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Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

Subjects rendered judgments regarding the power of the participants in a series of conflictual circumstances where an adversary threatened a target. These situations manipulated four independent variables: (a) the adversary's capacity to damage the target's interests, (b) the adversary's probability of actually attacking, (c) the target's ability to block the impending attack, and (d) the target's capacity to retaliate. Results showed that all of the independent variables affected the subjects' judgments of the adversary's power, while three of them (damage, blockage, and retaliation) affected judgments of the target's power. Differences in the predictive ...


Mathematical Description And Mechanistic Reasoning: A Pathway Toward Stem Integration, Paul J. Weinberg 2017 Oakland University

Mathematical Description And Mechanistic Reasoning: A Pathway Toward Stem Integration, Paul J. Weinberg

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Because reasoning about mechanism is critical to disciplined inquiry in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains, this study focuses on ways to support the development of this form of reasoning. This study attends to how mechanistic reasoning is constituted through mathematical description. This study draws upon Smith’s (2007) characterization of mathematical description of scientific phenomena as ‘‘bootstrapping,’’ where negotiating the relationship between target phenomena and represented relations is fundamental to learning. In addition, the development of mathematical representation presents a viable pathway towards STEM integration. In this study, participants responded to an assessment of mechanistic reasoning while cognitive ...


The Experience Of Victimization As The Result Of Cyberbullying Among College Students: A Study Of Demographics, Self-Esteem, And Locus Of Control, Sonya P. Poole 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Experience Of Victimization As The Result Of Cyberbullying Among College Students: A Study Of Demographics, Self-Esteem, And Locus Of Control, Sonya P. Poole

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cyberbullying is commonly defined as a deliberate and aggressive act that is committed using an electronic form of contact. It has been linked to negative emotional and mental well-being along with incidents of suicide. The current study looks at the prevalence rates of cyberbullying among college aged adults. It uses a survey method design to examine the correlation of cyberbullying with gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, self-esteem, and locus of control. The results indicated a relatively high report of cyberbullying incidents when compared to previous studies. A significant difference was obtained when cyberbullying incidents were evaluated based on the participant ...


A Conceptual Model For A Universal Severity Of Emergency Report (User): An Example In Aviation, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice, Mattie Milner, William B. Coyne, Martin Lauth, Clyde Rinkinen 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

A Conceptual Model For A Universal Severity Of Emergency Report (User): An Example In Aviation, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice, Mattie Milner, William B. Coyne, Martin Lauth, Clyde Rinkinen

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

In emergency situations, it is important that information be communicated quickly, concisely, and efficiently. Breakdowns can occur when the receiver of the emergency call does not fully understand the information that the person is sending. The purpose of this paper is to present a new model for enhancing communication between the sender and receiver in emergency situations. The Universal Severity of Emergency Report (USER) is a model designed to be used in emergency situations and convey more information about the current state of the person declaring the emergency than is currently offered by emergency communication channels. USER provides three key ...


The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse And Body Image Of Members Of The United States Military, Chelsea Anne Taylor 2017 Western Kentucky University

The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse And Body Image Of Members Of The United States Military, Chelsea Anne Taylor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sexual abuse on body image of United States military service members and veterans. Participants completed an online questionnaire (n = 63) that measured their demographics, military status, sexual abuse experiences, combat experiences, relationships during deployment, and body image. Average scores on body image measures from participants who experienced sexual abuse (n = 10) were compared with average scores on body image measures from participants who did not experience sexual abuse (n = 49). Results indicate that there was not a significant difference in body image between service members who have and who ...


Personality Factors, Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior, And Sexual Fantasy As Predictors Of Paraphilic Disorder Intensity, Ethan Jack Edwards 2017 Western Kentucky University

Personality Factors, Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior, And Sexual Fantasy As Predictors Of Paraphilic Disorder Intensity, Ethan Jack Edwards

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Researchers vary on their definitions of paraphilia. A difference exists between an individual possessing a paraphilia versus an individual possessing a paraphilic disorder. Hanson (2010) proposed a dimensional model of sexual deviance that includes a measure of intensity. However, research on sexual intensity has been lacking. A majority of existing research focuses on the potential risk factors of possessing a paraphilia or paraphilic disorder (e.g., criminality). There is less focus on whom in the population has the potential to develop a paraphilia; or which factors predict paraphilic behavior.

The Big Five personality factors (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness ...


Priming For Honesty: A Novel Technique For Encouraging Children's True Disclosures Of Adult Wrongdoing, Allison P. Mugno 2017 Florida International University

Priming For Honesty: A Novel Technique For Encouraging Children's True Disclosures Of Adult Wrongdoing, Allison P. Mugno

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children are often involved in the legal system as victims of maltreatment, and their disclosure of adult wrongdoing is necessary to initiate effective legal responses and protect them from continued abuse. However, external pressures and children's perceptions of the consequences of truth-telling (e.g., punishment, removal from the home) may result in the delay of disclosure or failure to disclose altogether. Research examining techniques for promoting children's truth-telling has almost exclusively relied on explicit requests to tell the truth (e.g., a promise, reassurance, assessments of conceptual knowledge and moral discussions), and the success of these techniques has ...


Temporality In Phenomenology: Utilizing The Principles In Practice For Significance Of A Sex Research, Ka Wing Kevin Kwan 2017 Hong Kong Polytechnic University-Hong Kong Community College

Temporality In Phenomenology: Utilizing The Principles In Practice For Significance Of A Sex Research, Ka Wing Kevin Kwan

The Qualitative Report

This article aims to demonstrate how the researcher can utilize the principle of temporality in phenomenology as a method to explore and to reveal the human experience through its application in sex research. Although phenomenological studies have been increasingly adopted for qualitative inquiry in the field of social science, the idea of the horizon of temporality and its practical utilization is rarely demonstrated explicitly. In this study, the researcher has investigated the interpretation of marital experience of Chinese spouses in Hong Kong who have been assessed with sexual dysfunctions with attention to the couples’ perspectives. Having adopted a synthetic qualitative ...


The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty

Dialogue & Nexus

Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.


The Self-Diss: A Comprehensive Measure Of Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style, Breanna E. Atkinson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Self-Diss: A Comprehensive Measure Of Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style, Breanna E. Atkinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research reports the development and validation of the Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style Scale (SELF-DISS), a measure for the assessment of the propensity to engage in the chronic tolerance of mistreatment in relationships. Studies 1 and 2 followed a strategical 7-step process for developing valid and reliable measures. Study 1 proposed a theoretical model and developed a reliable measure to tap the three proposed factors on three scales: Insecure Attachment, Undeserving Self-Image, and Self-Sacrificing Nature. Study 2 replicated Study 1 as well as refined the SELF-DISS model to 35 items that indicated an excellent fit. Study 2 tested construct validity via ...


Cell Phone Use And Its Effects On Undergraduate Academic Performance, Juliet M. Womack, Corinne L. McNamara 2017 Kennesaw State University

Cell Phone Use And Its Effects On Undergraduate Academic Performance, Juliet M. Womack, Corinne L. Mcnamara

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

In this literature review, we explore cell phone use and its impact on academic performance of students in college classrooms. We discuss the prevalence of and motivation for cell phone use and how it affects user and peer academic performance as measured by grades earned in class and overall grade point average. Moreover, we include in our discussion the impact of classroom technology use on student-teacher interactions. Potential solutions to guide students and faculty toward more appropriate use of technology in the classroom and development of classroom syllabus policy are provided. Additional implications of research findings as well as suggestions ...


Nurturing Self: Psychotherapeutic Implications Of Women's Reflections On The Meaning Of Their Cherished Possessions, Stephanie L. Martin 2017 University of Saskatchewan

Nurturing Self: Psychotherapeutic Implications Of Women's Reflections On The Meaning Of Their Cherished Possessions, Stephanie L. Martin

The Qualitative Report

Experiencing the importance of one’s personal treasures is ubiquitous to the human experience, but what is the depth and meaning of this lived phenomenon? An interpretive phenomenological method was used to explore the meaning and significance of women’s experience of their cherished personal possessions. Nine women participated in three individual semi-structured phenomenological interviews each. Interpretive analysis revealed that women’s experience of their cherished personal possessions is one of nurturing self. Through their cherished personal possessions, women nurture their sense of self by connecting with others, affirming personal experience, supporting self through change, and cultivating a sense of ...


Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) experience inflammation that may target any organ within the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Additionally, these individuals often demonstrate psychological dysfunctions including emotional and cognitive deficits; however, research is inconsistent as to the nature and cause of these dysfunctions. While there are multiple factors that may increase risk for variability in cognitive function, such as population differences, socioeconomic status (SES), mood disorders (depression and anxiety), medication effects, and disease activity, these factors do not reliably predict the severity and extent of cognitive deficits. A growing body of animal research associates autoantibodies ...


Is The Relationship Between Trait Mindfulness And Psychological Distress Indirect?, Sailesh Maharjan 2017 California State University, San Bernardino

Is The Relationship Between Trait Mindfulness And Psychological Distress Indirect?, Sailesh Maharjan

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Mindfulness, purposeful attention without judgment or acceptance, and related practices are increasingly popular with a large number of people and have been incorporated into many western psychotherapies (e.g., Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy). There is considerable debate over whether mindfulness is best studied as a state, trait or procedure. Although many studies have found that trait mindfulness is related to physical and mental health outcomes, less is known about the mechanism(s) through which mindfulness enhances clinical outcomes. The current study explored the role of potential mediators of the ...


Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, Amanda Beltrani 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, Amanda Beltrani

Student Theses

The tendency for an individual to believe that a specific event, in hindsight, was more predictable than it was in foresight is known as hindsight bias. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in the psychological literature across a variety of samples, methodologies, and predictions for decades. The current study used a sample of 95 mental health professionals to explore the impact of advanced outcome knowledge on the decision making process. Participants reviewed a hypothetical risk assessment in the form of a hospital chart and then responded to a series of questions, using only their clinical judgment. Analyses revealed that evaluators who ...


Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson

Student Theses

Using an undergraduate sample, the present study examined how psychopathic traits (assessed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised) and empathic concern (assessed by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) affect emotional-information processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a sentential priming paradigm. Participants had their electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded while they silently read sentences with three types of endings: congruent, incongruent, and emotionally negative. We hypothesized that participants with high levels of psychopathic traits and participants with low levels of empathic concern would find the emotionally negative sentence endings less unexpected and disturbing (yielding a smaller N400), compared to participants with low levels of psychopathic ...


"Why Wouldn't You Like It?": Exploring Masculine Identities In Discussions Of Male Rape, Bridget Woods 2017 CUNY John Jay College

"Why Wouldn't You Like It?": Exploring Masculine Identities In Discussions Of Male Rape, Bridget Woods

Student Theses

Empirical research on the topic of male rape is scarce within the discipline of psychology. Current research focuses on negative perceptions of male rape victims, but does not take into account the role hegemonic masculinity plays in constructing beliefs about male rape. The present study aims to gather narratives of young men’s beliefs of male rape and male rape myths and analyze how masculinity and masculine identities shape these beliefs. Narratives were gained through collection of journal writings and focus groups, and an integrated narrative analysis was conducted to identify themes and discursive strategies that men employed to balance ...


Video Killed The Interview Star: Does Picture-In-Picture Affect Interview Performance?, Ryan G. Horn, Tara S. Behrend 2017 The George Washington University

Video Killed The Interview Star: Does Picture-In-Picture Affect Interview Performance?, Ryan G. Horn, Tara S. Behrend

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Although technology-mediated selection interviews have become more prevalent in practice, research on this phenomenon has failed to keep pace. One pressing need is to understand the dimensions upon which technology-mediated interviews might differ from one another. Particular aspects of synchronous video technology may negatively affect interviewees and those negative effects may be exacerbated by the evaluative nature of the interview. We explored this question by investigating the effects that one such aspect, the picture-in-picture window, has on interviewees. This study used a 2 (picture-in-picture vs. no picture-in-picture) x 2 (evaluative framing vs. non-evaluative framing) between-subjects experimental design to test the ...


Timeliness Is Key To The Candidate Experience, Ann Marie Ryan, Abdifatah Ahmed Ali, Terry Hauer, Jillyan French-Vitet 2017 Michigan State University

Timeliness Is Key To The Candidate Experience, Ann Marie Ryan, Abdifatah Ahmed Ali, Terry Hauer, Jillyan French-Vitet

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Effective talent attraction is a competitive advantage for organizations. This study examined the spillover effect of recruitment delays on signals important for organizational attraction. A diverse sample of 563 candidates evaluated their most recent recruitment experience. Using moderated regression and relative importance analysis, timeliness dissatisfaction dampened the positive effects of organizational prestige and opportunity to perform although these effects are greater earlier in the recruitment process. We discuss the contributions of this study and provide recommendations for recruitment practice.


Using O*Net To Develop A Framework Of Job Characteristics To Potentially Improve The Predictive Validity Of Personality Measures, Jeremy Burrus, Jason D. Way 2017 Professional Examination Service

Using O*Net To Develop A Framework Of Job Characteristics To Potentially Improve The Predictive Validity Of Personality Measures, Jeremy Burrus, Jason D. Way

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

It has long been theorized that we can improve prediction of job-related behavior from measures of personality by identifying job characteristics that allow for the expression of individual differences (e.g., Mischel, 1968). Using O*NET data, the current paper develops a framework for job characteristics that could improve the extent to which we can predict behavior from personality. More specifically, it investigates relationships between Work Styles, Generalized Work Activities, and Work Context variables. Job characteristics varied in importance as a function of four Work Styles composites: achievement, people orientation, stability, and attention to detail, and the relationships were largely ...


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