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Field-Trip Guide To Mafic Volcanism Of The Cascade Range In Central Oregon— A Volcanic, Tectonic, Hydrologic, And Geomorphic Journey, Natalia I. Deligne, Daniele Mckay, Richard M. Conrey, Gordon E. Grant, Emily R. Johnson, Jim O'Connor, Kristin Sweeney 2017 University of Portland

Field-Trip Guide To Mafic Volcanism Of The Cascade Range In Central Oregon— A Volcanic, Tectonic, Hydrologic, And Geomorphic Journey, Natalia I. Deligne, Daniele Mckay, Richard M. Conrey, Gordon E. Grant, Emily R. Johnson, Jim O'Connor, Kristin Sweeney

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by …


The Oligocene West Elk Breccia: Evidence For Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanches In The Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, U.S.A., Patrick J. Whalen 2017 University of Kentucky

The Oligocene West Elk Breccia: Evidence For Massive Volcanic Debris Avalanches In The Eastern Gunnison River Valley, West-Central Colorado, U.S.A., Patrick J. Whalen

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The West Elk Breccia has been studied since the late 1800’s with many interpretations regarding its origin. One unrecognized possibility is that parts of it are debris-avalanche deposits. This study has recognized evidence for this interpretation at three scales: volcano scale, outcrop scale, and intra-outcrop scale. At the volcano scale, a scarp in the old volcano reveals underlying Mesozoic bedrock, suggesting sector collapse. At the outcrop scale, megablocks of the original edifice, up to hundreds of meters in length, have atypical orientations and are surrounded by a gravel matrix. At the intra-outcrop scale, jigsaw-fit fracturing and rip-up clasts are common …


G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall 2017 Bard College

G:, Taylor Lafe Cantrall

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland 2016 Portland State University

Investigation Of Jet Dynamics In Cross-Flow: Quantifying Volcanic Plume Behavior, Graham Freedland

Dissertations and Theses

Volcanic eruption columns inject high concentrations of ash into the atmosphere. Some of this ash is carried downwind forming ash clouds in the atmosphere that are hazardous for private and commercial aviation. Current models rely on inputs such as plume height, duration, eruption rate, and meteorological wind fields. Eruption rate is estimated from plume height using relations that depend on the rate of air entrainment into the plume, which is not well quantified. A wind tunnel experiment has been designed to investigate these models by injecting a vertical air jet into a cross-flow. The ratio of the cross-flow and jet …


Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes 2016 Murray State University

Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes

Scholars Week

Because of the dangerous nature of volcanic eruptions, it makes them very difficult to study, however this makes them even more important for us to study because of how much destruction they can cause in such a short amount of time. We need to study all parts of an eruption to gain more insight into the specifics of how a volcano works. Having a better understanding of how large of an area is effected by an eruption will allow governments to decide on evacuation procedures. The goal of my project is to answer a very simple question, “How can we …


Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch 2016 University of New Mexico

Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system has evolved dramatically over the last 8 Ma, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, volcanic damming, and carving and refilling of paleocanyons. Volcanism concurrent with the development of the river system provides a unique opportunity to apply multiple geochronometers to the study of its incision and drainage evolution. This paper reports 19 new 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages and 19 detrital mineral samples (zircon and sanidine) collected from RG-RC alluvium overlain by dated basalt flows in the context of a compilation of published 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages. The …


Silicic Volcanism At The Northern And Western Extent Of The Columbia River Basalt Rhyolite Flare-Up: Rhyolites Of Buchanan Volcanic Complex And Dooley Mountain Volcanic Complex, Oregon, Adam M. Large 2016 Portland State University

Silicic Volcanism At The Northern And Western Extent Of The Columbia River Basalt Rhyolite Flare-Up: Rhyolites Of Buchanan Volcanic Complex And Dooley Mountain Volcanic Complex, Oregon, Adam M. Large

Dissertations and Theses

Two mid-Miocene (16.5-15 Ma) rhyolite volcanic centers in eastern Oregon, the Buchanan rhyolite complex and Dooley Mountain rhyolite complex, were investigated to characterize eruptive units through field and laboratory analysis. Results of petrographic and geochemical analysis add to field observations to differentiate and discriminate the eruptive units. Additionally, new geochemical data are used to correlate stratigraphically younger and older basalt and ash-flow tuff units with regional eruptive units to constrain the eruptive periods with modern Ar-Ar age dates.

Previous work at the Buchanan rhyolite complex was limited to regional mapping (Piper et al., 1939; Greene et al., 1972) and brief …


Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo 2016 Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology

Tube Coalescence In The Jingfudong Lava Tube And Implications For Lava Flow Hazard Of Tengchong Volcanism, Zhengquan Chen, Yongshun Liu, Haiquan Wei, Jiandong Xu, Wenfeng Guo

International Journal of Speleology

Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence and bifurcation process are re-constructed by interpretation of tube floor continuity, the distribution of remnant tubes and the scales of lava tube branches (shapes of …


Living In Lahar Zones: Assessing Hazard Exposure, Risk Perception, And Preparedness Behaviors In Communities Within The Mount Baker And Glacier Peak Volcanic Hazard Zones, Kimberley Anne Corwin 2016 Boise State University

Living In Lahar Zones: Assessing Hazard Exposure, Risk Perception, And Preparedness Behaviors In Communities Within The Mount Baker And Glacier Peak Volcanic Hazard Zones, Kimberley Anne Corwin

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest grows, more detailed studies of community hazard exposure, risk perception, and preparedness levels become critical to developing effective mitigation, response, and recovery plans. This thesis uses risk mapping and a knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness survey to examine the risk that lahars from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes pose to nearby communities in the Skagit Valley (WA). The risk map component of this research identifies spatial variations in lahar risk and estimates potential losses associated with a maximum envisioned lahar. The survey component …


Transitions Between Explosive And Effusive Phases During The Cataclysmic 2010 Eruption Of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, Katie Preece, Ralf Gertisser, Jenni Barclay, Sylvain J. Charbonnier, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Richard A. Herd 2016 University of East Anglia

Transitions Between Explosive And Effusive Phases During The Cataclysmic 2010 Eruption Of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, Katie Preece, Ralf Gertisser, Jenni Barclay, Sylvain J. Charbonnier, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Richard A. Herd

School of Geosciences Faculty and Staff Publications

Transitions between explosive and effusive activity are commonly observed during dome-forming eruptions and may be linked to factors such as magma influx, ascent rate and degassing. However, the interplay between these factors is complex and the resulting eruptive behaviour often unpredictable. This paper focuses on the driving forces behind the explosive and effusive activity during the well-documented 2010 eruption of Merapi, the volcano’s largest eruption since 1872. Time-controlled samples were collected from the 2010 deposits, linked to eruption stage and style of activity. These include scoria and pumice from the initial explosions, dense and scoriaceous dome samples formed via effusive …


Iceland: Extreme Learning In The Land Of Fire And Ice, Jason Polk, Leslie North 2016 Western Kentucky University Hoffman Institute

Iceland: Extreme Learning In The Land Of Fire And Ice, Jason Polk, Leslie North

Leslie North

WKU Libraries kicked off the spring season of "Far Away Places" with Dr. Jason Polk and Dr. Leslie North, Asstant Professors from the Department of Geography and Geology at WKU, who talked about leading a study abroad group to Iceland in the summer of 2015. WKU Libraries kicks off the spring season of Far Away Places with Jason Polk and Leslie North, Asst. Professors from the Department of Geography and Geology at WKU, who will be talking about leading a study abroad group to Iceland in the summer of 2015. Dr. Polk and Dr. North co-taught this course with faculty …


Field Geology And Petrologic Investigation Of The Strawberry Volcanics, Northeast Oregon, Arron Richard Steiner 2016 Portland State University

Field Geology And Petrologic Investigation Of The Strawberry Volcanics, Northeast Oregon, Arron Richard Steiner

Dissertations and Theses

The Strawberry Volcanics of Northeast Oregon are a group of geochemically related lavas with a diverse chemical range (basalt to rhyolite) that erupted between 16.2 and 12.5 Ma and co-erupted with the large, (~200,000 km3) Middle Miocene tholeiitic lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), which erupted near and geographically surround the Strawberry Volcanics. The rhyolitic lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics produced the oldest 40Ar/39Ar ages measured in this study with ages ranging from 16.2 Ma to 14.6 Ma, and have an estimated total erupted volume of 100 km3. The mafic and intermediate lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics include …


Evolution Of A Flood Basalt Crustal Magmatic System: In Situ Mineral Data And Computational Modeling Of The Steens Basalt, Megan Graubard 2016 Central Washington University

Evolution Of A Flood Basalt Crustal Magmatic System: In Situ Mineral Data And Computational Modeling Of The Steens Basalt, Megan Graubard

All Master's Theses

Flood basalts are gigantic basaltic eruptions that modify the mass of the crust via intrusion of mantle-derived magma, and change its composition through interaction between magma and crust. The Steens Basalt, located in southeast Oregon, erupted approximately 16.8 million years ago, and is the oldest member of the Columbia River Basalt Group, the youngest and best-exposed flood basalt province on Earth. The Steens Basalt has an eruption volume of approximately 31,800 km3 and the duration of eruption is estimated to be between ~50,000 and 300,000 years. Major- and trace element whole rock data from 111 stratigraphically controlled samples from …


Documenting Mantle And Crustal Contributions To Flood Basalt Magmatism Via Computational Modeling Of The Steens Basalt, Southeast Oregon, Sylvana J. Bendaña 2016 Central Washington University

Documenting Mantle And Crustal Contributions To Flood Basalt Magmatism Via Computational Modeling Of The Steens Basalt, Southeast Oregon, Sylvana J. Bendaña

All Master's Theses

Flood basalts are enormous volcanic events with volumes of volcanic cover and intrusive equivalents that are affected by and significantly affect the crust. Steens Basalt represents 31,800 km3 of flood basalt lavas that erupted in eastern Oregon ~16.8 Ma in less than 300,000 years. Analytical data of flows from a 1 km vertical exposure at Steens Mtn. documents time-transgressive changes in composition of two geochemically distinct units: (1) lower Steens, MgO-rich lavas with lower incompatible trace element concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr, and (2) upper Steens, MgO-poor, with higher incompatible trace element concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr. …


Geochemical And Petrological Characterization Of The Back Forty Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit, Anthony Robert Boxleiter 2015 Western Michigan University

Geochemical And Petrological Characterization Of The Back Forty Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit, Anthony Robert Boxleiter

Masters Theses

The Back Forty Zn-Au deposit is the eastern-most Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposit in the Penokean Volcanic Belt (PVB). It is the only VMS deposit found in Michigan, and is located along the east side of the Menominee River in Menominee County (45°26'57.5"N, 87°49'43.2"W). The Back Forty is the most zinc-enriched, copper depleted deposit among the major VMS deposits within the PVB that include Flambeau, Crandon, Bend, and Lynne. This work constitutes the first sulfur isotope study on the Back Forty VMS deposit.

The Back Forty is characterized by massive, semi-massive, disseminated and stringer sulfide mineralization hosted within felsic-dominated volcanic …


Tracking And Characterization Of Moving Acoustic Sources Using An Infrasound Array At Volcán Santiaguito, Guatemala, Brian R. Terbush 2015 Boise State University

Tracking And Characterization Of Moving Acoustic Sources Using An Infrasound Array At Volcán Santiaguito, Guatemala, Brian R. Terbush

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Active volcanic processes produce large amounts of acoustic energy within the infrasound band (0-20 Hz). Infrasound-sensitive microphones are often installed in addition to other forms of volcano monitoring equipment to increase the ability to remotely detect volcanic activity. In this study, an array of microphones was deployed without any additional sensor types for 36 hours at Santiaguito, Guatemala, to test the detection capabilities of a standalone microphone array. Array processing was applied to the recorded data, through frequency-domain beamforming and calculating a Fisher statistic (F). A changing F-threshold value was applied to differentiate between desired detections, or …


Expedition 350 Summary, Y. Tamura, C. J. Busby, P. Blum, G. Guèrin, G. D.M. Andrews, A. K. Barker, J. L.R. Berger, E. M. Bongiolo, M. Bordiga, Susan M. DeBari, J. B. Gill, C. Hamelin, J. Jia, E. H. John, A.-S. Jonas, J. Jutzeler, M A.C. Kars, Z. A. Kita, K. Konrad, S. H. Mahony, M. Martini, T. Myiazaki, R. J. Musgrave, D. B. Nascimento, A. R.L. Nichols, J. M. Ribeiro, T. Sato, J. C. Schindlbeck, A. K. Schmitt, S. M. Straub, M. J. Vautravers, Y. Yang 2015 Western Washington University

Expedition 350 Summary, Y. Tamura, C. J. Busby, P. Blum, G. Guèrin, G. D.M. Andrews, A. K. Barker, J. L.R. Berger, E. M. Bongiolo, M. Bordiga, Susan M. Debari, J. B. Gill, C. Hamelin, J. Jia, E. H. John, A.-S. Jonas, J. Jutzeler, M A.C. Kars, Z. A. Kita, K. Konrad, S. H. Mahony, M. Martini, T. Myiazaki, R. J. Musgrave, D. B. Nascimento, A. R.L. Nichols, J. M. Ribeiro, T. Sato, J. C. Schindlbeck, A. K. Schmitt, S. M. Straub, M. J. Vautravers, Y. Yang

Geology Faculty Publications

International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Hole U1436A (proposed Site IBM-4GT) lies in the western part of the Izu fore-arc basin, ~60 km east of the arc-front volcano Aogashima, ~170 km west of the axis of the Izu-Bonin Trench, and 1.5 km west of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 792, at 1776 meters below sea level (mbsl). It was drilled as a 150 m deep geotechnical test hole for potential future deep drilling (5500 meters below seafloor [mbsf]) at proposed Site IBM-4 using the D/V Chikyu. Core from Site U1436 yielded a rich record of Late Pleistocene explosive volcanism, including …


Expedition 350 Methods, Y. Tamura, C. J. Busby, P. Blum, G. Guèrin, G. D.M. Andrews, A. K. Barker, J. L. R. Berger, E. M. Bongiolo, M. Bordiga, Susan M. DeBari, J. B. Gill, C. Hamelin, J. Jia, E. H. John, A. -S. Jonas, M. Jutzeler, M. A.C. Kars, Z. A. Kita, K. Konrad, S. H. Mahoney, M. Martini, T. Miyazaki, R. J. Musgrave, D. B. Nascimento, A. R.L. Nichols, J. M. Ribeiro, T. Sato, J. C. Schindlbeck, A. K. Schmitt, S. M. Straub, M. J. Vautravers, Y. Yang 2015 Western Washington University

Expedition 350 Methods, Y. Tamura, C. J. Busby, P. Blum, G. Guèrin, G. D.M. Andrews, A. K. Barker, J. L. R. Berger, E. M. Bongiolo, M. Bordiga, Susan M. Debari, J. B. Gill, C. Hamelin, J. Jia, E. H. John, A. -S. Jonas, M. Jutzeler, M. A.C. Kars, Z. A. Kita, K. Konrad, S. H. Mahoney, M. Martini, T. Miyazaki, R. J. Musgrave, D. B. Nascimento, A. R.L. Nichols, J. M. Ribeiro, T. Sato, J. C. Schindlbeck, A. K. Schmitt, S. M. Straub, M. J. Vautravers, Y. Yang

Geology Faculty Publications

This chapter of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 350 Proceedings volume documents the procedures and tools employed in the various shipboard laboratories of the R/V JOIDES Resolution during Expedition 350. This information applies only to shipboard work described in the Expedition Reports section of this volume. Methods for shore-based analyses of Expedition 350 samples and data will be described in the individual scientific contributions to be published in the open literature or in the Expedition Research Results section of this volume.

This section describes procedures and equipment used for drilling, coring, and hole completion; core handling; computation of …


Where Were You When The Mountain Blew? Remembering The Eruption Of Mount St Helens, Brittany Brand 2015 Boise State University

Where Were You When The Mountain Blew? Remembering The Eruption Of Mount St Helens, Brittany Brand

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

May 18, 1980. On that fateful day, Mt St Helens Volcano in Washington exploded violently after two months of intense earthquake activity and intermittent, relatively weak eruptions, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. – US Geological Survey Special Report

Without checking your calendar, can you remember where you were on at 8:30 am April 24, 2015? Some of you might, but more will likely have to think hard to remember. In contrast, if you ask someone who lived in the Pacific Northwest 35 years ago where they were at 8:32 am on May …


Interpretation Of Late Cretaceous Volcanic Mounds And Surrounding Gulfian Series Formations Using 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Laura Claire Bennett 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpretation Of Late Cretaceous Volcanic Mounds And Surrounding Gulfian Series Formations Using 3d Seismic Data In Zavala County, Texas, Laura Claire Bennett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Late Cretaceous Gulfian series is a prominent and important series across the State of Texas that has been extensively studied since the nineteenth century. It is composed of series of southeast-dipping shelf carbonates and clastics deposited on the northwest margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. In south Texas, the Gulfian series was deposited in the Rio Grande Embayment and Maverick Basin and is comprised of the Eagle Ford Group, Austin Group, Anacacho Limestone, San Miguel Formation, Olmos Formation, and Escondido Formation that crop out and continue basinward in the subsurface. Late Cretaceous volcanism formed volcanic mounds composed of …


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