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Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem 2017 University of Missouri

Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem

Rebecca Jackson

The shift of the U.S. meat packing industry from urban to rural areas has generated controversy regarding potential social and economic costs of meat packing plants on their host communities. This study uses media comments to identify the most prominent controversies regarding meat packing, its largely immigrant workforce, and rural communities. We find that the industry has impacted the demographic composition of rural communities and their schools, but find no evidence that the industry increases per capita government expenditures. Our results suggest rural communities trade off the economic benefits of hosting these large employers against the costs of accommodating ...


Farm Ownership In The Midwest, John F. Timmons, Raleigh Barlowe 2017 Iowa State College

Farm Ownership In The Midwest, John F. Timmons, Raleigh Barlowe

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Most of the farms in the Midwest were established during the last 75 to 125 years. The people who came into the region wanted to own the land they operated, and in the early days a very high proportion of the farmers had an equity in the land on which they were living. From the beginning it has been the general policy of the federal and state agencies to encourage a pattern of owner-operated family-type farms. Public opinion has favored this policy.

Mechanized farming has made it possible for a farm family to operate larger acreages, and as a result ...


Teacher Supply And Demand In Home Economics In Iowa, 1935-1941, Hester Chadderdon 2017 Iowa State College

Teacher Supply And Demand In Home Economics In Iowa, 1935-1941, Hester Chadderdon

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Fifteen Iowa colleges and universities prepared 1,051 students to meet the state requirements for teaching home economics in the secondary schools between 1935 and 1941. The number prepared in 1940 was 74.7 percent greater than in 1935.

Slightly over three-fourths (76.3 percent) gave some service to Iowa high schools. The percentages going into teaching in the state from the different institutions varied from 33 to 100.

Of 271 not teaching in the secondary schools of Iowa immediately after c9mpleting their preparation, 100 taught in other states or at other school levels. Eighty-eight students taught outside Iowa the ...


General Agriculture In The High Schools Of Iowa, J. A. Starrak, Max W. Kneedy 2017 Iowa State College

General Agriculture In The High Schools Of Iowa, J. A. Starrak, Max W. Kneedy

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The three R's dominated the program of the common schools until about the turn of the century. The first decade, 1900-1910, saw determined efforts made to relate the program of the common schools to the life of the child outside the school. Part of this effort can be attributed to the growing consciousness that the practices of agriculture could be improved greatly through application of scientific principles.. This also accounts for the organization and rapid development of agricultural extension services in a number of states, notably Iowa. P. G. Holden, the first director of organized extension work in Iowa ...


Some Farm Family Gardens Pay In Dollars, Margaret E. Tiffany, Margaret G. Reid 2017 Iowa State College

Some Farm Family Gardens Pay In Dollars, Margaret E. Tiffany, Margaret G. Reid

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

According to the 1940 census for Iowa the average estimated value of the garden products reported (excluding potatoes) ranged from $27 in the Western Livestock area to $38 in the Northeast Dairy are!l and from $21 in Plymouth County to $55 in Winneshiek. The state average was $35. These figures are averages of crude estimates. They do, however, serve to reveal that the returns from farm family gardens differ greatly within the state.

To learn more about possible returns from farm family gardens, data on garden returns, costs and difficulties and fruits and vegetables purchased were secured from groups ...


Problems Of Beginning Farmers In Iowa, J. A. Starrak 2017 Iowa State College

Problems Of Beginning Farmers In Iowa, J. A. Starrak

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The investigation upon which this report is based, was made by interviewing 504 farmers who had begun farming as independent operators since 1930. The primary objectives were as follows:

1. To discover the problems which present major difficulties to young farmers in Iowa in their endeavor to become established in farming as independent operators.

2. To discover the ways and means commonly employed by beginning farmers in solving the problems encountered.

3. To ascertain the degree of success which is achieved by the typical young farmer in Iowa in solving the problems and overcoming the difficulties attendant upon establishment in ...


Twenty-One Years Of Iowa Farm Records, John A. Hopkins 2017 Iowa State College

Twenty-One Years Of Iowa Farm Records, John A. Hopkins

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin summarizes over 11,000 records kept by Iowa farmers from 1920 to 1940. It shows the reactions of a group of relatively efficient farmers to changes in prices and in weather during a period that begins at the end of one great war, includes the reconstruction period that followed, the secondary Great Depression, followed by a period of serious drouth, economic recovery, and finally some of the initial impacts of another major war.

It is estimated that from 1920 to 1940 gross sales on these farms were 140 to 190 percent of those on the average Iowa farm ...


Economic Problems Of Low Income Farmers In Iowa, Lawrence W. Witt 2017 Iowa State College

Economic Problems Of Low Income Farmers In Iowa, Lawrence W. Witt

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The basic economic and social maladjustments confronting American agriculture during the preceding two decades have stimulated a variety of studies and a variety of programs intended to correct the discrepancies in income. At first they were centered around methods of raising prices to farmers, often by placing a barrier between domestic and foreign prices, under the assumption that such price changes would correct the major portion of the unfavorable income position of the farm economy. As the programs and researches expanded and proliferated there was a growing realization that such broad, industry-wide approaches did very little to change the distribution ...


Social And Ecological Patterns In The Farm Leadership Of Four Iowa Townships, Bryce Ryan 2017 Iowa State College

Social And Ecological Patterns In The Farm Leadership Of Four Iowa Townships, Bryce Ryan

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

During the past decade farmers have been organizing for action on a variety of issues probably as never before. The problem of obtaining effective leadership has arisen time and again in this emergence of .organizations and programs. The present study was initiated in response to this situation as an effort to learn more about the relationships between farmers and the persons in whom they repose confidence for leadership. Some of the more specific questions which underlie this inquiry are: The extent to which farmers can visualize and agree upon specific individuals as effective leaders; the geographic patterning of agreement; the ...


Statistical Investigation Of A Sample Survey For Obtaining Farm Facts, Raymond J. Jessen 2017 Iowa State College

Statistical Investigation Of A Sample Survey For Obtaining Farm Facts, Raymond J. Jessen

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. A number of the problems of sampling farm facts by means of two sample surveys taken in Iowa have been studied statistically. These were essentially problems of sampling efficiency and the detection and measurement of biases and other errors in the data.

2. A sample survey of 800 farms provided estimates for the state of Iowa which were in many cases as accurate or even more accurate than corresponding information provided by the Federal Census, Iowa State Farm Census or Federal Agricultural Marketing Service. On the other hand, it was found that some items cannot be accurately estimated from ...


An Economic Study Of The Dairy Enterprise In Northeastern Iowa, R. K. Buck, J. A. Hopkins, C. C. Malone 2017 Iowa State College

An Economic Study Of The Dairy Enterprise In Northeastern Iowa, R. K. Buck, J. A. Hopkins, C. C. Malone

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In a study of 51 dairy and dual-purpose herds in 1935 and ] 936 it was found that the average value per head of the milk cows was $66 in the high producing dairy herds, compared to $49 in the low producing ones; while investment in buildings and fences was $120 per cow in the high as compared to $90 in the low producing herds. Investment per pound of butterfat produced, however , was lower with the higher producing and more valuable cows.

The cows in the higher producing herds were fed more heavily and received better balanced rations; the total amount ...


Cooperation In Grain Marketing In Iowa, Frank Robotka, R. C. Bentley 2017 Iowa State College

Cooperation In Grain Marketing In Iowa, Frank Robotka, R. C. Bentley

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Nearly 20 years have elapsed since a comprehensive appraisal was made of cooperation in grain marketing in Iowa.2 It is the purpose of this study to bring the history of the movement up to date, to present a brief cross-section view of the present status of farmers' elevators and to reappraise the movement in the light of recent developments and present trends.

The chief source of information regarding the present situation is the survey of all cooperatives in Iowa made in 1937,3 supplemented by further investigations extending through 1938 and 1939. Previous studies were drawn upon, particularly with ...


Corporate Land, Foreclosures, Mortgage Debt And Land Values In Iowa, 1939, William G. Murray 2017 Iowa State College

Corporate Land, Foreclosures, Mortgage Debt And Land Values In Iowa, 1939, William G. Murray

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Between Jan. 1, 1937, and Jan. 1, 1939, ownership of farm land in Iowa by corporations increased from 11.2 to 11.9 percent of the farm area of the state. In this same period corporations deeded to individuals 558,000 acres but also acquired 791,000 acres, with a net increase of 233,000 acres. Not all the land in the name of corporations is available for sale, however, since approximately 20 percent of the total has been sold on contract, the title remaining with the corporation until a certain percentage of the purchase price is paid.

Of the ...


Butterfat Procurement By Creameries In Butler County, Iowa, Paul E. Quintus, Frank Robotka 2017 Iowa State College

Butterfat Procurement By Creameries In Butler County, Iowa, Paul E. Quintus, Frank Robotka

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Butterfat procurement at local creameries has undergone pronounced changes since pre-war days. With the improvement in roads and motor vehicles there has been a transition from direct deliveries from nearby territories to commercial truck routes covering relatively wide areas.

During 1937 there were 10 creameries operating in Butler County with an average production of 236,660 pounds of butter for the year. Only one creamery exceeded 500,000 pounds. Nine of these 10 creameries operated regularly scheduled truck routes. In addition, 13 creameries located outside the county received a portion of their butterfat supplies on truck routes extending into Butler ...


Local Hog Marketing Practices In Iowa, Geoffrey Shepherd, Norman V. Strand 2017 Iowa State College

Local Hog Marketing Practices In Iowa, Geoffrey Shepherd, Norman V. Strand

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The purpose of this bulletin is to show statistically how Iowa farmers sell their hogs.

Hitherto, the bulk of the livestock marketing statistics has been obtained from terminal markets and meat packers. Such data tell very little about the farmer's end of the marketing machinery. For example, they do not show how much of the livestock that is sold "direct to packers" really moves direct (without going through one or more local dealers). They do not show statistically whether individual farmers usually patronize one buyer, or whether they "shop around" among several buyers. They do not show how far ...


Post-War Developments In The Marketing Of Cheese, William H. Nicholls 2017 Iowa State College

Post-War Developments In The Marketing Of Cheese, William H. Nicholls

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The 20 years following the World War have seen marked changes in the marketing of manufactured dairy products. Because of this fact, most of the literature on the marketing of such products, based largely on conditions before 1918 or 1920, is now out of date. In recognition of this gap in our present marketing picture, the writer recently published a discussion of the developments of the post-war years in butter marketing2 with special emphasis on the increasing importance of large business units as they relate to marketing channels. This bulletin is a similar undertaking with regard to cheese. The ...


Differences In Iowa Farms And Their Significance In The Planning Of Agricultural Programs, Walter W. Wilcox, Norman V. Strand 2017 Iowa State College

Differences In Iowa Farms And Their Significance In The Planning Of Agricultural Programs, Walter W. Wilcox, Norman V. Strand

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin reports the results of a study designed to measure the variations in cropping and livestock systems within the type·of-farming areas of Iowa.

The national agricultural adjustment programs of recent years have recognized the variations between types of farming in different regions. The differences between farming systems within regions have received only limited recognition. Some of the shortcomings of the current agricultural programs have been attributed to their failure to make adequate allowance for individual farm variations.


Cost And Utilization Of Power And Labor On Iowa Farms, Wylie D. Goodsell 2017 Iowa State College

Cost And Utilization Of Power And Labor On Iowa Farms, Wylie D. Goodsell

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

An analysis of the records of 753 cooperating farmers in 1936 and 958 in 1937 indicates clearly that general-purpose tractor farms are considerably larger than standard tractor farms and that standard tractor farms are larger than horse farms.

The average net cost of keeping a horse on 53 Iowa horse-operated farms in 1936 and 49 farms in 1937 was $91.44 and $86.08, respectively. The horses worked an average of 814 hours in 1936 and 802 in 1937 at an average cost of 11.2 cents and 10.7 cents per hour. Feed costs constitute about 65 percent of ...


Yield Tests And Land Valuation, William G. Murray, A. J. Englehorn, R. A. Griffin 2017 Iowa State College

Yield Tests And Land Valuation, William G. Murray, A. J. Englehorn, R. A. Griffin

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Valuation of farm land depends, in the main, on farm income, which in turn depends on crop yields and farm prices. Crop yields, to go back still another step, rest largely on soil and climate. Consequently, a careful measurement of soil productivity, as determined by crop yields, is a fundamental aspect of farm valuation.

Measurement of soil productivity in terms of yield differences has been hampered by the influence of management. Two farms of equal quality may produce unequal yields, not because of soil differences but because of managerial differences. In order to measure soil variation some method of controlling ...


Socio-Economic Phases Of Soil Conservation In The Tarkio Creek Area Economics Of Agricultural Land Use Adjustments. Ii, Rainer Schickele, John P. Himmel 2017 U.S.D.A.

Socio-Economic Phases Of Soil Conservation In The Tarkio Creek Area Economics Of Agricultural Land Use Adjustments. Ii, Rainer Schickele, John P. Himmel

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In wide sections of the Corn Belt, a variety of broad economic and social forces is obstructing adjustment of private entrepreneurs in land use practices in accordance with the character and condition of the main natural resource, the land. Soil is rapidly deteriorating, and buildings are crumbling on so many farms that the communities are beginning to feel the impact of serious land use maladjustments through declining farm incomes, loss of population and disintegration of local organizations and institutions.

Soil conservation has ceased to be merely a problem of farm management on a few scattered individual farms; it has reached ...


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