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Superior Episodic Memory Is Associated With Interhemispheric Processing, Ruth E. Propper, Stephen D. Christman 2019 Montclair State University

Superior Episodic Memory Is Associated With Interhemispheric Processing, Ruth E. Propper, Stephen D. Christman

Ruth Propper

The dependence of episodic memories on interhemispheric processing was tested. In Experiment 1, positive familial sinistrality (FS+; e.g., the presence of left-handed relatives) was associated with superior episodic memory and inferior implicit memory in comparison with negative familial sinistrality (i.e., FS-). This reflected a greater degree of interhemispheric interaction in FS+ participants, which was hypothesized as facilitating episodic memory. In Experiment 2, the authors directly manipulated inter- versus intrahemispheric processing using tests of episodic (recognition) and semantic (lexical decision) memory in which letter strings were presented twice within trial blocks. Semantic memory was superior when the 2nd presentation ...


Why Girls? The Importance Of Developing Gender-Specific Health Promotion Programs For Adolescent Girls, Amanda Birnbaum, Tracy R. Nichols 2019 University of North Carolina

Why Girls? The Importance Of Developing Gender-Specific Health Promotion Programs For Adolescent Girls, Amanda Birnbaum, Tracy R. Nichols

Amanda Birnbaum

Adolescence is a time when many girls begin to develop unhealthy behaviors that can affect myriad short- and long-term health outcomes across their lifespan.2There is evidence that smoking, physical activity, and diet are habituated during adolescence, and some physiologic processes of adolescence, such as peak bone mass development, have direct effects on future health.3-4 Establishing healthy practices, beliefs and knowledge among adolescent girls will decrease morbidity and mortality among adult women and potentially affect the health of men and children through women’s role as healthcare agents. This paper provides a brief review of lifestyle health behaviors among ...


Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe 2019 University of Georgia

Self-Management Strategies Mediate Self-Efficacy And Physical Activity, Amanda Birnbaum, Rod K. Dishman, Robert W. Motl, James F. Sallis, Andrea L. Dunn, Greg J. Welk, Ariane L. Yung, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Jared B. Jobe

Amanda Birnbaum

Self-efficacy theory proposes that girls who have confidence in their capability to be physically active will perceive fewer barriers to physical activity or be less influenced by them, be more likely to pursue perceived benefits of being physically active, and be more likely to enjoy physical activity. Self-efficacy is theorized also to influence physical activity through self-management strategies (e.g., thoughts, goals, plans, and acts) that support physical activity, but this idea has not been empirically tested.


What Makes A Good Therapy Dog? Identifying Factors Associated With Calm Behavior In Therapy Dogs, Kristen Cunningham, Zachary L. Darwish, Rosemary Strasser 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

What Makes A Good Therapy Dog? Identifying Factors Associated With Calm Behavior In Therapy Dogs, Kristen Cunningham, Zachary L. Darwish, Rosemary Strasser

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Dogs offer a variety of benefits to society, including the use of therapy dogs to provide therapeutic and physiological benefits, enhancing the lives of a wide range of recipients. Unlike service or emotional support animals, therapy dogs provide support to a multitude of individuals, often in hospitals, schools, nursing homes, or other venues. While many studies have examined behavioral assessments of service dog programs, little research has investigated the factors that make a good therapy dog. Therapy dogs must undergo strategic training before becoming certified. The present study seeks to illuminate what factors might distinguish therapy dogs from pet dogs ...


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives ...


Marmosets Respond Consistently To Threats Across Contexts, Sarah Carp 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Marmosets Respond Consistently To Threats Across Contexts, Sarah Carp

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Behavioral traits, such as how adventurous an individual is, can vary both across individuals and within an individual across contexts. However, there is evidence that individuals are stable across time in how they respond to certain stimuli. This consistency in behavioral responses to similar environments is termed a behavioral syndrome, or set of correlated behavior. We assessed the degree to which individual marmoset monkeys were consistent across four behavioral tests that measured different aspects of novelty seeking. The four tasks included exposure to a novel object in a familiar environment, exposure to a novel environment, behavioral flexibility in response to ...


Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The following study sought to examine the psychological substrates of renewal (e.g.., context dependent extinction processes) for conditioned avoidance behaviors in rats. Using signaled active avoidance conditioning, rats acquired two-way shuttle responding, to two different auditory stimuli. These behaviors were then extinguished through exposure to the auditory stimuli where shuttling behavior was now without consequence. Subjects were then tested for renewal of avoidance in three distinct renewal sequences (e.g., ABA vs ABB, AAB vs AAA, and ABC vs ABB) in three separate groups of rats. It was found that subjects showed more responding to a stimulus presented outside ...


Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

People who experience trauma can develop enduring trauma-related symptoms. In daily life, post-trauma symptoms (e.g., elevated physiological arousal) can be triggered by affectively salient cues in the environment, especially by cues that act as trauma reminders. Trauma exposure is associated with enduring changes in two biological stress systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In women, activity in both systems is additionally modulated by fluctuations in levels of sex hormones (e.g., estradiol), which could influence physiological responses to trauma reminders. Additionally, previous work has linked the sex hormone estradiol with affect, suggesting that menstrual ...


Adenosine A2a Receptor Subpopulation And Dopamine D4 Receptor Effects On Psychostimulant-Induced Behavior, Nicholas Haynes 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Adenosine A2a Receptor Subpopulation And Dopamine D4 Receptor Effects On Psychostimulant-Induced Behavior, Nicholas Haynes

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder affecting millions of people. No effective treatment exists for psychostimulant use disorder, stressing the importance to investigate underlying mechanisms mediating this disorder. Psychostimulants like cocaine and methamphetamine (MA) impact behavior by modulating neurotransmitter signaling systems in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this region, converging dopamine and glutamate signals interact with receptors to influence cellular functioning. The neuromodulator, adenosine, has received attention regarding its ability to affect both dopamine and glutamate signaling through converging intracellular signaling associated with metabotropic receptor proteins. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) and dopamine D4 receptors (D4s ...


Measuring Glutamate And Oxygen In Brain Reward Circuits In Animal Models Of Cocaine Abuse And Decision-Making, Seth Richard Batten 2019 University of Kentucky

Measuring Glutamate And Oxygen In Brain Reward Circuits In Animal Models Of Cocaine Abuse And Decision-Making, Seth Richard Batten

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Drug-specific reward and associated effects on neural signaling are often studied between subjects, where one group self-administers drug and a separate group self-administers a natural reinforcer. However, exposure to drugs of abuse can cause long-term neural adaptations that can affect how an organism responds to drug reward, natural reward, and their reward-associated stimuli. Thus, to isolate drug-specific effects it is important to use models that expose the same organism to all of the aforementioned. Multiple schedules provide a means of dissociating the rewarding effects of a drug from the rewarding effects of food within a single animal. Further, drug users ...


Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland 2019 University of Kentucky

Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The marriage of perspectives from behavioral economic theory and learning theory has the potential to advance an understanding of substance use and substance use disorder. Behavioral economic demand is a central concept to this interdisciplinary approach. Evaluating demand in the laboratory and clinic can improve previous research on the relative reinforcing effects of drugs by accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of reinforcement rather than viewing reinforcement as a unitary construct. Recent advances in the commodity purchase task methodology have further simplified the measurement of demand values in human participants. This dissertation project presents a programmatic series of studies designed to ...


Timing Is Everything: Temporal Dynamics Of Brain Activity Using The Human Connectome Project, Francesca LoFaro 2019 University of Puget Sound

Timing Is Everything: Temporal Dynamics Of Brain Activity Using The Human Connectome Project, Francesca Lofaro

Summer Research

Most neuroimaging studies produce snapshots of brain activity. The goal of this project is to examine the temporal dynamics of how these areas interact through time, using fear as a case study to assess how regions involved in fear interact. Working with Matlab computer code, I sort through the large fMRI dataset known as the Human Connectome Project to extract neuroimaging data from patients with different NIH Toolbox Fear-Somatic survey scores to assess the temporal dynamics between brain regions. The results will allow an understanding beyond which areas are involved, and instead will provide a picture of how these areas ...


Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Of Alcohol Consumption And Dependence, Kristin Mignogna 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Of Alcohol Consumption And Dependence, Kristin Mignogna

Theses and Dissertations

Widely effective treatment for alcohol use disorder is not yet available, because the exact biological mechanisms that underlie this disorder are not completely understood. One way to gain a better understanding of these mechanisms is to examine the genetic frameworks that contribute to the risk for developing this disorder. This dissertation examines genetic association data in combination with gene expression networks in the brain to identify functional groups of genes associated with alcohol consumption and dependence.

The first study took advantage of the behavioral complexity of human samples, and experimental capabilities provided by mouse models, by co-analyzing gene expression networks ...


Yoga To Decrease The Stress Response: Gentle Yoga Encourages Faster Decline In Salivary Cortisol Concentrations Following Participation In Tsst, Tabetha Gaile Hopke 2019 Missouri State University

Yoga To Decrease The Stress Response: Gentle Yoga Encourages Faster Decline In Salivary Cortisol Concentrations Following Participation In Tsst, Tabetha Gaile Hopke

MSU Graduate Theses

Short-term, activation of the human stress response system is beneficial as it prepares the body to deal with stressors at hand (McEwen & Stellar, 1993). If this system is overactive or chronically active however, it can negatively impact health and longevity (Cohen, Janicki-Deverts, & Miller, 2007). According to a review conducted by Ross & Thomas (2010) implementation of a yoga practice has been shown to down-regulate the stress response system. The present study aimed to expand on current research involving yoga for stress reduction by exploring whether participation in gentle yoga could decrease the stress response more quickly than naturally occurs after psychological ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra 2019 Claremont Colleges

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


The Effects Of Dopamine And Dopamine Precursor Medication On Impairments To High-Level Vision In Parkinson's Disease, Stephen Jon Anderson 2019 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Dopamine And Dopamine Precursor Medication On Impairments To High-Level Vision In Parkinson's Disease, Stephen Jon Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine how dopamine (DA) and dopaminergic medications affect the performance of high-level visual tasks in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Various studies have reported that PD is associated with impairments on visual tasks known to depend on processing in the ventral visual pathway of the brain. Because most behavioral symptoms in PD arise from chronic dopamine deficiency, the author sought to investigate the role that DA played in cognitive vision. Accordingly, five complex visual tasks were chosen that were known to recruit processing from different constellations of brain areas, either in the ...


Developing Sensory Behavioral Assays For Zebrafish Autism Model, Shannon Wagner 2019 Georgia Southern University

Developing Sensory Behavioral Assays For Zebrafish Autism Model, Shannon Wagner

University Honors Program Theses

Individuals of all ages can suffer from a wide variety of symptoms and disabilities that could be diagnosed as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Due to new methods and technology, individuals are now being diagnosed in the first two years of their life, which is when the signs of ASD are initially exhibited. Individuals diagnosed with ASD share many similar disabilities and symptoms such as hyperactivity to social, visual, and auditory stimuli, as well as hyposensitivity to olfactory stimuli. Neural circuit-based alterations are widely considered as a cause for these behavioral aberrations. We have created behavioral assays using zebrafish larvae to ...


The Effects Of Oral Contraceptives On Mood And Affect: A Meta-Analysis, Erica M. Motter 2019 Humboldt State University

The Effects Of Oral Contraceptives On Mood And Affect: A Meta-Analysis, Erica M. Motter

Theses and projects

Combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills are widely used by women of reproductive age, but there is still little conclusive evidence that exists about the mood-related side effects associated with their use. This meta-analysis examined the relationship between oral contraceptive use and mood effects such as depression and anxiety to determine what role, if any, that COCs may have in the worsening or improvement of women’s mood when taking them. Effect sizes compared the differences in women’s mood scores before taking COCs and after one or more cycles of use. Seventeen studies made up of 25 individual samples contributed ...


The Effects Of C-Tactile Afferent Stimulation On Male Orgasm And Ejaculation, Yacoub Ayed Innabi 2019 Humboldt State University

The Effects Of C-Tactile Afferent Stimulation On Male Orgasm And Ejaculation, Yacoub Ayed Innabi

Theses and projects

Orgasms and ejaculation are important for relationships and contribute significantly to life satisfaction. There is, however, a lack of research in the current literature regarding orgasm perception. This study tested the effects of endogenous oxytocin on subjective orgasm intensity, ejaculation latency, and ejaculate volume in men. At two separate test sessions, the participants were either stroked on the forearm (to release endogenous oxytocin) or tapped on the hand (to act as a control) with a cosmetic brush. The forearm contains C-tactile afferents that are believed to release oxytocin centrally and peripherally in response to slow, soft stroking stimulation. Then a ...


"I See Gay People" Gaydar Abilities In A Real-World Distribution, Benjamin Patrick Skillman 2019 Humboldt State University

"I See Gay People" Gaydar Abilities In A Real-World Distribution, Benjamin Patrick Skillman

Theses and projects

“Gaydar” is the colloquial term for identifying someone’s sexual orientation from physical cues. Past literature has shown that people can identify someone’s sexual orientation at above chance levels. Past literature has used a 50/50 split of gay and straight faces and used non-standardized images, which can induce confounds in the results. The present study examined gaydar accuracy in a realistic distribution of straight and gay faces using standardized images and examined facial morphology for differences between gay and straight men. Participants were not found to have above chance accuracy for identifying gay faces. PCA did not identify ...


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