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Rural Counties Lost More Years Of Life Than Urban Counties In 2020, Yue Sun 2021 Syracuse University

Rural Counties Lost More Years Of Life Than Urban Counties In 2020, Yue Sun

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Rural mortality rates have been higher than urban mortality rates for decades in the United States. Now, higher COVID-19 mortality rates in rural areas threaten to exacerbate the existing rural mortality penalty. This brief shows that rural counties had higher average years of potential life lost than urban counties in both 2019 and 2020. However, the increase in YPLL between 2019 and 2020 was largest in small rural counties and large rural counties adjacent to metro areas. Federal, state, and local governments must target social, structural, and policy determinants of health and premature mortality that disproportionately affect rural residents.


Comparisons Of Cooking, Dietary, And Food Safety Characteristics Of Food Secure And Food Insecure Sophomores At A University In Appalachia, Hannah Boone, Melissa D. Gutschall, Alisha Farris, Kimberly Fasczewski, Don Holbert, Laura McArthur 2021 Appalachian State University

Comparisons Of Cooking, Dietary, And Food Safety Characteristics Of Food Secure And Food Insecure Sophomores At A University In Appalachia, Hannah Boone, Melissa D. Gutschall, Alisha Farris, Kimberly Fasczewski, Don Holbert, Laura Mcarthur

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Food insecurity means lacking access to adequate, nutritious, and safe food. Collegiate food insecurity rates at ten Appalachian campuses range from 22.4% to 51.8%, and have been associated with unfavorable health and academic outcomes.

Purpose: This study compared cooking, dietary, and food safety characteristics of food secure (FS) and food insecure (FI) sophomores at a university in Appalachia in the context of the USDA definition of food security.

Methods: Data were collected using an online questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential procedures compared FS and FI sophomores (p < 0.05).

Results: Participants (n = 226) were 65.0% females, 76.1% whites ...


Access To And Use Of Technology For Health: Comparisons Between Appalachian Kentuckians And The General U.S. Population, Robin C. Vanderpool, Lindsay R. Stradtman, Anna Gaysynsky, Quan Chen, Meghan Johnson, Bin Huang 2021 University of Kentucky

Access To And Use Of Technology For Health: Comparisons Between Appalachian Kentuckians And The General U.S. Population, Robin C. Vanderpool, Lindsay R. Stradtman, Anna Gaysynsky, Quan Chen, Meghan Johnson, Bin Huang

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Technology may increase the availability of health information and enable health promoting behaviors. However, lack of access to and use of technology may also exacerbate disparities, particularly in rural communities with limited Internet access.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Internet access, device ownership, and use of technology for health between Appalachian Kentuckians and the general U.S. population.
Methods: Findings from the 2017 Assessing the Health Status of Kentucky (ASK) survey were compared to national estimates from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 5, Cycle 1 (2017), with a particular focus on degree of ...


Risk Factors Associated With Passenger Vehicle Fatal Rollover Crashes In West Virginia, 2001-2018, Yuni Tang, Toni Marie Rudisill, Ruchi Bhandari 2021 West Virginia University

Risk Factors Associated With Passenger Vehicle Fatal Rollover Crashes In West Virginia, 2001-2018, Yuni Tang, Toni Marie Rudisill, Ruchi Bhandari

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Rollover crashes cause more injuries and fatalities than other types of motor vehicle crashes. West Virginia (WV) has high rates of drug overdose deaths and motor vehicle crash fatality. However, no studies have investigated risk factors associated with fatal rollover crashes in WV.

Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate whether drug use and other risk factors are associated with fatal rollover crash fatalities in WV.

Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the Fatality Analysis Reporting System dataset from passenger vehicle crashes involving WV drivers ≥ 16 years of age with known drug test results who died within 2 ...


Perceived Hearing Loss And Availability Of Audiologists In Appalachia, Charles B. Pudrith, Ellyn Grider, Blythe Kitner 2021 Northern Illinois University

Perceived Hearing Loss And Availability Of Audiologists In Appalachia, Charles B. Pudrith, Ellyn Grider, Blythe Kitner

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: There is a high demand for audiologists throughout the United States. Previous research has supported an additional demand for these providers within Appalachia.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if Appalachia has a disproportionally high demand for audiologists compared to the rest of the United States.

Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed with population data from the Appalachian Regional Commission, the American Academy of Audiology, and the United States Census Bureau. County-level population-weighted averages of individuals with perceived hearing loss and number of audiologists per capita were compared between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties.

Results: A ...


Older Adult Vaccination Rates Lag In Rural Areas And The South, Claire Pendergrast, Yue Sun 2021 Syracuse University

Older Adult Vaccination Rates Lag In Rural Areas And The South, Claire Pendergrast, Yue Sun

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Older adults face especially severe health risks from COVID-19 compared to other age groups. Getting vaccinated is the most effective way for older adults to reduce their risk of serious illness or death. This brief examines geographic trends in COVID-19 vaccination rates for adults age 65+. The authors find that older adult vaccination rates are low in rural areas and especially low in the South.


Implementing Strategies For Strengthening Australia’S Rural Allied Health Workforce, Catherine Cosgrave 2021 University of New England

Implementing Strategies For Strengthening Australia’S Rural Allied Health Workforce, Catherine Cosgrave

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: In many rural places, health services struggle to maintain an adequate health workforce to meet their communities’ health care needs. Shortages of allied health professionals are of particular and growing concern. To address this challenge, a two-year Whole-of-Person Retention Improvement Project was developed involving a research partnership with two rural public health services in Victoria, Australia. This project was informed by the author’s Whole-of-Person Retention Improvement Framework (WoP-RIF), aimed to produce new knowledge for rural health services to attract, recruit, and improve the retention of allied health professionals. A set of evidence-informed and contextually relevant recommendations were made ...


Why Are Covid-19 Vaccination Rates Lower In Rural Than In Urban Areas Of The U.S.?, Shannon M. Monnat, Yue Sun 2021 Syracuse University

Why Are Covid-19 Vaccination Rates Lower In Rural Than In Urban Areas Of The U.S.?, Shannon M. Monnat, Yue Sun

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Achieving high vaccination coverage is the best way to prevent coronavirus spread, but COVID-19 vaccination rates vary substantially across the U.S. This brief compares COVID-19 vaccination rates across the U.S. rural-urban continuum and identifies the major contributors to lower rates of vaccination in rural counties. The authors find that higher Trump vote share in the 2020 Presidential election and lower educational attainment collectively explain lower rural vaccination rates.


Migration, Marginalization, And Institutional Injustice In The Rural South, Jin Young Choi 2021 Sam Houston State University

Migration, Marginalization, And Institutional Injustice In The Rural South, Jin Young Choi

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

At the new beginning of the next 50 years of the Southern Rural Sociological Association (SRSA), the SRSA Presidential Address calls for attention to the issues that rural immigrants have faced – the everyday experiences of international migrants, their marginalization, and institutional injustice in rural America, particularly in the rural South. These issues have often been ignored or downplayed in the larger dialogue on rural issues and in the public debates about immigration policy, even though these social problems have been a perennial issue. Rural social scientists are challenged to be organic intellectuals who do not hide in the ivory tower ...


Perceptions Of Future Community And Individual Well-Being In Rural Nebraska, Amanda L. Kowalewski 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Perceptions Of Future Community And Individual Well-Being In Rural Nebraska, Amanda L. Kowalewski

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

Populations of rural areas continue to decline, yet some communities are more vibrant than ever. While past research has studied current satisfaction or well-being, few have examined future well-being. Using an ordinal logistic regression and combining primary and secondary data sources, this study investigates the predictors of rural Nebraskan’s sense of future well-being, both at the community and individual levels. The model indicates that resilience may be more important in well-being than social capital. Additionally, certain satisfaction indicators are more important than others. Factor analysis was employed to re-index variables, and findings were similar. Social capital, resilience, and quality ...


Review Of: Appalachians For Medicaid Website, Kendra Barker DNP 2021 West Virginia University

Review Of: Appalachians For Medicaid Website, Kendra Barker Dnp

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. Access to care and the health disparities we face have a direct effect on our experience of illness. Dr. Kendra Barker reviews the website: Appalachians for Medicaid.


Geospatial Analysis Of Rurality And Food Banks In Appalachian Ohio, Cooper T. Johnson, Rebecca Fischbein, Kristin Baughman 2021 Northeast Ohio Medical University

Geospatial Analysis Of Rurality And Food Banks In Appalachian Ohio, Cooper T. Johnson, Rebecca Fischbein, Kristin Baughman

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Food insecurity is a problem for individuals across Ohio, including those living in Appalachia. Adequate access to resources that help combat food insecurity is important for these populations.

Purpose: To examine how rurality relates to food insecurity and need for food resources, as well as availability of those resources including food pantries and soup kitchens, in 15 northern Ohio Appalachian counties.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with a geographical analysis was conducted using data from the American Community Survey census data, County Health Rankings data, and regional foodbank websites.

Results: Rural counties had a higher ratio of potential clients per ...


Triple Negative Breast Cancer In An Appalachian Region: Exponential Tumor Grade Increase With Age Of Diagnosis, Gina Sizemore, Toni Marie Rudisill 2021 West Virginia University

Triple Negative Breast Cancer In An Appalachian Region: Exponential Tumor Grade Increase With Age Of Diagnosis, Gina Sizemore, Toni Marie Rudisill

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive breast cancer with decreased five-year survival, increased risk for recurrence, and higher risk for metastases. Unlike other breast cancers, it has no targeted treatment and has heterogeneous genetics which make classification and treatment difficult.

Purpose: The purpose of our research was to compare triple negative breast cancer to non-triple negative breast cancer to identify key epidemiologic factors that might lead to improved basic science directives for biomarkers, treatments, and classification.

Methods: The state cancer registry was used to provide the first West Virginia state-wide population evaluation of triple negative breast cancer.

Results ...


Addressing Diabetes Distress In Self-Management Programs: Results Of A Randomized Feasibility Study, Ranjita Misra, Samantha Shawley-Brzoska, Raihan Khan, Brenna O. Kirk, Sijin Wen, Usha Sambamoorthi 2021 West Virginia University

Addressing Diabetes Distress In Self-Management Programs: Results Of A Randomized Feasibility Study, Ranjita Misra, Samantha Shawley-Brzoska, Raihan Khan, Brenna O. Kirk, Sijin Wen, Usha Sambamoorthi

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: West Virginia ranks 1st nationally in the prevalence of hypertension (HTN; 43.8%) and diabetes (16.2%). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are distressed over physical and psychological burden of disease self-management.

Methods: This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce diabetes distress and outcomes [glycemic control, blood pressure (BP)] among T2DM adults with comorbid HTN. Participants were randomized to a 12-week diabetes and hypertension self-management program versus a 3-month wait-listed control group. Trained health coaches and experts implemented the lifestyle program in a faith-based setting using an adapted evidence-based curriculum. Twenty adults with T2DM ...


Establishing Peer Recovery Support Services To Address The Central Appalachian Opioid Epidemic: The West Virginia Peers Enhancing Education, Recovery, And Survival (Wv Peers) Pilot Program, Stephen M. Davis, Amanda Stover, Herb Linn, Jon Dower, Dan McCawley, Erin Winstanley, Judith Feinberg 2021 West Virginia University

Establishing Peer Recovery Support Services To Address The Central Appalachian Opioid Epidemic: The West Virginia Peers Enhancing Education, Recovery, And Survival (Wv Peers) Pilot Program, Stephen M. Davis, Amanda Stover, Herb Linn, Jon Dower, Dan Mccawley, Erin Winstanley, Judith Feinberg

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Central Appalachia has been disproportionately affected by the opioid epidemic and overdose fatalities. We developed West Virginia Peers Enhancing Education, Recovery, and Survival (WV PEERS), a program based on peer recovery support, to engage individuals using opioids and link them with a range of services.

Methods: Community partners providing services to individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) were identified and collaborations were formalized using a standardized memorandum of understanding. The program was structured to offer ongoing peer recovery support specialist (PRSS) services, not just a one-time referral. A website and cards describing the WV PEERS program were developed and ...


Understanding Factors Influencing Farmers' Engagement In Watershed Management Activities, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle 2021 Iowa State University

Understanding Factors Influencing Farmers' Engagement In Watershed Management Activities, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

Studies have pointed to a positive relationship between farmers' active engagement in watershed management (WM) and soil and water conservation practice adoption. If farmers' involvement in WM leads to more conservation, what predicts WM participation? This study seeks to answer that question through binomial logistic regression analysis of data from a survey of 6,006 Iowa farmers conducted to support the implementation of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (NRS). Results indicate that public and private sector information sources, awareness of and attitudes regarding nutrient loss reduction strategies, farm contiguity to water bodies, and cost-share and technical assistance were positive predictors ...


Notes From The Editorial Office (Volume 36, Issue 1), John J. Green 2021 University of Mississippi

Notes From The Editorial Office (Volume 36, Issue 1), John J. Green

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

We are excited to share this collection of articles in Volume 36, issue 1 of the Journal of Rural Social Sciences (JRSS).


Weather, Values, Capacity And Concern: Toward A Social-Cognitive Model Of Specialty Crop Farmers’ Perceptions Of Climate Change Risk, Guang Han, Ethan D. Schoolman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton 2021 University of Vermont

Weather, Values, Capacity And Concern: Toward A Social-Cognitive Model Of Specialty Crop Farmers’ Perceptions Of Climate Change Risk, Guang Han, Ethan D. Schoolman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lois Wright Morton

Sociology Publications

As specialty crop production has become increasingly important to U.S. agriculture, public and private stakeholders have called for research and outreach efforts centered on risks posed by climate change. Drawing on a survey of specialty crop farmers, this study explores farmers’ perceptions of climate change risks. Underlying cognitive, experiential, and socio-cultural factors hypothesized to influence farmers’ climate change risk perceptions are tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Results show that specialty crop farmers exhibit an overall moderate concern about climatic risks. The more capable and prepared farmers feel themselves to be, the less concerned they are about climate change ...


Social Change In Rural Communities: A Pilot Study Of Liberating Service-Learning With Rural Higher Education, Garret J. Zastoupil 2021 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Social Change In Rural Communities: A Pilot Study Of Liberating Service-Learning With Rural Higher Education, Garret J. Zastoupil

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

This exploratory study examines how service-learning faculty and community partners affiliated with rural colleges and universities engage in a practice aligned with Stoecker’s (2016) proposed liberating service-learning framework. Findings from 10 in-depth interviews indicate the ongoing emphasis on student learning, increased interface with government leaders, local businesses, and advocacy organizations, and distinct contextual factors faced by service-learning partners in rural areas. These findings complicate Stoecker’s initial framework, which completely decenters student learning, and calls for a deeper understanding of who constitutes community, change, and power broadly and in the context of densely connected rural areas. It also places ...


Different Hollers, Different Outcomes: Differences In Health Outcomes Among Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Counties In Kentucky, Allexys Krasnopolsky, James N. Maples 2021 Eastern Kentucky University

Different Hollers, Different Outcomes: Differences In Health Outcomes Among Appalachian And Non-Appalachian Counties In Kentucky, Allexys Krasnopolsky, James N. Maples

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

This study examines difference in health outcomes, health insurance, and doctor access between Kentucky’s Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. Using 2018 data curated by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, this study analyzes differences in means in overall health outcomes, health insurance, and the number of primary care physicians at the county level for Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in Kentucky .This study finds that persons living in Appalachian Kentucky counties have statistically-different and worse overall health outcomes, health insurance access, and physician access compared to those living in non-Appalachian Kentucky counties.


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