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Individual Behavior Drives Ecosystem Function And The Impacts Of Harvest, Jacob E. Allgeier, Timothy J. Cline, Timothy E. Walsworth, Gus Wathen, Craig A. Layman, Daniel E. Schindler 2020 The University Of Michigan

Individual Behavior Drives Ecosystem Function And The Impacts Of Harvest, Jacob E. Allgeier, Timothy J. Cline, Timothy E. Walsworth, Gus Wathen, Craig A. Layman, Daniel E. Schindler

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Current approaches for biodiversity conservation and management focus on sustaining high levels of diversity among species to maintain ecosystem function. We show that the diversity among individuals within a single population drives function at the ecosystem scale. Specifically, nutrient supply from individual fish differs from the population average >80% of the time, and accounting for this individual variation nearly doubles estimates of nutrients supplied to the ecosystem. We test how management (i.e., selective harvest regimes) can alter ecosystem function and find that strategies targeting more active individuals reduce nutrient supply to the ecosystem up to 69%, a greater effect than …


Engaging Faculty In Preparing Students For Non-Academic Environmental Careers, Carmen R. Cid, Mark W. Brunson 2020 Eastern Connecticut State University

Engaging Faculty In Preparing Students For Non-Academic Environmental Careers, Carmen R. Cid, Mark W. Brunson

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

As a biology major at New York University, I was introduced to ecology in a course that bused the class out of New York University's Greenwich Village campus every weekend, to investigate biodiversity patterns in nearby forests and wetlands. After a day crossing bogs and walking through forests, I would take the subway home, hip boots in hand, reflecting on how the day's activities connected to my routine city life. Engaging others in understanding the city connections to adjacent habitats became my life's work. As Dean of Arts and Sciences at a public liberal arts university, I encourage faculty and …


Analyses Of The 2019 Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine: Molecular Machinery For Cellular Oxygen Level Response, Neyda V. Gilman 2020 Binghamton University

Analyses Of The 2019 Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine: Molecular Machinery For Cellular Oxygen Level Response, Neyda V. Gilman

Library Scholarship

Gregg L. Semenza, William G Kaelin, Jr, and Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine on October 7, 2019. Their work led to the understanding of how cells recognize and adapt to varying oxygen levels. Hypoxia-inducible nuclear factors play an essential role in this mechanism by turning on other genes that work towards increasing oxygen levels in hypoxic environments. Other vital pieces of the machinery include von Hippel-Lindau proteins and prolyl hydroxylation. Due to the necessity of oxygen in numerous human physiological systems, this discovery will likely have nearly immeasurable impacts on human …


Hydrods: Data Services In Support Of Physically Based, Distributed Hydrological Models, Tseganeh Zekiewos Gichamo, Nazmus S. Sazib, David G. Tarboton, Pabitra Dash 2020 Utah State University

Hydrods: Data Services In Support Of Physically Based, Distributed Hydrological Models, Tseganeh Zekiewos Gichamo, Nazmus S. Sazib, David G. Tarboton, Pabitra Dash

Publications

Physically based distributed hydrologic models require geospatial and time-series data that take considerable time and effort in processing them into model inputs. Tools that automate and speed up input processing facilitate the application of these models. In this study, we developed a set of web-based data services called HydroDS to provide hydrologic data processing ‘software as a service.’ HydroDS provides functions for processing watershed, terrain, canopy, climate, and soil data. The services are accessed through a Python client library that facilitates developing simple but effective data processing workflows with Python. Evaluations of HydroDS by setting up the Utah Energy Balance …


Faculty Spotlight—Dr. Robert Dores, Anit Tyagi, William Moody 2020 University of Denver

Faculty Spotlight—Dr. Robert Dores, Anit Tyagi, William Moody

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

Robert Dores Interview

Edited by Will Moody


Association Between Breastfeeding And Child Stunting In Mexico, Ana Paola Campos, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Summer Sherburne Hawkins 2020 Boston College

Association Between Breastfeeding And Child Stunting In Mexico, Ana Paola Campos, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Summer Sherburne Hawkins

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background: Globally, the prevalence of child stunting has been decreasing over the past decades. How-ever, in low-and middle-income countries such as Mexico, stunting is still the most prevalent form of undernutrition affecting a large number of children in the most vulnerable conditions. Breastfeeding has been identified as one of the key affordable and modifiable maternal health behaviors protecting against child stunting. Objective: To examine the association between breastfeeding (defined as never breastfed, any breast-feeding for <6 months, and any breastfeeding for ≥6 months) and other individual-, household-, and area-level factors with child stunting (defined as length/height-for-age-z-score for sex under –2 standard deviations of the World Health Organization child growth standards’ median) in Mexico. Methods: Secondary data analysis using the 2012 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, which allowed representativeness of rural and urban areas at national level and among 4 regions in Mexico. Our subset included data on 2,089 singleton Mexican children aged 6–35 months with information on previously identified risk and protective factors for stunting. We conducted fixed-and mixed-effects logistic regression models sequentially controlling for each level of factors. Findings: Overall, 12.3% of children were stunted and 71.1% were breastfed for ≥6 months. Any breast-feeding and being female were consistent protective factors against child stunting across all models. In contrast, child low birthweight, maternal short stature, higher number of children aged <5 years per household, and moderate to severe food insecurity were consistent risk factors for child stunting across all models. Conclusions: According to our findings, efforts to reduce child stunting in Mexico should include prenatal strategies aiming to prevent low birthweight offspring particularly among short-stature women, moderate to severe food insecure households, families with a higher number of children aged <5 years, and indigenous communities. Postnatal components should include multilevel strategies to support breastfeeding.


Application Of Optical Trapping To Obtain Single-Source Str Profiles From Forensically Relevant Body Fluid Mixtures With Modified Dna Analysis Workflow, Benjamin J. O'Brien 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Application Of Optical Trapping To Obtain Single-Source Str Profiles From Forensically Relevant Body Fluid Mixtures With Modified Dna Analysis Workflow, Benjamin J. O'Brien

Master of Science in Forensic Science Directed Research Projects

Current methods of mixture separation in forensic DNA laboratories typically deconvolute the mixture after analysis using statistical analysis or probabilistic genotyping. To save time and effort of labs already backlogged, a method to separate mixtures on a cellular level before analysis needs to be developed. Optical trapping is a method that uses a focused 1064 nm laser to manipulate cells. Previous research has shown that approximately 50 spermatozoa or 15 leukocytes from a liquid sample are required to produce a full STR DNA profile. It was found that the number of spermatozoa required remains constant when the method of sample …


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a …


Land Use Influences Along Elevation Gradient On Macroinvertebrate Communities, Brittany Sprout 2020 University of Denver

Land Use Influences Along Elevation Gradient On Macroinvertebrate Communities, Brittany Sprout

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Land use activities have caused disturbances that affect the quality of freshwater ecosystems worldwide. How the influences of land use along an environmental gradient and the associated environmental variables that may influence stream diversity and function is unclear. We address these issues by studying biodiversity, abundance, and functional diversity of macroinvertebrates across different land types along a gradient in Colorado, USA. We also address how diversity may change along an elevation gradient by analyzing previously published macroinvertebrate research. We found evidence that land use and disturbance are stronger explanations of changes in macroinvertebrate communities, rather than elevation. Functional trait patterns …


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2019 Utah State University

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing, i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyote approached a human to necessitate hazing. Coyotes that had been hand fed by …


Potential Distribution Of Six North American Higher-Attine Fungus-Farming Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Species, Sarah F. Senula, Joseph T. Scavetta, Joshua A. Banta, Ulrich G. Mueller, Jon N. Seal, Katrin Kellner 2019 University of Texas at Tyler

Potential Distribution Of Six North American Higher-Attine Fungus-Farming Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Species, Sarah F. Senula, Joseph T. Scavetta, Joshua A. Banta, Ulrich G. Mueller, Jon N. Seal, Katrin Kellner

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ants are among the most successful insects in Earth’s evolutionary history. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding range-limiting factors that may influence their distribution. The goal of this study was to describe the environmental factors (climate and soil types) that likely impact the ranges of five out of the eight most abundant Trachymyrmex species and the most abundant Mycetomoellerius species in the United States. Important environmental factors may allow us to better understand each species’ evolutionary history. We generated habitat suitability maps using MaxEnt for each species and identified associated most important environmental variables. We quantified niche overlap …


Sage‐Grouse Breeding And Late Brood‐Rearing Habitat Guidelines In Utah, David K. Dahlgren, Terry A. Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michel T. Kohl, Shandra Nicole Frey, Eric T. Thacker, Randy T. Larsen, Rick J. Baxter 2019 Utah State University

Sage‐Grouse Breeding And Late Brood‐Rearing Habitat Guidelines In Utah, David K. Dahlgren, Terry A. Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michel T. Kohl, Shandra Nicole Frey, Eric T. Thacker, Randy T. Larsen, Rick J. Baxter

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Delineation, protection, and restoration of habitats provide the basis for endangered and threatened species recovery plans. Species recovery plans typically contain guidelines that provide managers with a scientific basis to designate and manage critical habitats. As such, habitat guidelines are best developed using data that capture the full diversity of ecological and environmental conditions that provide habitat across the species’ range. However, when baseline information, which fails to capture habitat diversity, is used to develop guidelines, inconsistencies and problems arise when applying those guidelines to habitats within an ecologically diverse landscape. Greater sage‐grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage‐ grouse) populations …


Improving Lake Mixing Process Simulations In The Community Land Model By Using K Profile Parameterization, Qunhui Zhang, Jiming Jin, Xiaochun Wang, Phaedra E. Budy, Nick Barrett, Sarah E. Null 2019 Northwest A & F University

Improving Lake Mixing Process Simulations In The Community Land Model By Using K Profile Parameterization, Qunhui Zhang, Jiming Jin, Xiaochun Wang, Phaedra E. Budy, Nick Barrett, Sarah E. Null

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We improved lake mixing process simulations by applying a vertical mixing scheme, K profile parameterization (KPP), in the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5, developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Vertical mixing of the lake water column can significantly affect heat transfer and vertical temperature profiles. However, the current vertical mixing scheme in CLM requires an arbitrarily enlarged eddy diffusivity to enhance water mixing. The coupled CLM-KPP considers a boundary layer for eddy development, and in the lake interior water mixing is associated with internal wave activity and shear instability. We chose a lake in Arctic Alaska and …


The Next Frontier: Making Research More Reproducible, David E. Rosenberg, Yves Fillion, Rebecca L. Teasley, Samuel Sandoval-Solis, Jory S. Hecht, Jakobus E. van Zyl, George F. McMahon, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Joseph R. Kasprzyk, David G. Tarboton 2019 Utah State University

The Next Frontier: Making Research More Reproducible, David E. Rosenberg, Yves Fillion, Rebecca L. Teasley, Samuel Sandoval-Solis, Jory S. Hecht, Jakobus E. Van Zyl, George F. Mcmahon, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Joseph R. Kasprzyk, David G. Tarboton

Publications

Science and engineering rest on the concept of reproducibility. An important question for any study is: are the results reproducible? Can the results be recreated independently by other researchers or professionals? Research results need to be independently reproduced and validated before they are accepted as fact or theory. Across numerous fields like psychology, computer systems, and water resources there are problems to reproduce research results (Aarts et al. 2015; Collberg et al. 2014; Hutton et al. 2016; Stagge et al. 2019; Stodden et al. 2018). This editorial examines the challenges to reproduce research results and suggests community practices to overcome …


Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralisation Across Global Grasslands, A. C. Risch, S. Zimmermann, R. Ochoa-Hueso, M. Schütz, B. Frey, J. L. Firn, P. A. Fay, F. Hagedorn, E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom, W. S. Harpole, J. M. H. Knops, R. L. McCulley, A. A. D. Broadbent, C. J. Stevens, M. L. Silveira, Peter B. Adler, et al. 2019 Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research

Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralisation Across Global Grasslands, A. C. Risch, S. Zimmermann, R. Ochoa-Hueso, M. Schütz, B. Frey, J. L. Firn, P. A. Fay, F. Hagedorn, E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom, W. S. Harpole, J. M. H. Knops, R. L. Mcculley, A. A. D. Broadbent, C. J. Stevens, M. L. Silveira, Peter B. Adler, Et Al.

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Soil nitrogen mineralisation (Nmin), the conversion of organic into inorganic N, is important for productivity and nutrient cycling. The balance between mineralisation and immobilisation (net Nmin) varies with soil properties and climate. However, because most global-scale assessments of net Nmin are laboratory-based, its regulation under field-conditions and implications for real-world soil functioning remain uncertain. Here, we explore the drivers of realised (field) and potential (laboratory) soil net Nmin across 30 grasslands worldwide. We find that realised Nmin is largely explained by temperature of the wettest quarter, microbial biomass, clay content and bulk density. …


Estimating Total And Bioavailable Nutrient Loading To Utah Lake From The Atmosphere, Janice Brahney 2019 Utah State University

Estimating Total And Bioavailable Nutrient Loading To Utah Lake From The Atmosphere, Janice Brahney

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities have led to increases in the emission, atmospheric transport, and deposition of key nutrients. In addition, climate change along with anthropogenic soil disturbance has led to recent increases in the mobilization and transport of soils and other particles through the atmosphere, collectively described here as dust. These increased emissions have led to growing interest and concern over the composition of atmospheric deposition and total loading of nutrients to aquatic systems. In the last several decades, much effort has been directed towards the measurement and modeling of nitrogen deposition through wet and aerosol deposition. Less is known about the …


Green Club After School Program Curriculum, Megan Willburn 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Green Club After School Program Curriculum, Megan Willburn

Honors Expanded Learning Clubs

Green Club is an after school program which encourages students to develop environmental empathy, passions for environmental sustainability, and knowledge about the workings of environmental systems.


Timing Of Invasion By Africanized Bees Coincides With Local Extinction Of A Specialized Pollinator Of A Rare Poppy In Utah, Usa, Amber D. Tripodi, Vincent J. Tepedino, Zachary M. Portman 2019 USDA-ARS-Pollinating Insects Research Unit, USA

Timing Of Invasion By Africanized Bees Coincides With Local Extinction Of A Specialized Pollinator Of A Rare Poppy In Utah, Usa, Amber D. Tripodi, Vincent J. Tepedino, Zachary M. Portman

All PIRU Publications

The introduction of exotic species can have profound impacts on mutualisms between native species in invaded areas. However, determining whether a new invader has impacted native species depends on accurately reconstructing the invasion timing. The arrival of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in southern Utah at some point between 1994 and 2011 has recently been implicated in the local extinction of Perdita meconis, a native specialist pollinator of an endangered poppy, Arctomecon humilis. Although AHBs were purportedly first detected in southern Utah in 2008, their presence in nearby Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico by 1998–2001 suggests that they may …


Investigating The Knowledge Surrounding Folate And Folic Acid In A Cohort Of Vegetarians, Michael Dolan, Katherine Younger, Lucy Brennan, Jessica Roche 2019 Technological University Dublin

Investigating The Knowledge Surrounding Folate And Folic Acid In A Cohort Of Vegetarians, Michael Dolan, Katherine Younger, Lucy Brennan, Jessica Roche

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background
The aim is to identify any gaps in the knowledge of folate and folic acid in vegetarians, which is of interest given the increasing adoption of vegetarian type diets.

Methods
In this convenience sample, 106 people answered an online questionnaire regarding folate intake and awareness among vegetarians. This was created using Google Forms and was shared via Facebook, including on various national and college vegetarian group pages. There were 44 questions. Twenty-four participants were excluded, because they reported eating fish, chicken or other meat. Final data analysis included 82 subjects. The majority of these vegetarians were females over the …


Effects Of Severe Water Stress On Maize Growth Processes In The Field, Libing Song, Jiming Jin, Jianqiang He 2019 Northwest A&F University

Effects Of Severe Water Stress On Maize Growth Processes In The Field, Libing Song, Jiming Jin, Jianqiang He

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

In this study, we investigated the effects of water stress on the growth and yield of summer maize (Zea mays L.) over four phenological stages: Seedling, jointing, heading, and grain-filling. Water stress treatments were applied during each of these four stages in a water-controlled field in the Guanzhong Plain, China between 2013 and 2016. We found that severe water stress during the seedling stage had a greater effect on the growth and development of maize than stress applied during the other three stages. Water stress led to lower leaf area index (LAI) and biomass owing to reduced intercepted photosynthetically active …


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