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The Role Of Cumulate Plagioclase Entrainment In The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Insights From The Magma Chamber Simulator, Valerie Strasser 2020 Central Washington University

The Role Of Cumulate Plagioclase Entrainment In The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Insights From The Magma Chamber Simulator, Valerie Strasser

All Master's Theses

The Steens Basalt, located in SE Oregon, is the oldest and most mafic member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Because the Steens Basalt contains large (up to 6 cm) and abundant (up to 40%) plagioclase crystals, it is classified as a Giant Plagioclase basalt (GPB). Understanding the origin of these giant plagioclase yields insight into magmatic processes like recharge, crustal assimilation, cumulate entrainment, and fractional crystallization. Because large and abundant plagioclase are found in other flood basalt provinces worldwide, these results could also enhance understanding of magma evolution and storage conditions for GPB worldwide. The Steens basalt is …


Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Quantification Of Surface Roughness Of Lava Flows On Mars, Carolina Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Volcanism has played a significant role throughout Mars’ geologic history. Extensive lava flows are widely spread across Mars’ equatorial region, shaping the surface in a very distinct way. In radar images (at the decimeter scale), these flows are bright, which is a typical characteristic of extremely rough, blocky lavas flows seen on Earth. Although the source of the extreme roughness of Martian lava flows is unknown, their surface roughness parameters can be constrained to 1) gain information about Mars’ interior processes, 2) find appropriate analogues on other planetary bodies, and 3) ideally infer the emplacement style of such lavas. Here, …


Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Petrogenesis Of Basaltic Lavas In Iceland And The Springerville Volcanic Field, U.S.A.: The Influence Of Tectonic Setting, Depth Of Melting And Volatiles, Marissa Mnich

Doctoral Dissertations

Icelandic basalts were long thought to be low in water (e.g. Gunnarsson et al., 1998), but more recent studies suggest that hotspots, like the Iceland mantle plume, may be a source of hydrous basaltic melts (Nichols et al., 2002). To explore a possible link between location, volatile concentration and resulting petrogenetic implications, samples were collected from eleven volcanic centers throughout Iceland. Water concentrations were measured in melt inclusions and phenocrysts using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results for a subset of samples indicate variable water in melt inclusions ranging from approximately 50 ppm to over 3000 ppm. Samples from southwestern …


Deep Open Storage And Shallow Closed Transport System For A Continental Flood Basalt Sequence Revealed With Magma Chamber Simulator, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Wendy A. Bohrson 2019 University of Helsinki

Deep Open Storage And Shallow Closed Transport System For A Continental Flood Basalt Sequence Revealed With Magma Chamber Simulator, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Wendy A. Bohrson

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

The Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS) quantitatively models the phase equilibria, mineral chemistry, major and trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in a multicomponent–multiphase magma + wallrock + recharge system by minimization or maximization of the appropriate thermodynamic potential for the given process. In this study, we utilize MCS to decipher the differentiation history of a continental flood basalt sequence from the Antarctic portion of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province. Typical of many flood basalts, this suite exhibits geochemical evidence (e.g., negative initial εNd) of interaction with crustal materials. We show that isobaric assimilation-fractional crystallization models fail to …


Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman 2019 Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Remote Characterization Of Dominant Wavelengths From Surface Folding On Lava Flows Using Lidar And Discrete Fourier Transform Analyses, Nicholas Deardorff, Adam M. Booth, Katharine Cashman

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Surface folding is common in lava flows of all compositions and is believed to be due to changes in viscosity and flow velocity between the cooling crust and the more fluid flow interior. However, our understanding of the relationship between surface folding and flow rheology is incomplete. In this study we analyze digital terrain models of eight lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to rhyolite using a discrete Fourier transform analysis to quantitatively determine dominant surface fold wavelengths. Our discrete Fourier transform analyses show that each lava flow has multiple fold generations and that dominant wavelengths are more …


Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock 2019 Boise State University

Synthesizing Field And Experimental Techniques To Investigate The Enigmatic Processes Occurring At The Base Of Pyroclastic Currents, Nicholas M. Pollock

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Pyroclastic currents are the deadliest hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions. These gravity-driven currents consist of volcanic gases and solid particles that range in size from fine ash to boulders. The dangers associated with pyroclastic currents stem from their unpredictability and ability to travel extremely long distances, sometimes in excess of 100 km. To mitigate the risk to populations and infrastructure, we must understand the processes that control the runout distance of pyroclastic currents. The runout distance depends on the complex interplay of processes related to sediment transport, erosion, and deposition. Historically, studies focused on understanding sediment transport and deposition, …


Evaluation Of Pre-Eruptive Conditions For Cordon Caulle Rhyo-Dacitic Historic Eruptions, Mauro Andres Mingo 2019 Florida International University

Evaluation Of Pre-Eruptive Conditions For Cordon Caulle Rhyo-Dacitic Historic Eruptions, Mauro Andres Mingo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For better understanding of Plinian-hybrid eruptive events, I analyzed the variables that affect the pre-eruptive conditions of the latest three eruptive events of the Puyehue Cordon Caulle Volcanic Complex (PCCVC). The analysis was done by performing a petrological study of lava samples followed by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) on selected mineral phases. Mineral data were then used in established mathematical models to calculate pre-eruptive magma temperature and water content. The acquired data are compared to bulk measured water content, and the difference is utilized to estimate viscosities and evaluate the degassing regime. Results indicate that the historic eruptive events have …


Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Geochemical Analysis Of The Chinchín Formation In Southern Ecuador, Katherine Ludwig

Celebration of Learning

The subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate has led to the uplift of the majority of the Andes Mountains, but in Ecuador, the Nazca Plate subducts underneath the North Andes Plate, which then collides with the South American Plate. This tectonic setting has formed two parallel mountain chains as well as a complex series of basins between them. However, the formations that make up these basins are poorly understood. This study focuses on the Chinchín Formation, an ~3.5 km thick, volcanic formation that serves as the bedrock of the Quingeo Basin in southern Ecuador. This study …


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd 2019 Missouri State University

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the result of episodic volcanism and the transition between arc and rift magmatism. The MDVF has been the focus of several mapping, stratigraphic, petrologic, geochronological, and geochemical studies to understand the complete volcanic and tectonic history. However, the majority of previous studies lack geochemical analyses on intermediate composition volcanic rocks, giving more attention to the large-volume ignimbrites and rhyolite flows as well as the minor basalt flows that occurred between 36 and 20 Ma. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses and petrographic textures on one of the …


Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson 2019 Boise State University

Petrogenesis Of Off-Axis Lavas Erupted Along The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Molly Kassandra Anderson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Lavas erupted at off-axis seamounts provide a window into mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics that are not easily observed on-axis at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This is because axial melts are efficiently mixed and homogenized within shallow axial magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of off-axis seamounts, adjacent to the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Essential questions include: (1) What is the range of compositional variability erupted off-axis and how does that compare to lavas erupted on-axis? (2) Is there …


A Systematic Assessment Of Socio-Economic Impacts Of Prolonged Episodic Volcano Crises, Justin Peers 2019 East Tennessee State University

A Systematic Assessment Of Socio-Economic Impacts Of Prolonged Episodic Volcano Crises, Justin Peers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Uncertainty surrounding volcanic activity can lead to socio-economic crises with or without an eruption as demonstrated by the post-1978 response to unrest of Long Valley Caldera (LVC), CA. Extensive research in physical sciences provides a foundation on which to assess direct impacts of hazards, but fewer resources have been dedicated towards understanding human responses to volcanic risk. To evaluate natural hazard risk issues at LVC, a multi-hazard, mail-based, household survey was conducted to compare perceptions of volcanic, seismic, and wildfire hazards. Impacts of volcanic activity on housing prices and businesses were examined at the county-level for three volcanoes with a …


Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets 2019 University of Basilicata

Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this work, we assessed the possible relation of ionospheric perturbations observed by Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER), Global Positioning System total electron content (GPS TEC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-derived outgoing longwave-Earth radiation (OLR), and atmospheric chemical potential (ACP) measurements, with volcanic and Saharan dust events identified by ground and satellite-based medium infrared/thermal infrared (MIR/TIR) observations. The results indicated that the Mt. Etna (Italy) volcanic activity of 2006 was probably responsible for the ionospheric perturbations revealed by DEMETER on 4 November and 6 December and by GPS TEC observations on 4 November and 12 …


There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone 2019 SIT Study Abroad

There She Blows: Public Perceptions Of Mt. Merapi And Mt. Agung, Trey Atticus Spadone

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Since Indonesia sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the archipelago is repeatedly affected by tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Indonesia has the most active volcanoes of any country in the world due to subduction zones between the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates. The last major eruptions were in 2017 (Mt. Agung in Bali) and 2010 (Mt. Merapi in Central Java) which both required thousands of people to be evacuated from their homes. Since volcanoes have such a geological presence in the country, I was interested in investigating how aware the public is of volcanoes and their associated risks. Where …


Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski 2019 Purdue University

Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


Volcanic Glass As A Proxy For Cenozoic Elevation And Climate In The Cascade Mountains, Oregon, Usa, John Bershaw, Elizabeth J. Cassell, Tessa Boe Carlson, Ashley R. Streig, Martin J. Streck 2019 Portland State University

Volcanic Glass As A Proxy For Cenozoic Elevation And Climate In The Cascade Mountains, Oregon, Usa, John Bershaw, Elizabeth J. Cassell, Tessa Boe Carlson, Ashley R. Streig, Martin J. Streck

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

After deposition, volcanic glass hydrates with ambient water, recording the average hydrogen isotope ratio (δD or δ2H) of local meteoric water during the hydration period. Previous researchers have used ancient glass δD values to reconstruct paleotopography and paleoclimate, while others have questioned the long-term reliability of the proxy as a recorder of ancient meteoric water. In this study, we sampled volcanic glasses ranging in age ~33 Ma to(east) side of the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Our results strongly suggest that volcanic glass acquires and preserves δD values that are proportional to the stable isotopic composition of environmental water at the time …


Globally Detected Volcanic Lightning And Umbrella Dynamics During The 2014 Eruption Of Kelud, Indonesia, Kirstin A. Hargie, Alexa R. Van Eaton, L. G. Mastin, Robert H. Holzworth, John W. Ewert, Michael Pavolonis 2019 Portland State University

Globally Detected Volcanic Lightning And Umbrella Dynamics During The 2014 Eruption Of Kelud, Indonesia, Kirstin A. Hargie, Alexa R. Van Eaton, L. G. Mastin, Robert H. Holzworth, John W. Ewert, Michael Pavolonis

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Volcanic lightning shows considerable promise as a monitoring and research tool to characterize explosive eruptions. Its key strengths are rapid and remote detection, because the radio signals produced by lightning can propagate thousands of km at the speed of light. Despite these tantalizing properties, the scientific work on volcanic lightning has only recently started gaining momentum. Much more is needed to understand what lightning reveals about the evolution of an eruption in near-real time. Here we examine the timing and energy release of lightning generated by the eruption of Kelud volcano in Indonesia on 13 February 2014, as detected by …


Magnetic Exploration Of The Crescent Formation, Washington: The Search For A Hidden Fault Near Dusk Point, Samuel G. Furmanski 2019 University of Puget Sound

Magnetic Exploration Of The Crescent Formation, Washington: The Search For A Hidden Fault Near Dusk Point, Samuel G. Furmanski

Summer Research

The mafic rocks of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, are part of an accreted terrane known as Siletzia which experienced transpressional stresses as far as 50 Ma ago in the early Eocene. The Peninsula has an accretion-thrust marine sedimentary interior and a mafic volcanic periphery juxtaposed along the Hurricane Ridge fault; a terrane-scale thrust fault. The mafic Crescent Formation (CF) can be subdivided into two units: The Lower Crescent member (LC) and the Upper Crescent member (UC) as defined by Tabor and Cady (1978). The LC consists of submarine basalt flows that have composition similar to mid-oceanic ridges with zircon fission-track …


Petrology Of The Eocene Goble Volcanics, Southwest Washington: An Early Phase Of The Cascade Arc, Clara Phipps, Jeffrey H. Tepper 2019 University of Puget Sound

Petrology Of The Eocene Goble Volcanics, Southwest Washington: An Early Phase Of The Cascade Arc, Clara Phipps, Jeffrey H. Tepper

Summer Research

The Eocene Goble Volcanics (GV), comprised of >1000 km2 of subaerial lavas and tuffs, are one of the most voluminous igneous formations in SW WA. Whole rock K-Ar ages of 45 to 32 Ma (Beck and Burr, 1979) suggest these rocks are an early expression of the Cascade arc, but their location is anomalous, lying between oceanic Crescent Fm basalts of the Siltezia terrane to the west and younger arc rocks to the east. The goals of this research are to determine the chemical and Sr-Nd isotopic traits of the GV and better establish the tectonic setting in which …


Investigating Cascade Magmatism Through Dating And Chemical Analysis Of The Hatchet Mountain And Pe Ell Formations, Sw Wa, Robyn Organ, Jeffery Tepper, Wesely Von Dassow, Tabor Reedy 2019 University of Puget Sound

Investigating Cascade Magmatism Through Dating And Chemical Analysis Of The Hatchet Mountain And Pe Ell Formations, Sw Wa, Robyn Organ, Jeffery Tepper, Wesely Von Dassow, Tabor Reedy

Summer Research

Modern Cascade arc magmatism began ~45 Ma, shortly after accretion of the Siletzia terrane culminated at ~50 Ma. The earliest expressions of this magmatism are several petrologically-diverse volcanic units in SW Washington including: (1) the Goble Volcanics (GV) / Hatchet Mountain Formation (HM), (2) the Pe Ell Formation (PE), and (3) scattered exposures of unnamed basalts (UB). These rocks, all dominantly subaerial lavas, occur west of the modern arc where they are interbedded with marine and deltaic sedimentary units, suggesting eruption in a forearc or volcanic front setting. Goals of this study are: (1) to characterize the elemental and Sr-Nd …


Seismic Signals And Sources At Fuego Volcano, Guatemala During January 2012, Kyle Brill 2019 Michigan Technological University

Seismic Signals And Sources At Fuego Volcano, Guatemala During January 2012, Kyle Brill

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Forecasting volcanic activity is challenging. The task is uniquely difficult at open vent volcanoes which present persistent low-level eruptions over long periods of time. Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala began its current eruptive episode in 1999. Fuego exhibited “background” levels of activity during January of 2012 when we installed a temporary monitoring network to produce a detailed baseline description of the volcano’s behavior. We accomplish this using data from two low-frequency microphone arrays, nine broadband (50 Hz to 30 second flat response) seismic stations, and visual time-lapse imagery collected over a period of ten days. We begin with a detailed …


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