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Quantifying Crustal Assimilation In Historical To Recent (1329-2005) Lavas At Mt. Etna, Italy: Insights From Thermodynamic Modeling, Marie Takach 2018 Central Washington University

Quantifying Crustal Assimilation In Historical To Recent (1329-2005) Lavas At Mt. Etna, Italy: Insights From Thermodynamic Modeling, Marie Takach

All Master's Theses

The nearly continuous volcanic eruption record at Mt. Etna dating back approximately 700 years provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the geochemical evolution of a highly active volcano. Of particular interest is elucidating the cause of a selective enrichment in alkali elements (K, Rb, Cs) and 87Sr/86Sr. This alkali enrichment trend, which began in the 17th century and accelerated after 1971, was accompanied by an increase in the volume, frequency, and explosivity of eruptions. To explain this enrichment, two major arguments are invoked: (1) crustal contributions (e.g., assimilation of the sedimentary basement), and (2) changes in …


Trace Element And Isotopic Fingerprinting Of Olivine Phenocrysts As Recorders Of Magmatic Processes In The Golden Trout Volcanic Field, Kern Plateau, Ca, Mark E. Szymanski 2018 Humboldt State University

Trace Element And Isotopic Fingerprinting Of Olivine Phenocrysts As Recorders Of Magmatic Processes In The Golden Trout Volcanic Field, Kern Plateau, Ca, Mark E. Szymanski

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Quaternary mafic volcanism in the western Basin and Range and in the southeastern Sierra Nevada is largely controlled by extensional stresses that promote magma generation through decompression melting of the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle. Where volcanism occurs in the Sierra Nevada, like at the Golden Trout Volcanic Field GTVF), the eruption rate, number of vents, and eruption volume is an order of magnitude less than at neighboring Basin and Range volcanic fields such as the Big Pine Volcanic Field (BPVF). To determine the factors that cause these differences in adjacent and contemporaneous volcanic fields, I sampled rocks from both fields …


Ground Deformation Studies And Evacuation Behavior During Eruptions At Guatemalan Volcanoes, Hans Lechner 2018 Michigan Technological University

Ground Deformation Studies And Evacuation Behavior During Eruptions At Guatemalan Volcanoes, Hans Lechner

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Volcanic eruptions can be an especially problematic hazard when considering the uncertainty in eruption timing and magnitude coupled with challenges associated with delivering warnings to remote areas and facilitating effective evacuations. The hazards presented by Guatemala’s active volcanoes demand enhanced monitoring capabilities and instrumentation infrastructure. Strengthening the link between the physical and social sciences should lead to more accurate, reliable, and timely hazard information to the people living in proximity to the volcano and facilitate rational decisions and actions that reduce their level of risk. While there is no one single technique that can provide unambiguous diagnostics about the timing, …


Giant Plagioclase In The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Cumulate Entrainment Revealed By Textural And In Situ Chemical Analysis, Conner H. Toth 2018 Central Washington University

Giant Plagioclase In The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Cumulate Entrainment Revealed By Textural And In Situ Chemical Analysis, Conner H. Toth

All Master's Theses

Many of the lava flows comprising the Steens Basalt in SE Oregon, the oldest and most mafic formation of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contain exceptionally large (up to 5 cm) and abundant (up to 40 modal %) plagioclase crystals. This thesis presents a model for giant plagioclase formation in a complex system that integrates petrographic and in situ plagioclase compositional analyses with whole-rock data and computational modeling to explain systematic textural and chemical differences between plagioclase of the lower and upper Steens Basalt sub-sections. Lower Steens plagioclase are typically more chemically homogenous than upper Steens plagioclase and exhibit …


Probing The Precambrian Geodynamo: Analysis Of The Geomagnetic Field Behavior And Calibration Of Pseudo-Thellier Paleointensity Method For Mesoproterozoic Rocks, Marine Foucher 2018 Michigan Technological University

Probing The Precambrian Geodynamo: Analysis Of The Geomagnetic Field Behavior And Calibration Of Pseudo-Thellier Paleointensity Method For Mesoproterozoic Rocks, Marine Foucher

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Understanding the geomagnetic field direction and strength (e.g., paleomagnetism and paleointensity, respectively) recorded by Precambrian rocks is essential to obtain insight into the nature and evolution of the Earth’s early geodynamo and for constraining models of planetary evolution. Major milestones of our planet’s history, such as beginning of plate tectonics, development of the atmosphere and life, took place during the first four billion years. However, the available data on the Earth’s magnetic field in the Precambrian are very limited, especially the information about the field intensity which represents one of the most challenging aspect of paleomagnetic research. Many Precambrian rocks …


Differentiation In Impact Melt Sheets As A Mechanism To Produce Evolved Magmas On Mars, Ari Koeppel 2018 CUNY City College

Differentiation In Impact Melt Sheets As A Mechanism To Produce Evolved Magmas On Mars, Ari Koeppel

Dissertations and Theses

Asteroid bombardment contributed to extensive melting and resurfacing of ancient (> 3 Ga) Mars, thereby influencing the early evolution of the Martian crust. However, information about how impact melting has altered Mars’ crustal petrology is limited. Evidence from some of the largest impact structures on Earth, such as Sudbury and Manicouagan, suggests that some impact melt sheets experience chemical differentiation. If these processes occur on Mars, we expect to observe differentiated igneous materials in some exhumed rock samples. Some rocks observed in Gale crater are enriched in alkalis (up to 14 wt% Na2O + K2O) and …


A New Approach To Probabilistic Lava Flow Hazard Assessments, Applied To The Idaho National Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, Usa, Elisabeth Gallant, Jacob Richardson, Charles Connor, Paul Wetmore, Laura Connor 2018 University of South Florida

A New Approach To Probabilistic Lava Flow Hazard Assessments, Applied To The Idaho National Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, Usa, Elisabeth Gallant, Jacob Richardson, Charles Connor, Paul Wetmore, Laura Connor

School of Geosciences Faculty and Staff Publications

We present a new probabilistic lava flow hazard assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear facility that (1) explores the way eruptions are defined and modeled, (2) stochastically samples lava flow parameters from observed values for use in MOLASSES, a lava flow simulator, (3) calculates the likelihood of a new vent opening within the boundaries of INL, (4) determines probabilities of lava flow inundation for INL through Monte Carlo simulation, and (5) couples inundation probabilities with recurrence rates to determine the annual likelihood of lava flow inundation for INL. Results show a 30% probability of …


Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, Jensen Kohl Angelloz 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Structural Analysis Of The Northwest Wind Mountain Quadrangle, New Mexico: Proterozoic Shearing To Cenozoic Brittle Faulting In The Burro Mountains, Jensen Kohl Angelloz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary investigation of the Bullard Peak metamorphic series (BPMS) in the northwestern Wind Mountain quadrangle within the Burro Mountains of southwestern New Mexico suggests a possible previously unidentified shear zone, prompting detailed (1:12,000) geologic mapping and collection of structural data. The study area has a complex tectonic history, including 1) ~1.65 Ga metamorphism during accretion of the Mazatzal terrane to Laurentia’s southern margin; 2) ~1.4 Ga intrusion of Granite and Rhyolite Province granitoids; 3) significant uplift during the formation of the Ancestral Rockies (~300 Ma) and the Rocky Mountains (~70-50 Ma); and 4) inversion tectonics with reactivation of compressional faults …


40ar/39ar Ages And Zircon Petrochronology For The Rear Arc Of The Izu-Bonin-Marianas Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone, Graham DM Andrews 2017 West Virginia University

40ar/39ar Ages And Zircon Petrochronology For The Rear Arc Of The Izu-Bonin-Marianas Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone, Graham Dm Andrews

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Long-lived intra-oceanic arcs of Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM)-type are built on thick, granodioritic crust formed in the absence of pre-existing continental crust. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 350, Site U1437, explored the IBM rear arc to better understand continental crust formation in arcs. Detailed petrochronological (U–Pb geochronology combined with trace elements, oxygen and hafnium isotopes) characterizations of zircon from Site U1437 were carried out, taking care to exclude potential contaminants by (1) comparison of zircon ages with ship-board palaeomagnetic and biostratigraphic ages and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, (2) analysing zircon from drill muds for comparison, (3) selectively carrying out in situ analysis in petrographic …


Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, Luciano Uriel González Olivares 2017 Loma Linda University

Conduction Plus Convection Heat Flow Modeling For The Linga Complex, Peruvian Coastal Batholith, Luciano Uriel González Olivares

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Factors affecting the thermal evolution of the Linga magmatic intrusion in the Ica-Pisco area of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith were studied using field work, petrography, geochemistry data, and computer modeling. Field work and petrography involved collecting samples for geochemical analysis and documenting widespread propylitic and potassic hydrothermal alteration. Major element geochemistry was used to estimate rock density, viscosity, liquidus temperature, and water content. The δ18O values of seven fresh samples showed a slightly increasing west-east and old-young trend of approximately 7-8‰, indicating an increasing crustal component. The δ18O and δD values for eleven altered samples indicated that alteration came mostly …


The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley 2017 Utah State University

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the …


Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci 2017 University of New Mexico

Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Martian olivine-phyric basalt Northwest Africa (NWA) 10416 contains large olivine xenocrysts whose cores have been stained brown by hydrothermal alteration and whose rims are composed of pristine olivine overgrowths. Microanalysis of these olivine cores reveals various degrees of amorphization, some of which have been overprinted by terrestrial weathering, evident as part of a weathering rind along the exposed surface of the meteorite. Studies of a completely unweathered terrestrial analogue basalt from southern Colorado reveal similar features and indicate that both basalts were altered in a supersolidus magma chamber setting. The alteration features in NWA 10416 thus imply the presence …


Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, Shannon Porter Rentz 2017 Missouri State University

Geochronology Of Calc-Alkaline Ash Flow Tuff Units In The Ogollon Datil Volcanic Field, Southern New Mexico: U-Pb In Zircon, Shannon Porter Rentz

MSU Graduate Theses

Caldera systems are capable of outputting voluminous quantities of volcaniclastic material with wide ranging negative environmental impacts. Determining the behaviors of previously erupted caldera systems may help inform predictive models used to evaluate hazards and assess risks for analogous currently active volcanic systems. The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF) is a 40-24 Ma cluster of caldera activity in southern New Mexico tied to the subduction, and possible delamination, of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate. A regional ignimbrite flare up from 36-24 Ma produced at least 28 caldera-forming eruptions. The calc-alkaline magmatism of three calderas in this field (the …


Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Emily Elizabeth Salings 2017 Missouri State University

Petrography And Geochemistry Of Oligocene Rhyolitic Volcanic Rocks, Western Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Emily Elizabeth Salings

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the remnant of extreme and punctuated volcanism over ~12 m.y. of activity. The Bursum caldera is the youngest of three nested calderas in the Mogollon Mountains in the western MDVF. Here I present data from a high-silica, large volume tuff associated with the Bursum caldera, the Bloodgood Canyon Tuff (BCT). Extensive mapping by previous workers have provided a limited whole rock geochemical dataset and descriptions of the unit, but a detailed study had not been conducted. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope …


Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow 2017 University of new mexico

Classifying Microseismicty At Mount St. Helens Using A Large-N Array, Margaret E. Glasgow

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

A dense array of ~1,000 continuously recording, short-period geophones was deployed in the summer of 2014 within ~15 km of Mount St. Helens. Two earthquake catalogs created using reverse time imaging and template detection techniques, increase the detection rate and completeness of the earthquake catalog when compared to the permanent network, Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, catalog. An investigation into event type for ~200 of the earthquake detections leads to the discrimination of two major classification groups, volcano-tectonic and long period. Previous to this study, long period earthquakes had not been identified in the upper crust during a volcanically inactive period …


Timing Of Speleogenesis Of Las Karmidas Cave (Mexico): First Description Of Pseudokarst Developed In Ignimbrite, María del Pilar Aliaga-Campuzano, Rafael López-Martínez, Pablo Dávila-Harris, Ramón Espinasa-Pereña, Adriana Espino del Castillo, J.P. Bernal 2017 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Timing Of Speleogenesis Of Las Karmidas Cave (Mexico): First Description Of Pseudokarst Developed In Ignimbrite, María Del Pilar Aliaga-Campuzano, Rafael López-Martínez, Pablo Dávila-Harris, Ramón Espinasa-Pereña, Adriana Espino Del Castillo, J.P. Bernal

International Journal of Speleology

Las Karmidas Cave (Puebla State, Mexico) is an unusual type of pseudokarstic cavity generated by piping and erosive processes within the contact of a diamicton and an overlying Quaternary ignimbrite. Morphological evidence suggests that the cave was developed in two stages: a phreatic stage and a vadose stage. The latter was characterized by the formation of carbonate speleothems. The absolute upper-age limit for the cave (168 +7.1/-7.5 ka) was established by U-Th dating of zircons grains extracted from the overlying ignimbrite, whilst a minimum age for the transition from a phreatic to vadose regime (95.6 ± 2.1 ka) was constrained …


Explosive Processes During The 2015 Eruption Of Axial Seamount, As Recorded By Seafloor Hydrophones, Jacqueline Caplan-Auerbach, R. P. Dziak, J. Haxel, D. R. Bohnenstiehl, C. Garcia 2017 Western Washington University

Explosive Processes During The 2015 Eruption Of Axial Seamount, As Recorded By Seafloor Hydrophones, Jacqueline Caplan-Auerbach, R. P. Dziak, J. Haxel, D. R. Bohnenstiehl, C. Garcia

Geology Faculty Publications

Following the installation of the Ocean Observatories Initiative cabled array, the 2015 eruption of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca ridge, became the first submarine eruption to be captured in real time by seafloor seismic and acoustic instruments. This eruption also marked the first instance where the entire eruption cycle of a submarine volcano, from the previous eruption in 2011 to the end of the month-long 2015 event, was monitored continuously using autonomous ocean bottom hydrophones. Impulsive sounds associated with explosive lava-water interactions are identified within hydrophone records during both eruptions. Explosions within the caldera are acoustically distinguishable from those occurring …


Volcanology - Multidisciplinary Science For A Versatile Campus, Simon Carn 2017 Michigan Technological University

Volcanology - Multidisciplinary Science For A Versatile Campus, Simon Carn

Distinguished Lecture Series

Dr. Simon Carn was nominated by Dr. John Gierke and selected from a highly competitive pool of candidates as the Spring 2017 Distinguished Lecturer. His lecture, Volcanology — Multidisciplinary Science for a Versatile Campus, was presented in April 2017.

Volcanology – the study of volcanoes – is a truly multidisciplinary endeavor that encompasses numerous fields including geology, physics, chemistry, material science and social science. Arguably, Michigan Tech owes its very existence to volcanic activity, which is ultimately responsible for the area’s rich copper deposits and the development of mining in the Keweenaw.


Actively Forming Kuroko-Type Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulfide (Vhms) Mineralization At Iheya North, Okinawa Trough, Japan, Christopher J. Yeats, Steven P. Hollis, Angela Halfpenny, Juan-Carlos Corona, Crystal LaFlamme, Gordon Southam, Marco Fiorentini, Richard J. Herrington, John Spratt 2017 Geological Survey of New South Wales, NSW Department of Industry

Actively Forming Kuroko-Type Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulfide (Vhms) Mineralization At Iheya North, Okinawa Trough, Japan, Christopher J. Yeats, Steven P. Hollis, Angela Halfpenny, Juan-Carlos Corona, Crystal Laflamme, Gordon Southam, Marco Fiorentini, Richard J. Herrington, John Spratt

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

Modern seafloor hydrothermal systems provide important insights into the formation and discovery of ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. In 2010, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 drilled five sites in the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the middle Okinawa Trough back-arc basin, Japan. Hydrothermal alteration and sulfide mineralization is hosted in a geologically complex, mixed sequence of coarse pumiceous volcaniclastic and fine hemipelagic sediments, overlying a dacitic to rhyolitic volcanic substrate. At site C0016, located adjacent to the foot of the actively venting North Big Chimney massive sulfide mound, massive sphalerite-(pyrite-chalcopyrite ± galena)-rich sulfides were intersected (to 30.2% …


Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, Carver Lee 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Volatiles In Subglacially Erupted Basaltic Glasses And Their Use In Reconstructing Paleo-Ice Thicknesses, Carver Lee

Masters Theses

Volatile concentrations in basaltic tuyas, edifices that form during a subglacial eruption and remain once the ice sheet has retreated, have been used to calculate the thickness of the overlying ice sheet at the onset of the eruption (Tuffen, 2010). However, subglacial eruptions are complex events and this technique does not always provide a clear answer (Schopka et al., 2006; Edwards et al., 2009). The purpose of this research is to evaluate this technique and investigate constraints on the quality of data collected by attempting to calculate the minimum ice thickness under which Hlöðufell, a tuya in south-central Iceland, erupted. …


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