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In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber 2019 The University of Western Ontario

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


The Biopsychology Of Ending Poverty: Lessons From Research On Economic Instability, Household Chaos, And Child Cortisol, Eleanor D. Brown 2019 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

The Biopsychology Of Ending Poverty: Lessons From Research On Economic Instability, Household Chaos, And Child Cortisol, Eleanor D. Brown

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Historical Alcohol Use On Neuropsychological Functioning In Older Adults Following A Traumatic Brain Injury, Ryan Sever 2019 National Louis University

The Effects Of Historical Alcohol Use On Neuropsychological Functioning In Older Adults Following A Traumatic Brain Injury, Ryan Sever

Dissertations

The present study aimed to determine the effects of alcohol abuse and dependence in long term functioning of older adults who have experienced a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. The research question being answered in the current study was if a history of alcohol abuse or dependence would worsen neuropsychological functioning in older adults who experienced at least one moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Participants of the study were selected from the more extensive database provided by the Brain Aging in Vietnam War Veterans (DOD-ADNI) database. All participants were Vietnam War veterans between the ages of 61 and ...


The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Dermatoglyphic Measures In Relation To Depressive Symptoms Among Non-Clinical Adolescents And Young Adults, Yosefa A. Modiano 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dermatoglyphic Measures In Relation To Depressive Symptoms Among Non-Clinical Adolescents And Young Adults, Yosefa A. Modiano

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and can be devastating. Increasingly, depressive symptomatology is understood from a dimensional perspective such that non- or sub-clinical presentations may share a similar etiology. Depression etiology is believed to include genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to underlying vulnerability (diathesis) by way of neurodevelopment. Birth cohort studies have provided empirical evidence of the relationship between prenatal insult and later experience of adverse outcomes, including increased risk for depressive disorders. Retrospective investigation of the possible influence of prenatal disturbance on later experience of depressive symptoms has methodological limitations. Dermatoglyphic measurements offer a more methodologically viable ...


Electroencephalographic Asymmetry, Emotion Regulation, And Their Relationships With Depression Risk, Aliza Jacob 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Electroencephalographic Asymmetry, Emotion Regulation, And Their Relationships With Depression Risk, Aliza Jacob

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Research investigating patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) brain asymmetry aids our understanding of neural systems involved in the processing of emotion, motivation, and psychopathology. Withdrawal-motivated negative emotions characteristic of depression are associated with relative right prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, whereas approach- motivated positive emotions are associated with relative left PFC activity. Styles of emotion regulation (ER), or modulation of the intensity and duration of emotional responses, are also associated with presence (e.g., suppression, or maladaptive ER) versus absence (e.g., cognitive reappraisal, or adaptive ER) of depression vulnerability. Most PFC asymmetry studies of emotion, depression, and/or ER rely ...


Neural Correlates Of Automatic Emotional Processing And Emotion Regulation In Empathy And Psychopathy-Related Coldheartedness, Danielle diFilipo 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neural Correlates Of Automatic Emotional Processing And Emotion Regulation In Empathy And Psychopathy-Related Coldheartedness, Danielle Difilipo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychopathy is a personality disorder that is defined, in part, by a lack of empathy. Psychopathy-related empathic deficits have been associated with atypical behavioral and neural responses to emotional facial expressions. Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in empathy, very few studies have examined the role of MNS functioning as it pertains to empathy impairments in psychopathy. Moreover, there is very little empirical research regarding emotion regulation in psychopathy, and specifically whether emotional responses can be intentionally upregulated. The present study sought to clarify whether the MNS is functionally intact in adults with subclinical psychopathic traits, particularly ...


Clinical Characteristics And Neuroanatomical Predictors Of Acute Antidepressant Outcome For Patients With Comorbid Depression And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Jeffrey N. Motter 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clinical Characteristics And Neuroanatomical Predictors Of Acute Antidepressant Outcome For Patients With Comorbid Depression And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Jeffrey N. Motter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Older adults presenting with both a depressive disorder (DEP) and cognitive impairment (CI) represent a unique, understudied population. The classification of cognitive impairment severity continues to be debated though it has recently been subtyped into late (LMCI) versus early (EMCI) stages. Previous studies have found associations between treatment outcome and both cortical thickness and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), though report inconsistent directionality and affected regions. In this study, we examined baseline clinical characteristics and neuroanatomical features as prognostic indicators for older adults with comorbid DEP and CI participating in an open antidepressant trial. EMCI is hypothesized to have greater ...


Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As obesity and diabetes have emerged as a severe public health crisis, understanding the mechanisms underlying the consumption of sugars and fats has become a topic of vigorous study. From a biological standpoint, genetic dispositions, neurochemical and hormonal influences, and predetermined orosensory and postingestive signals that modulate the hunger and satiety process may govern physiological aspects of the obesity puzzle. In addition to an innate appetite and attraction for simple carbohydrates and fats, learning plays an important role in modulating preferences for sugar- and fat-rich foods in rodents, including inbred mouse strains. Marked genetic variance has been observed among murine ...


Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine is an addictive illicit psychostimulant that produces lasting neurochemical and behavioral changes. The mechanisms underlying these deficits have been characterized in animal models using extremely high doses. Currently, better translational models are needed to understand the onset and progression of these deficits that more accurately reflect the gradual and voluntary dosing parameters as chosen by an abuser. To that end, a new model of methamphetamine administration, labeled Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Administration (VOMA), offers a means to examine the progression of neurotoxicity, behavioral deficits, and the addiction process through a voluntary consumption framework.

Female populations show consistent vulnerabilities to methamphetamine ...


The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr 2019 Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals engage in intricately woven action sequences that are constructed from trial-and-error learning, but the mechanisms by which the brain links together individual actions which are later recalled as fluid chains of behavior are not fully understood. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the learning and goal-directed control of action sequences in rats. Experiment 1 addresses a question that comes out of a reinforcement learning model of action sequencing: how does the extent of training change how the performance of an action sequence is impacted by reward devaluation. The data show that action sequences remain goal-directed overall regardless ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Library Assistant, Central Library, Central University of South Bihar (CUSB), Gaya (Bihar)

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


Do Psychopathic Traits Influence Distractibility By Empathy-Eliciting Pictures?, Priya M. Reji 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Do Psychopathic Traits Influence Distractibility By Empathy-Eliciting Pictures?, Priya M. Reji

Student Theses

Empathy is a crucial component in forming interpersonal connections, and reflects the ability to share and understand the feelings of others. Psychopathy is often associated with a reduced ability to feel and display empathetic concern towards other people. The Response Modulation Hypothesis argues that such individuals have an attentional deficit, which makes it difficult for them to shift focus between stimuli, thus individuals who have high scores on the interpersonal-affective factor of psychopathy have an increased ability to ignore emotional stimuli that are goal-irrelevant. The current study investigated whether psychopathic traits would influence distractibility on an emotional Stroop (eStroop) task ...


The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Neuropsychological Functioning And Tau Accumulation Later In Life In Military Veterans, Lindsay Eatman 2019 National Louis University

The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Neuropsychological Functioning And Tau Accumulation Later In Life In Military Veterans, Lindsay Eatman

Dissertations

Abstract The following study examines aging veterans that experience a TBI while in service and

compares to older veteran without a history of TBI. The objective is to look at cognitive profile later in life for military veterans with moderate to severe TBI different and compared to older veterans with no history of TBI. Is there a difference in tau accumulations on neuroimaging in military veterans with moderate to severe TBI compared to older veterans without a history of TBI? What is the relationship between the cognitive profile and tau imaging correlates for military veterans with moderate to severe TBI ...


Investigating How Neural Entrainment Relates To Beat Perception By Disentangling The Stimulus-Driven Response, Aaron WC Gibbings 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating How Neural Entrainment Relates To Beat Perception By Disentangling The Stimulus-Driven Response, Aaron Wc Gibbings

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Beat perception – the ability to perceive a steady pulse in music – is nearly ubiquitous in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying this ability are unknown. A growing number of electroencephalography (EEG) studies suggest that beat perception is related to neural entrainment, a phenomenon in which cyclic changes in the excitability of populations of neurons synchronize with a rhythmic stimulus. However, the relationship between acoustically-driven and entrainment-driven neural activity is unclear. This thesis presents EEG research that extends our understanding neural entrainment is related to beat perception by characterizing, equating, and finally removing the stimulus-driven response in the neural signal isolating ...


Evaluating Changes In Error-Monitoring Electrocortcial Responses As An Outcome Of Attention Bias Modification Training, Jeremy Andrzejewski 2019 Northern Michigan University

Evaluating Changes In Error-Monitoring Electrocortcial Responses As An Outcome Of Attention Bias Modification Training, Jeremy Andrzejewski

All NMU Master's Theses

Anxiety disorders are among one of the most debilitating and prevalent mental disorders. Maladaptive anxiety has been associated with enhanced attention bias to threat as well as heightened error-monitoring following an erroneous response. In an effort to reduce an anxious individual’s attention bias to threat, an attention training paradigm known as attention bias modification (ABM) was developed. While ABM training has demonstrated the ability to reduce attention bias and anxiety symptoms, there are inconsistencies in the magnitude of symptom reduction and there is a lack of neuroimaging support in regards to ABM outcome. Therefore, this study evaluated the outcome ...


Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neurochemical changes occurring between the preweanling period and adolescence could be crucial for understanding the role development plays in the manifestation of psychotic behaviors. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) fully attenuates the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while potentiating the DA agonist-induced locomotor activity of preweanling rats. My specific hypotheses were as follows: (1) Systemically administered EEDQ would block the cocaine-induced locomotor activity of adult rats. (2) Systemically administered EEDQ would potentiate the cocaine-induced locomotion of preweanling rats. (3) EEDQ would increase the Emax values (a measure of D2 receptor sensitivity) of preweanling rats, but not adolescent or adult ...


Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey 2019 Western University

Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

Attention is the cognitive processing that facilitates the ability to target and attend to relevant environmental stimuli, while filtering out irrelevant or distracting stimuli. Control over selective attention is theorized to be dependent on organized neural communication that stems from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To evaluate selective and sustained attention, mice were trained on the novel touchscreen rodent continuous performance task (rCPT), a task designed to emulate the human CPT. In the rodent version, images are continuously presented on a touchscreen, where mice have been trained to selectively respond to one image type while suppressing responses to all others ...


Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine 2019 James Madison University

Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Day and night, soldiers in World War II were physically and mentally strained by fatigue and psychiatric distress. Consequently, many soldiers were left exhausted and demoralized. War efforts hinged on soldiers succeeding in missions, thus a fast-acting solution was needed. Development of the psychostimulant drugs Benzedrine and Pervitin in the 1920s and 30s spurred enthusiasm among scientists, the media, the public, and various governments. Potent and powerful, these drugs exert effects that promote wakefulness, elevated mood, and improved field performance. Governments quickly began researching use of stimulants to improve their war efforts. By the early 40s, both drugs had millions ...


More Than Just Perception-Action Recalibration: Walking Through A Virtual Environment Causes Rescaling Of Perceived Space., Jonathan W. Kelly, Lisa S. Donaldson, Lori A. Sjolund, Jacob B. Freiberg 2019 Iowa State University

More Than Just Perception-Action Recalibration: Walking Through A Virtual Environment Causes Rescaling Of Perceived Space., Jonathan W. Kelly, Lisa S. Donaldson, Lori A. Sjolund, Jacob B. Freiberg

Jonathan W. Kelly

Egocentric distances in virtual environments are commonly underperceived by up to 50 % of the intended distance. However, a brief period of interaction in which participants walk through the virtual environment while receiving visual feedback can dramatically improve distance judgments. Two experiments were designed to explore whether the increase in postinteraction distance judgments is due to perception–action recalibration or the rescaling of perceived space. Perception–action recalibration as a result of walking interaction should only affect action-specific distance judgments, whereas rescaling of perceived space should affect all distance judgments based on the rescaled percept. Participants made blind-walking distance judgments and ...


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