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New Developments In Developmental Research On Social Information Processing And Antisocial Behavior, Reid G. Fontaine 2010 University of Arizona

New Developments In Developmental Research On Social Information Processing And Antisocial Behavior, Reid G. Fontaine

Reid G. Fontaine

The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes—measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP—that tie together four new empirical investigations are provided. Notable contributions of these studies are highlighted.


In Self-Defense Regarding Self-Defense: A Rejoinder To Professor Corrado, Reid G. Fontaine 2010 University of Arizona

In Self-Defense Regarding Self-Defense: A Rejoinder To Professor Corrado, Reid G. Fontaine

Reid G. Fontaine

This is a rejoinder to Professor Corrado in the upcoming special section of the American Criminal Law Review on the nature, structure, and function of self-defense and defense of others law.


Does Response Evaluation And Decision (Red) Mediate The Relation Between Hostile Attributional Style And Antisocial Behavior In Adolescence?, Reid G. Fontaine 2010 University of Arizona

Does Response Evaluation And Decision (Red) Mediate The Relation Between Hostile Attributional Style And Antisocial Behavior In Adolescence?, Reid G. Fontaine

Reid G. Fontaine

The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent participants and their parents reported participants’ antisocial conduct. In Grade 11, participants were asked to imagine themselves in videotaped ambiguous-provocation scenarios. Segment 1 of each scenario presented an ambiguous provocation, after which participants answered HAS questions. In segment 2, participants were asked to imagine themselves responding aggressively to the …


The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor J. Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda 2010 University of Birmingham

The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor J. Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.


Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark J.G. Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda 2010 University of Birmingham

Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark J.G. Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan L. Duda

Jennifer Cumming

Research on the psychological characteristics of elite performers has primarily focused on Olympic and World champions; however, the mental attributes of young developing and talented athletes have received less attention. Addressing this, the current study had two aims: (a) to examine the perceptions held by youth athletes regarding the mental qualities they need to facilitate their development and (b) to investigate the mental techniques used by these athletes. Forty-three male youth rugby players participated in a series of focus groups. Inductive content analysis revealed 11 categories of psychological qualities, including enjoyment, responsibility, adaptability, squad spirit, self-aware learner, determination, confidence, optimal …


The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos 2010 University of Birmingham

The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George M. Balanos

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (Mage = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge and …


Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole 2010 Iowa State University

Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole

Jessica K Swanner

Two laboratory studies with 332 student participants investigated secondary confessions (provided by an informant instead of the suspect). Participants allegedly caused or witnessed a simulated computer crash, then were asked to give primary or secondary confessions during interrogation. Study 1 replicated the false evidence effect for primary confessions. Secondary confessions were obtained at a high rate, which was increased by false evidence in combination with incentive to confess. In Study 2 a confederate either confessed to or denied crashing the computer. Incentive increased the rate of secondary confession only in the presence of a denial; that is, incentive increased the …


Incentives Increase The Rate Of False But Not True Secondary Confessions From Informants With An Allegiance To A Suspect, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike 2010 Iowa State University

Incentives Increase The Rate Of False But Not True Secondary Confessions From Informants With An Allegiance To A Suspect, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike

Jessica K Swanner

One hundred ninety-two students participated in an experimental simulation testing whether incentives would reduce the reluctance of informants to implicate a close other. Half of the students were made to feel interpersonally close to a confederate who either admitted to or denied a misdeed. All students were interrogated and encouraged to sign a secondary confession stating that the confederate had confessed to the misdeed; half were offered an incentive to do so. Contrary to expectations, closeness did not induce reluctance. Instead, the offer of incentive increased the number of participants willing to sign a secondary confession implicating a close other. …


Offer Adolescents Suburban Habitat Positive Experiences In Their Neighborhood, Benjamin A. Shirtcliff 2010 University of New Orleans

Offer Adolescents Suburban Habitat Positive Experiences In Their Neighborhood, Benjamin A. Shirtcliff

Benjamin A Shirtcliff

The adolescent population living in suburban environments is very important. This reality, however, is still too recent to be considered by practitioners of the development, which would explain why the physical environment of teenagers is rarely designed to meet their needs. This article addresses the basic needs of adolescents living in the suburbs and designers suggest ways to improve their quality of life by creating fallback places in their neighborhood. The values ​​and adolescents special needs will be used to assess the quality of suburban open spaces. We mainly interressted in the physical environment, building on the studies in the …


Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Therapy groups are designed to promote the health and adjustment of their members. Initially used when the demand for services outstripped available health care providers, therapists discovered that group approaches offered unique benefits over more individualistic therapies. Some of these benefits include a reduced sense of isolation and uniqueness, mutual support, exposure to positive models, and the opportunity to develop coping skills by interacting with others. Therapists now use groups to address a variety of psychological and physical maladies, and their methods are as varied as those used in individual approaches. Even though the idea of having people suffering from …


Reflecting On Experience For Leadership Development, Adrian Chan 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Reflecting On Experience For Leadership Development, Adrian Chan

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research from the College of Business

This study proposes that being reflective or ruminative about one's leadership experience can have differential effects on one's leadership efficacy, implicit leadership theories and psychological capital. Specifically, through the aid of an event history calendar, conscript military trainees of high and low military experience from a SE Asian military organization were randomly assigned to recall and reflect or ruminate on his past leadership experience. Results show that type of reflection interacts with level of military leadership experience to differentially affect one's leadership efficacy, implicit leadership theories and leadership self-awareness. Reflection triggers produced significantly higher levels of implicit leadership theories under …


Application And Assessment Of Interpersonal Forgiveness, Anthony Holter, Chad Magnuson, Robert Enright 2010 University of Notre Dame

Application And Assessment Of Interpersonal Forgiveness, Anthony Holter, Chad Magnuson, Robert Enright

Faculty Publications and Presentations

Moral issues within psychology have been an object of study since the 1890s (see, for example, Hall, 1891). The majority of studies in the 20th century have centered on themes of justice, not mercy (see, for example, Killen & Smetana, 2006). In the 1980s, almost a century after the emergence of moral psychology, the construct of forgiveness began to emerge as a possible area of basic and applied research within psychology. From its humble beginnings, the psychology of forgiveness has now begun to emerge as a field worthy of researchers’ time. For example, in 1985 a perusal of the American …


Validating Kreiner And Ashforth’S Organizational Identification Measure In An Engineering Context, Morrie Mullins, Christian M. End, L. Carlin 2010 Xavier University - Cincinnati

Validating Kreiner And Ashforth’S Organizational Identification Measure In An Engineering Context, Morrie Mullins, Christian M. End, L. Carlin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

An understanding of group counseling requires an understanding of groups themselves, their basic nature and processes. Given that human beings are a social species and spend their lives in groups rather than alone, an individual-level analysis of adjustment, well-being, and treatment, with its focus on internal, psychological processes, should be supplemented by a group-level analysis. The defining features of a group are relationships linking a substantial number of members, boundaries, interdependence, structure, cohesion, and entitativity (perceived groupness): and groups with more of these features are more Influential than other forms of association, such as social networks. The chapter reviews a …


Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz

Selected Faculty Publications

When members of mission organizations perceive injustice within their organization, they work less effectively and attrition is more likely. This paper examines various types of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational) which need to be monitored and maximized to help mission organizations accomplish their goals.


The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form: A Review And Assessment, Ted G. Futris, Kelly Campbell, Robert B. Nielsen, Stephanie R. Burwell 2010 University of Georgia

The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form: A Review And Assessment, Ted G. Futris, Kelly Campbell, Robert B. Nielsen, Stephanie R. Burwell

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form (CPQ-SF) is an 11-item self-assessment of spouses’ perceptions of marital interactions. A cited reference review of the CPQ-SF literature revealed no formal assessment of its psychometric properties and that researchers are imprecise in their use, reporting, and referencing of the assessment. Toward improving the use of the CPQ-SF in research and practice, the factor structure and psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data collected from a diverse sample of married individuals. Three latent constructs were identified: criticize/defend, discuss/avoid, and positive interaction patterns. Support for the original two-factor structure, demand/withdrawal and positive interaction, was …


Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Effective ways of conflict management must be found for missionaries when no trusted mediator in the region is available. Home office management or leaders in other regions can intervene through context rich media, such as the telephone and video conferencing, to provide help. Intervention through context poor media, such as email, is much less likely to succeed. Effective managerial intervention involving interaction with each party can lead to reframing the conflict into an opportunity to cooperate and find mutually beneficial solutions. The manager can present information, ask questions, and help the parties see that resolution is possible by addressing key …


Christian Cooperation And Ministry Effectiveness: Insights And Applications From Empirical Research In Group Processes, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Christian Cooperation And Ministry Effectiveness: Insights And Applications From Empirical Research In Group Processes, David R. Dunaetz

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

“Co-operation and the Promotion of Unity” was one the major themes addressed at Edinburgh 1910. The goal was increased cooperation among Christian organizations that would lead to greater ministry effectiveness. Five group processes are presented in light of empirical studies demonstrating their ability to increase group performance: 1) Trust (reciprocal beliefs that the one party will promote the well being of another; 2) Constructive conflict (objective consideration and evaluation of various ways of accomplishing a common goal); 3) Decision commitment (beliefs held by all parties concerning the importance of following through on group decisions); 4) Accountability (the expectation that a …


Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick 2010 University of Richmond

Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research investigates the empirical assumptions behind the claim that leaders exaggerate the importance of their group’s goals more so than non-leaders and that they may use these beliefs to justify deviating from generally accepted moral requirements when doing so is necessary for goal achievement. We tested these biased thought processes across three studies. The results from these three studies established the more-important-than-average effect, both for real and illusory groups. Participants claimed that their group goals are more important than the goals of others, and this effect was stronger for leaders than for non-leading group members. In Study 3, …


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. This chapter describes group-centered leadership, leading change in groups, leaders in groups, decision-making and leadership and social influence and leadership.


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