his argument on a God of history who worked for and lived with the marginalized, most notably in the Exodus and the Christ event. Furthermore, Gutierrez argues that the Church must be a light for all people who lives amongst the oppressed, and beckons the rest of the world to follow its lead. Humphrey ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Ix, Caiti Schroering, Whitney Carpenter, Jacquelyn Fishburne, Amanda Conley, Eleanor Swensson 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Ix, Caiti Schroering, Whitney Carpenter, Jacquelyn Fishburne, Amanda Conley, Eleanor Swensson

Denison Journal of Religion

"Joanna Macy: Buddhism and Power for Social Change" by Caiti Schroering

This article examines Joanna Macy's theory of "despairwork" and its roots in the Sarvodaya Buddhist movement. Macy writes with the purpose of inspiring communities and individuals to look honestly at the state of the world and to respond passionately. She argues that apathy appears so common today because feigning disinterest is far easier than facing the monumental problems that face the world. From the threat of nuclear war to environmental destruction, humanity is overwhelmed by the possibility of its own end. Instead of giving in to crippling despair ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Viii, Rebecca Grimm, Michelle Kailey, Megan Pike, Katie St. Clair, Emily Toler 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Viii, Rebecca Grimm, Michelle Kailey, Megan Pike, Katie St. Clair, Emily Toler

Denison Journal of Religion

"'You Shall worship God on This Mountain': A Theological Reading of Discrimination & Dehumanization at Denison" by Emily Toler

This article examines protests against prejudice on Denison's campus in 2007 through the theological perspectives of M. Douglas Meeks and Jurgen Moltmann. The author argues that these two theologians offer pieces of a theology that can categorize the experiences at Denison during that time. First, Meeks thinks of communities as "households" that are asked to work as loving and supportive families. Meeks also asks Christians to remember the triune God and to use the example of that relationship"three persons in one, all working in community for the love of others"to serve as a model for their own relationships. Moltmann's theology is an eschatological theology of hope. According to him, the promises of God are always out in front of humanity, and it must constantly strive to make those promises a part of life. Human actions should be defined by the ever-present and ever-increasing promises of God. To act in accordance with those promises, is to create the kingdom of God on earth. This means radically redefining the way society functions to value every human life and show it the dignity it deserves. Toler claims that both of these theologies were in use during the time of the protests against prejudice on Denison's campus in 2007, and challenges students, faculty, and staff to continue to allow these theologies to motivate their actions.

"Saving God's Body from Empire: An Analysis of American Empire According to a Metaphorical Theology by Sallie McFague" by Megan Pike

In this article, Pike uses the theology of Sallie McFague to criticize imperialism, particularly its ecological consequences, and to argue for an ecologically minded economy. Under the current empire of free market capitalism, God is a patriarchal figure who legitimates the ruling order. This bestows a false sense of approval on individuals, corporations, and nations that exploit the lowly in order to increase their own profit margin. Sallie McFague believes that the metaphors used for God profoundly influence how people conceive of their relationship with God and the world around them. The current metaphor for God reveals a divinity that is both domineering and detached from the world. This metaphor has resulted in empire and the efforts of humanity to bring everything else"other people and all parts of the world in which they live"into its control. This has created generations who associate being self-serving with being God-like. McFague offers an alternative. She charges people to rework their idea of God by using the metaphor of the world as God's body. Not only does this bring to mind the imminence of God, but it also calls for a responsibility to care for the world and all of its inhabitants. Pike uses McFague's metaphor to propose a new economic model that would be grounded in ecological concerns.

"Cardinal Bernardin: A Framework for Consistency" by Katie St. Clair

This essay illuminates the tension that exists for many religious people as they consider the appropriate amount of overlap between their personal convictions and public, often political, decisions. Bernardin was the former Archbishop of Chicago and a member of the Second Vatican Council. He made recognizable efforts to enact the doctrines of Guadium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. This document is famous for its declaration that the Church's aim is to "read the signs of the times and interpret them in light of the Gospel." Bernardin exemplified this notion by writing extensively on the many public justice problems that posed ethical and moral dilemmas for contemporary Catholics. While the Catholic Church has often faced criticism for being inconsistent in its ideology (liberal on the death penalty, immigrant rights, and universal healthcare, and conservative on marriage, contraception, and euthanasia) Bernardin attempted to unite the Church's stances by linking all of them to the dignity of life. His primary concerns dealt with technology (medical advancement,) peace (war and weaponry, and justice,) quality of life, and poverty. St. Clair argues that Bernardin's example of encouraging Catholics to live their faith by advocating for policy is one that cannot be ignored.

"Re-Imaging Modern Jewish Theology: A Closer Look at Post-Holocaust Theology" by Rebecca Grimm

In this article, Grimm argues for a more accessible theology and metaphor for God. She looks to Melissa Raphael's post-Holocaust theology as a beginning to this new trend. Raphael, who started her theological study in the thealogy movement (known for its feminization of God,) brings this knowledge to her study of the Holocaust. The traditional Jewish theological explanation of the Holocaust asserts that God was absent during the Holocaust so as not to interfere with free will. However, this ignores the experience of half of the victims of the Holocaust: women. God appeared absent to some, she says, because they were looking for the wrong God: the patriarchal God who would assert his kingly power. Instead, Raphael says that God was present in the Holocaust in the form of Shekinah, the feminine and extremely imminent metaphor for God. Women in concentration camps recognized God's presence when they washed themselves and each other and acknowledged their humanity. The question became not, "how can God protect us?" but "how can we protect God?" When this is accomplished, God's presence guides men and women to care for and respect each other. Grimm acknowledges that Raphael contributes greatly to a new theological concern to make the divine more available to a wider range of people, but she laments that the Holocaust-specific nature of Raphael's theology of the Shekinah prevents it from being a more widely applicable metaphor.

"A Recuperative Theology of the Body: Nakedness in Genesis 3 and 9.20-27" by Emily Toler

This essay examines the two creation stories in the Hebrew Bible, and reinterprets the nakedness present in those stories. While nakedness is frequently seen as a shameful condition of humanity, Toler reminds the reader that it is part of the creation that God declared to be "good." Though nudity is associated with tumultuous moments in the relationship between humanity and God, Toler argues that it is fear of God, not fear or shame of nakedness that motivates the uncomfortable moments like the one when Adam and Eve hid from God behind a bush. Today, nakedness is so often associated with poverty, sickness, and other forms of social exile that it has become a mortifying reality of the human condition and one that has aided in the oppression of the disadvantaged. Toler argues that remembering that God created humanity in God's own image (imago dei), and without covering, reclaims nakedness from a shameful state and makes it an inherent part of humanity that God loves deeply.

"Redeeming the Atonement: Girardian Theory" by Michelle Kailey

This article shows a discomfort with the way that mainstream Christianity often discusses the atonement by deifying meekness and sacrifice, an attitude that often legitimizes the cycle of domestic abuse. The author seeks a theology that will not allow the cross to become an oppressive force against the marginalized, and finds her answer in Girardian theory. This theory proposes an understanding of human behavior in four basic stages: mimetic desire, mimetic rivalry, scapegoating sacrifice, and scapegoating myth. Mimetic desire states that humans only want what they want because they know others desire it. Next, a rivalry begins between groups that have mimicked their desires; the competition breeds disrespect and conflict. In order to resolve the conflict, the opposing groups find a scapegoat"an uninvolved person against whom they can unite. Once the scapegoat has been sacrificed, a myth is created that both demonizes and deifies that individual"he or she is held responsible for the initial conflict, but their sacrifice is also responsible for the peace and unity that occurs afterwards. Ren̩ Girard claims that this process is recognizable in the crucifixion story up until the resurrection. God shows disapproval of this ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Vii, Stephanie Dixon, Patrick Hamilton, Laura Perrings, Tracy Riggle, Emily Toler 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Vii, Stephanie Dixon, Patrick Hamilton, Laura Perrings, Tracy Riggle, Emily Toler

Denison Journal of Religion

"The Tower of Babel" by Laura Perrings

This essay refocuses the narrative of the tower of Babel to focus not on the division of languages or cultures, but rather on the relationship with god that this division reflected. Perrings notes that while the original unified language of humanity must have eased communication between people and can be seen, particularly in this day of cultural tension and violence, that this relationship was not pleasing to god. God is not only offended by the pride of the people, but is also concerned with their inattention to his rules and also their misunderstanding ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Vi, Gitanjali Bakshi, Josh Clark, Lauren Clark, Megan Henricks, Leigh Rogers, Cora Walsh 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Vi, Gitanjali Bakshi, Josh Clark, Lauren Clark, Megan Henricks, Leigh Rogers, Cora Walsh

Denison Journal of Religion

"Ritual and Religious Tradition: A Comparative Essay on the Use of Ritual in Christian, Jewish, and Hindu Practice" by Josh Clark

This essay examines the link between existential despair and the use of religious ritual in several religions. Clark argues that ritual proves its significance when community members are suffering. Ritual does not offer much to those who are content within their current social frame, but it can rejuvenate those who use ritual to reconnect with divinity as they struggle through life despite their great despair. Clark first notes this process in black womanist theology. He uses the example of ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. V, Rachel Wise, Annette Thornburg, Stephen Grosse, Gretchen Roeck, Aaron Bestic, Amanda Vajskop, Emily Teitelbaum, Josh Clark 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. V, Rachel Wise, Annette Thornburg, Stephen Grosse, Gretchen Roeck, Aaron Bestic, Amanda Vajskop, Emily Teitelbaum, Josh Clark

Denison Journal of Religion

"Reclaiming Religious Symbols in a Secular World: Ritual and Uniting the Faith Community within the Prophetic Tradition" by Rachel Wise

Wise's article deals with the impact that the secularized world has had on religious communities. Specifically, Wise looks into the manner in which secularization has changed the American Christian community. The American Christian community, Wise claims, has responded in two major ways to the growing secularity in American culture. The orthodox response refuses to accept any of the influences of secularity. The more progressive response has so embraced some of the influences of secularity that it leads to a ...


Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Iv, John Bartholomew, Lauren Caryer, Chris Byrnes, Al Klingler, Meghan Henning, Sarah R. Pyle, Emily Teitelbaum 2016 Denison University

Denison Journal Of Religion, Vol. Iv, John Bartholomew, Lauren Caryer, Chris Byrnes, Al Klingler, Meghan Henning, Sarah R. Pyle, Emily Teitelbaum

Denison Journal of Religion

"Sowing the Faith: Immanence and Eternality in the Liberation of Nature" by John Bartholomew

This article applies liberation theology to the destruction of nature occurring under the current free market system. Bartholomew argues for a greater respect for nature by emphasizing the immanence of God. Bartholomew relies on the tradition of God's immanence which stresses the existence of God within and around humanity. God living closely among people implies that God must also live closely with the environment provided for humanity. This establishes a relationship between God and nature. Having a healthy relationship with nature is, therefore, reflective of ...


Secular But Not Superficial : An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity., Daniel G. Delaney 2016 University of Louisville

Secular But Not Superficial : An Overlooked Nonreligious/Nonspiritual Identity., Daniel G. Delaney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since Durkheim’s characterization of the sacred and profane as “antagonistic rivals,” the strict dichotomy has been framed in such a way that “being religious” evokes images of a life filled with profound meaning and value, while “being secular” evokes images of a meaningless, self-centered, superficial life, often characterized by materialistic consumerism and the cold, heartless environment of corporate greed. Consequently, to identify as “neither religious nor spiritual” runs the risk of being stigmatized as superficial, untrustworthy, and immoral. Conflicts and confusions encountered in the process of negotiating a nonreligious/nonspiritual identity, caused by the ambiguous nature of religious language ...


Christ And Culture Valued: Test Cases On Fairness, John Carson III 2016 Liberty University

Christ And Culture Valued: Test Cases On Fairness, John Carson Iii

Senior Honors Theses

This research engages H. Richard Niebuhr’s work, Christ and Culture. Niebuhr’s book is a seminal work on the historical trends of Christian cultural engagement. This research applies several tests to the paradigm demonstrated in Niebuhr’s work. These tests demonstrate that Christ and Culture presents a paradigm that lacks fairness and does not adequately meet the goals of an explanatory paradigm. Niebuhr’s paradigm has shaped the discussion of Christian cultural engagement for over fifty years, and this research was done to demonstrate the need for new conversation-shaping paradigms in the field of Christian cultural engagement.


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