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Rhyolite Stratigraphy Along Succor Creek: Insights Into The Eruptive History Of The Three Fingers And Mahogany Mountain Volcanic Field, Cassandra Caryl Black 2021 Portland State University

Rhyolite Stratigraphy Along Succor Creek: Insights Into The Eruptive History Of The Three Fingers And Mahogany Mountain Volcanic Field, Cassandra Caryl Black

Dissertations and Theses

The Mahogany Mountain and Three Fingers calderas with their associated tuffs, the tuff of Leslie Gulch and tuff of Spring Creek, respectively, were the centerpiece of a larger rhyolite center that developed in response to Columbia River Basalt volcanism as numerous other mid Miocene rhyolite centers in a corridor from Baker City in the north to northern Nevada. Previous studies suggest a two caldera model, while others advocated for a single large caldera producing solely the tuff of Leslie Gulch. This study refines the eruptive stratigraphy along the northeastern margin of this rhyolite field with important implications for the entire …


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are …


Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid

Masters Theses

Venus’ surface and interior dynamics remain largely unconstrained, due in great part to the major obstacles imposed by its 470°C, 90 bars surface conditions and its thick, opaque atmosphere. Orbiter-based thermal emission data provide an opportunity to characterize the Venus surface. However, interpretations of such spectra critically depend on understanding interactions between the planet’s surface basaltic rocks and its caustic, SO2-bearing CO2 atmosphere. Several studies, using remote sensing, thermodynamic modeling, and laboratory experiments have placed constraints on alteration mineralogies and rates. Yet constraint with respect to SO2-mediated reactions with basalts of contrasting compositions remains incomplete. …


Simplified Volcano Hazard Maps: Two Groups User-Experience (Ux) Study Results, Rachel Volentine 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Simplified Volcano Hazard Maps: Two Groups User-Experience (Ux) Study Results, Rachel Volentine

User eXperience Lab

The purpose of this research is to identify any usability issues and opportunities to improve the design for superb communication of volcanic hazards and risks. From this research, insights into the intuitiveness and risk-communication deficiencies of these hazard maps will help create a new methodology for evaluation map-based communication products implemented by USGS and its partners/stakeholders, Risk COP members, and practitioners around the world to alleviate volcanic risk and hazards.


Simplified Volcano Hazard Maps User-Experience (Ux) Study Results, Rachel Volentine 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Simplified Volcano Hazard Maps User-Experience (Ux) Study Results, Rachel Volentine

User eXperience Lab

The purpose of this research is to identify any usability issues and opportunities to improve the design for superb communication of volcanic hazards and risks. From this research, insights into the intuitiveness and risk-communication deficiencies of these hazard maps will help create a new methodology for evaluation map-based communication products implemented by USGS and its partners/stakeholders, Risk COP members, and practitioners around the world to alleviate volcanic risk and hazards.


Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie McDermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews 2021 Southern Utah University

Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie Mcdermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Volcán Masaya in Nicaragua is made of a series of calderas and craters that lies 7 km from the city of Masaya with a population of over 100,000. Masaya is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) which contains hundreds of volcanoes. While many of the volcanoes of the arc produce small, quiescent eruptions, some are capable of large explosive events. The recent cycle of volcanism at Masaya began 7000 years ago. Initial eruptions were primarily lava, small ash flows, ashfalls, and degassing events which eventually gave way to climactic Vulcanian eruptions. The hazards presented from this system affect …


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the …


Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi

Earth Systems Research Center

Shape is an important indicator of the physical and chemical behavior of natural and engineered particulate materials (e.g., sediment, sand, rock, volcanic ash). It directly or indirectly affects numerous microscopic and macroscopic geologic, environmental and engineering processes. Due to the complex, highly irregular shapes found in particulate materials, there is a perennial need for quantitative shape descriptions. We developed a new characterization method (shape curve analysis) and a new quantitative measure (compactness, not the topological mathematical definition) by applying a fundamental principle that the geometric anisotropy of an object is a unique signature of its internal spatial distribution …


Characterizing The Geomagnetic Field At High Southern Latitudes: Evidence From The Antarctic Peninsula, Joseph Biasi, Joseph Kirschvink, Roger Fu 2021 Dartmouth College

Characterizing The Geomagnetic Field At High Southern Latitudes: Evidence From The Antarctic Peninsula, Joseph Biasi, Joseph Kirschvink, Roger Fu

Other Staff Materials

Due to a dearth of data from high-latitude paleomagnetic sites, it is not currently clear if the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis accurately describes the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field at high latitudes. Here we present new paleomagnetic and paleointensity data from the James Ross Island (JRI) volcanic group, located on the Antarctic Peninsula. This data set addresses a notable lack of data from the 60°–70°S latitude bin and includes 251 samples from 31 sites, spanning 0.99–6.8 Ma in age. We also include positive fold, conglomerate, and baked contact tests. Paleointensity data from three methods (Thellier- Thellier, pseudo-Thellier, and …


Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus 2021 West Virginia University

Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traditional methods of collecting quantitative petrographic data from thin sections (modal mineralogy, size distribution, shapes, etc.) are time- and labor-intensive, and rarely have sample sizes adequate to statistically describe complex rocks (i.e. volcanic rocks). Although manual counting and measurements are now routinely supplemented by digital image analysis, the majority of quantitative petrographic studies still go through a manual digitization stage where object classes are traced before further analyses. This is a major rate-limiting step that reproduces the same problems of small n-values resulting from significant effort. We have valuated the potential and limitations of using the Trainable Weka Segmentation (TWS) …


Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño 2021 Michigan Technological University

Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

We present high-quality focal mechanisms and stress inversions based on a refined earthquake location catalog for the Yellowstone Plateau. The relocation process is based on non-linear search techniques that use three-dimensional velocity models. The original catalog contained 18,940 events between January 2010 and March 2021 and was obtained from the University of Utah Seismograph Stations. We successfully relocate 7735 earthquakes and use this information to calculate the focal mechanisms by using two approaches. First, we only consider the P-wave first motion polarities and use the HASH program. For the second approach, we include the S-wave/P-wave amplitude ratios and evaluate if …


Volcan De Fuego: A Machine Learning Approach In Understanding The Eruptive Cycles Using Precursory Tilt Signals, Kay Sivaraj 2021 Michigan Technological University

Volcan De Fuego: A Machine Learning Approach In Understanding The Eruptive Cycles Using Precursory Tilt Signals, Kay Sivaraj

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Volcan de Fuego is an active stratovolcano located in the Central Guatemalan segment of the 1100 m long Central America Volcanic Arc System (CAVAS). Fuego-Acatenango massif consists of at least four major vents of which the Fuego summit vent is the most active and the youngest member. The volcano exhibits primarily Strombolian and Vulcanian behavior along with occasional paroxysms and pyroclastic flows. Historically, Fuego has produced basaltic-andesitic rocks with more recent eruptions progressively trending towards maficity. Several studies have used short-term deployments of broadband seismometers, infrasound, and long-term remote sensing techniques to characterize the mechanism of Fuego. In our study, …


Origin And Distribution Of Diffuse Soil Co2 Gas Emissions Across Turrialba And Irazú Volcanoes, Costa Rica, Katie Nelson 2021 Michigan Technological University

Origin And Distribution Of Diffuse Soil Co2 Gas Emissions Across Turrialba And Irazú Volcanoes, Costa Rica, Katie Nelson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

We characterized large-scale volatile emissions across the summit and flanks of the actively degassing Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, using soil gas flux measurements and 13C isotopes. The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to monitor changes in the magmatic activity and identify source contributions over Turrialba using measurements of CO2 soil gas emissions since the volcano last erupted in 2014-2015, and 2) to identify the location and extent of magma at depth, and the structures that allow gas transport to the surface. Degassing at the summit is concentrated along one normal fault lineament, the trace of …


Gas And Heat Fluxes During Multiple Effusive Eruptions Of Piton De La Fournaise (Réunion) And Their Implications For Magmatic Processes, Pauline Verdurme 2021 Michigan Technological University

Gas And Heat Fluxes During Multiple Effusive Eruptions Of Piton De La Fournaise (Réunion) And Their Implications For Magmatic Processes, Pauline Verdurme

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study investigates five eruptions with different temporal trends of erupted mass and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion). We acquired the daily SO2 emissions from three ultraviolet (UV) satellite instruments (the Ozone Monitoring Instrument [OMI], the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite [OMPS] and the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument [TROPOMI]). The Time-Averaged-Lava-Discharge Rate (TADR) has been obtained from two automatic systems: MIROVA and MODVOLC. Assuming that the lava volumes measured in the field are the most accurate, MIROVA gives the best estimation among all the methods investigated. It has also been demonstrated that a petrological approach …


Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan 2021 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Pantelleria volcano has a particularly intriguing evolutionary history intimately related to the peralkaline composition of its explosively erupted magmas. Due to the stratigraphic complexity, studies over the last two decades have explored either only the pre-Green Tuff ignimbrite volcanism or the post-Green Tuff activity. We here focus on the whole evolutionary history, detailing the achievements since the first pioneering studies, in order to illustrate how the adoption and integration of progressively more accurate methods (40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetism, petrography, and detailed field study) have provided many important independent answers to unresolved questions. We also discuss rheomorphism, a distinct feature at Pantelleria, at …


Peralkaline Silicic Extrusive Rocks: Magma Genesis, Evolution, Plumbing Systems, And Eruption., Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Harvey E. Belkin 2021 University of Warsaw

Peralkaline Silicic Extrusive Rocks: Magma Genesis, Evolution, Plumbing Systems, And Eruption., Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Harvey E. Belkin

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Peralkaline silicic extrusive rocks are an important component of the volcanological record. Here we review several aspects of their formation and evolution, including the tectonic settings in which they occur, their main petrological and geochemical features, the magmatic lineages along which they evolve, and the parameters (T, P, fO2, melt water contents) that control the lineages. Particular attention is paid to the composition of the extraordinary melts formed at the lowest temperatures. Various lines of evidence are presented to explain the silica-gaps in some lineages. The partial melting of continental crust and the role of crustal contamination …


Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley 2021 Boise State University

Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lavas that have erupted at near‐axis seamounts provide windows into mid‐ocean ridge mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics which are not easily observed on‐axis at fast‐spreading centers. Beneath ridges, most heterogeneity is obscured as magmas aggregate toward the ridge, where they efficiently mix and homogenize during transit and within shallow magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of near‐axis seamounts and volcanic ridges perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise. We assess the chemistry of near‐ridge mantle using a ∼200 km‐long chain at …


The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham DM Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey 2020 West Virginia University

The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham Dm Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Folds on the surfaces of mafic lavas are among the most readily recognized geological structures and are used as first-order criteria for identifying ancient lavas on Earth and other planetary bodies. However, the presence of surface-folds on the surface of silicic lavas is contested in this study and we challenge the widely accepted interpretation that silicic lava surfaces contain folds using examples from the western United States and Sardinia, Italy. We interpret the ridges and troughs on their upper surfaces, typically referred to as ‘ogives’ or ‘pressure ridges’, as fracture-bound structures rather than folds. We report on the absence of …


Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata 2020 Stanford University

Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In December 2018, Mount Etna (Italy) experienced a period of increased eruptive activity that culminated in a fissure eruption on the southeast flank. After the onset of the flank eruption, the peak frequency of the summit infrasound signals decreased while resonance increased. We invert infrasound observations for crater geometry and show that crater depth and radius increased during the eruption, which suggests that the flank eruption drained magma from the summit and that eruptive activity led to erosion of the crater wall. By inverting the entire infrasound amplitude spectra rather than just the peak frequency, we are able to place …


Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo 2020 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Crystallization experiments on two pantellerites from Pantelleria, Italy, provide new evidence for the relation-ships between mineral phases in pantelleritic rocks as well as the influence of temperature and redox conditionson mineral assemblages. Experiments were performed at 1 kbar with temperature ranging between 750–900°C,andfluid saturation conditions with XH2O (=H2O/H2O+CO2) between 0 and 1. Redox conditions were fixed at, or slightly below, the FMQ buffer. Results show that at temperature of 900 °C pantelleritic magmas are well above the liquidus regardless their water content; we also observed a decrease in liquidus temperature (800°C) with increasingly reducing conditions. Mineral assemblages of the natural …


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