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Earth’S Outgoing Longwave Radiation Variability Prior To M ≥6.0 Earthquakes In The Taiwan Area During 2009–2019, Ching-Chou Fu, Lou-Chang Lee, Dimitar Ouzounov, Jyh-Cherng Jan 2020 Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Earth’S Outgoing Longwave Radiation Variability Prior To M ≥6.0 Earthquakes In The Taiwan Area During 2009–2019, Ching-Chou Fu, Lou-Chang Lee, Dimitar Ouzounov, Jyh-Cherng Jan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This paper proposes an analysis method, using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite data, to trace variations in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for finding the precursors of earthquakes. The significance of these observations is investigated using data sets of recent M ≥6.0 earthquakes around the Taiwan area from 2009 to 2019. We suggest that the precursory signal could be an EIndex anomaly (EA) in the form of substantial thermal releases distributed near the epicenter. The consecutive appearances of OLR EAs are observed as precursors 2–15 days before significant earthquakes, and we refer to this as a pre-earthquake OLR …


Toward Near‐Field Tsunami Forecasting Along The Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Rapid Gnss Source Models, Amy L. Williamson, Diego Melgar, Brendan W. Crowell, Diego Argas, Timothy I. Melbourne, Yong Wei, Kevin Kwong 2020 University of Oregon

Toward Near‐Field Tsunami Forecasting Along The Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Rapid Gnss Source Models, Amy L. Williamson, Diego Melgar, Brendan W. Crowell, Diego Argas, Timothy I. Melbourne, Yong Wei, Kevin Kwong

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Over the past 15 years and through multiple large and devastating earthquakes, tsunami warning systems have grown considerably in their efficacy in providing timely and accurate forecasts to affected communities. However, one part of tsunami warning that still needs improvement is forecasts catered to local, near‐field communities in the time after an earthquake rupture but before coastal inundation. In this study, we test a rapid, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)‐driven earthquake characterization model using a large data set of synthetic megathrust ruptures for its near‐field tsunami forecasting potential. We also provide a framework for tsunami forecasting that focuses on the …


Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham DM Andrews 2020 West Virginia University

Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham Dm Andrews

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

The Gulf of California is an archetype of continental rupture through transtensional rifting, and exploitation of a thermally weakened arc to produce a rift. Volcanic rocks of central Baja California record the transition from calcalkaline arc magmatism, due to subduction of the Farallon plate (ca. 24–12 Ma), to rift magmatism, related to the opening of the Gulf of California (<12 Ma). In addition, a suite of postsubduction rocks (<12 Ma), referred to as “bajaites,” are enriched in light rare-earth and other incompatible elements (e.g., Ba and Sr). These are further subdivided into high-magnesian andesite (with 50%–58% SiO2 and MgO >4%) and adakite (>56% SiO2 and MgO <3%). The bajaites correlate spatially with a fossil slab imaged under central Baja and are inferred to record postsubduction melting of the slab and subduction-modified mantle by asthenospheric upwelling associated with rifting or slab breakoff. We report on volcanic rocks of all three suites, which surround and underlie the Santa Rosalía sedimentary rift basin. This area represents the western margin of the Guaymas basin, the most magmatically robust segment of the Gulf of California rift, where seafloor spreading occurred in isolation for 3–4 m.y. (starting at 6 Ma) before transtensional pull-apart basins to the north and south ruptured the continental crust. Outcrops of the Santa Rosalía area thus offer the opportunity to understand the magmatic evolution of the Guaymas rift, which has been the focus of numerous oceanographic expeditions.

We describe 21 distinct volcanic and hypabyssal map units in the Santa Rosalía area, using field characteristics, petrographic data, and major- and trace-element geochemical data, as well as zircon isotopic data and …


Detrital Zircon Petrochronology For Sedimentary Provenance Analysis: Source To Sink Of The Mississippi/Missouri River Drainage Basin, Sage Denali Muttel 2020 Missouri State University

Detrital Zircon Petrochronology For Sedimentary Provenance Analysis: Source To Sink Of The Mississippi/Missouri River Drainage Basin, Sage Denali Muttel

MSU Graduate Theses

Detrital petrochronology can provide a detailed look into sedimentary provenance through integrated mineral radioisotopic ages with corresponding mineral chemistry. By combining U-Pb ages and Th/U values of detrital zircon from 13 samples collected from Quaternary sand deposits in the Upper Missouri, Yellowstone, Bighorn, Platte, Kansas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Red and Brazos Rivers, an interpretation of detailed signatures that record evidence of the evolution of the Mississippi/Missouri River drainage and the tectonic events that shaped it were observed. Low Th/U values in zircon correlate temporally to convergent magmatism, whereas, higher and more variable Th/U zircon are coeval with known extensional tectonism. Using …


Plate Boundary Trench Retreat And Dextral Shear Drive Intracontinental Fault-Slip Histories: Neogene Dextral Faulting Across The Gabbs Valley And Gillis Ranges, Central Walker Lane, Nevada, Jeffrey Lee, Andrew K. R. Hoxey, Andrew Calvert, Peter Dubyoski 2020 Central Washington University

Plate Boundary Trench Retreat And Dextral Shear Drive Intracontinental Fault-Slip Histories: Neogene Dextral Faulting Across The Gabbs Valley And Gillis Ranges, Central Walker Lane, Nevada, Jeffrey Lee, Andrew K. R. Hoxey, Andrew Calvert, Peter Dubyoski

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

The spatial-temporal evolution of intracontinental faults and the forces that drive their style, orientation, and timing are central to understanding tectonic processes. Intracontinental NW-striking dextral faults in the Gabbs Valley–Gillis Ranges (hereafter referred to as the GVGR), Nevada, define a structural domain known as the eastern Central Walker Lane located east of the western margin of the North American plate. To consider how changes in boundary type along the western margin of the North American plate influenced both the initiation and continued dextral fault slip to the present day in the GVGR, we combine our new detailed geologic mapping, structural …


The Rocky Ledge Fault, Shasta County, Ne California: Development And Morphology Of A Quaternary Oblique Normal Fault In Basalt, Gregory David Linscott Martin 2020 Portland State University

The Rocky Ledge Fault, Shasta County, Ne California: Development And Morphology Of A Quaternary Oblique Normal Fault In Basalt, Gregory David Linscott Martin

Dissertations and Theses

Distinct morphology, variable vertical separation, and unique structural geometries are observed along the Rocky Ledge fault (RLF), an east-dipping, oblique normal fault in the tectonically complex Hat Creek Graben, Shasta County, NE California. Situated in the southern Cascade arc, the RLF is located at the boundary of the Klamath Mountains, Basin and Range, and Walker Lane Seismic Belt. The primary goal of this project is to better understand Quaternary deformation along the RLF. I developed detailed maps of geologic units and structures along the ~15 km length of the RLF. Map data informs assessment of fault geometry, scarp morphology, and …


3-D Shear Wave Velocity Structures Of The Crust And Upper Mantle Beneath Cascadia And New Zealand From Full-Wave Ambient Noise Tomography, Sampath Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

3-D Shear Wave Velocity Structures Of The Crust And Upper Mantle Beneath Cascadia And New Zealand From Full-Wave Ambient Noise Tomography, Sampath Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage

Doctoral Dissertations

The (de)hydration process and the amount of hydrated sediment carried by the downgoing oceanic plate play a key role in the subduction dynamics. The deformation and (de)hydration of the downgoing tectonic plates, as well as the seismic, tsunami, volcanic hazards, in Cascadia and the New Zealand regions are not fully understood, partly due to a lack of combined studies of onshore and offshore data. In order to address these questions, we developed a 3-D high-resolution shear wave velocity model beneath Cascadia, the North and the South Islands of New Zealand, extending from offshore to onshore, with the use of full-wave …


Early Paleogene Biosiliceous Sedimentation In The Atlantic Ocean: Testing The Inorganic Origin Hypothesis For Paleocene And Eocene Chert And Porcellanite, Jakub Witkowski, Donald E. Penman, Karolina Bryłka, Bridget S. Wade, Sabine Matting, David M. Harwood, Steven M. Bohaty 2020 University of Szczecin

Early Paleogene Biosiliceous Sedimentation In The Atlantic Ocean: Testing The Inorganic Origin Hypothesis For Paleocene And Eocene Chert And Porcellanite, Jakub Witkowski, Donald E. Penman, Karolina Bryłka, Bridget S. Wade, Sabine Matting, David M. Harwood, Steven M. Bohaty

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The widespread occurrence of lower Eocene chert and porcellanite has been viewed as a major paleoceanographic issue since the advent of ocean drilling, and both biotic and abiotic forcings have been proposed to explain it. We present a reconstruction of indurated siliceous sediment (ISS) and preserved biosiliceous sediment (PBS) occurrences in the Atlantic Ocean through the Paleocene and Eocene (~66 through 34 Ma). ISS and PBS distributions reveal dissimilar temporal trends, with the peak of ISS occurrences coinciding with the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, in line with previous studies. PBS occurrences show a generally increasing trend culminating between 44 and …


Response Of Transient Base Level Signals To Erodibility Contrasts In Bedrock Streams, Joshua A. Wolpert 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Response Of Transient Base Level Signals To Erodibility Contrasts In Bedrock Streams, Joshua A. Wolpert

LSU Master's Theses

It has long been recognized that bedrock streams gradually adjust their slopes towards topographic steady state, an equilibrium state between rock uplift rate and erosion rate. Tectonic geomorphology studies often analyze stream profiles for clues of this adjustment, which can initiate from changes in tectonic and climatic forcings. The stream power incision model, the most widely utilized framework with which to interpret bedrock stream profiles, predicts that streams perturbed from topographic steady state by changes in bedrock erodibility or uplift rate adjust their slopes to return to topographic steady state through upstream propagating waves of incision, or knickpoints. Under the …


Changing Mantle Sources And The Effects Of Crustal Passage On The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Chemical And Isotopic Constraints, Nicole E. Moore, A. L. Grunder, Wendy A. Bohrson, Richard W. Carlson, I. N. Bindeman 2020 Oregon State University

Changing Mantle Sources And The Effects Of Crustal Passage On The Steens Basalt, Se Oregon: Chemical And Isotopic Constraints, Nicole E. Moore, A. L. Grunder, Wendy A. Bohrson, Richard W. Carlson, I. N. Bindeman

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Continental flood basalts are more prone to compositional modification from passage through thicker and (or) more felsic crust in comparison to their oceanic counterparts. The Steens Basalt in southeast Oregon (~17 Ma) is among the oldest and most mafic members of the Columbia River Basalt Group and provides a record of the early stages of flood basalt volcanism. We evaluate the balance of mantle sources in time during the onset of Columbia River Basalt Group magmatism and assess the effect of crustal passage using stratigraphically controlled Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, Os, and O isotopic compositions, as well as whole rock …


Neogene Retroarc Foreland Basin Evolution, Sediment Provenance, And Magmatism In Response To Flat Slab Subduction, Western Argentina, Tomas N. Capaldi, Brian K. Horton, N. Ryan McKenzie, Chelsea Mackaman-Lofland, Daniel F. Stockli, Gustavo Ortiz, Patricia Alvarado 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Neogene Retroarc Foreland Basin Evolution, Sediment Provenance, And Magmatism In Response To Flat Slab Subduction, Western Argentina, Tomas N. Capaldi, Brian K. Horton, N. Ryan Mckenzie, Chelsea Mackaman-Lofland, Daniel F. Stockli, Gustavo Ortiz, Patricia Alvarado

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Understanding the effects of flat slab subduction on mountain building, arc magmatism, and basin evolution is fundamental to convergent‐margin tectonics, with implications for potential feedbacks among geodynamic, magmatic, and surface processes. New stratigraphic and geochronological constraints on Cenozoic sedimentation and magmatism in the southern Central Andes of Argentina (31°S) reveal shifts in volcanism, foreland/hinterland basin development, sediment accumulation, and provenance as the retroarc region was structurally partitioned during slab flattening. Detrital zircon U‐Pb age distributions from the western (Calingasta basin), central (Talacasto and Albarracín basins), and eastern (Bermejo foreland basin) segments of the retroarc basin system preserve syndepositional volcanism and …


Integrated Studies Of Intracontinental Deformation In The Interior Western Usa, Cretaceous To Recent, Jacob Oliver Thacker 2020 University of New Mexico

Integrated Studies Of Intracontinental Deformation In The Interior Western Usa, Cretaceous To Recent, Jacob Oliver Thacker

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The advent of plate tectonic theory satisfactorily explained a number of deformation belts around the world. However intracontinental deformation (deformation inboard of a plate margin) remains poorly understood in plate tectonic models. In order to further our understanding of intracontinental tectonics and its effects, this dissertation examines paleotectonic and neotectonic settings within the interior western USA.

Chapter 1 focuses on late Miocene–Recent deformation inboard of the San Andreas plate margin fault and its role on the integration history of the lower Colorado River. The neotectonic analysis included geometric and kinematic fault data collected in key geologic units to characterize the …


Testing A Drone-Based Magnetic Field Surveying System, Erik Jacobson, Irina Filina 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Testing A Drone-Based Magnetic Field Surveying System, Erik Jacobson, Irina Filina

UCARE Research Products

Aeromagnetic surveys are conducted by geoscientists to study subsurface geologic structures, such as faults. This type of survey uses a magnetometer mounted upon an airborne vehicle to collect magnetic field data. Magnetic anomalies are caused by variations in subsurface geology, namely in magnetic properties of subsurface rocks. Jacobson and Filina (2019) reported on the development of a new low cost drone, based magnetic field surveying system by the UNL Geophysics Team. This drone-based magnetic system is capable of collecting high resolution data at low speeds and low altitudes. The current study focuses on testing this system by conducting two flights …


Seeing Through The Ottawan Overprint, Adirondack Mtns., Ny: Integrating Microstructural Analysis, Geothermobarometry, And In-Situ Monazite Petrochronology, Justin Mistikawy 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Seeing Through The Ottawan Overprint, Adirondack Mtns., Ny: Integrating Microstructural Analysis, Geothermobarometry, And In-Situ Monazite Petrochronology, Justin Mistikawy

Masters Theses

Integrating field observation with petrochronology is critical for understanding the tectonometamorphic evolution of the North American Grenville Province. Despite methodological advances in geothermobarometry and geochronology, incorporating these data into larger models of the Adirondack Mountains remains particularly challenging due to the presence of multiple generations of deformation, primarily related to the ca. 1190 – 1140 Ma Shawinigan and ca. 1090 – 1020 Ma Ottawan Orogenies (McLelland et al.,2013). The Rock and Bear Ponds area is a dome of tight-to-isoclinally folded metapelites in structural contact with orthogneiss. Fold generations are orthogonal and partitioned such that the northern area is dominated by …


Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly DeGrandpre 2020 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly Degrandpre

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic eruptions can cause significant socioeconomic loss, but a better understanding of the processes and dynamics influencing the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems will advance the development of eruption forecasting models that will ultimately mitigate hazards and risks associated with eruptive events. Geologic and geophysical data must be integrated in 3D, finite- element, multiphysical, numerical models to define the coupled evolution of magmatic and crustal stress regimes in volcanic environments, but in data limited regions this is not always an option. The remote nature of the Aleutian Island Arc restricts ground-based monitoring and sampling efforts, and due to sparse temporal …


A Micromechanics-Based Multiscale Approach Toward Continental Deformation, With Application To Ductile High-Strain Zones And Quartz Flow Laws, Xi Lu 2020 The University of Western Ontario

A Micromechanics-Based Multiscale Approach Toward Continental Deformation, With Application To Ductile High-Strain Zones And Quartz Flow Laws, Xi Lu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Earth’s lithosphere may be regarded as a composite material made of rheologically heterogeneous elements. The presence of these heterogeneous elements causes flow partitioning, making the deformation of Earth’s lithosphere heterogeneous on all observation scales. Understanding the multiscale heterogeneous deformation and the overall rheology of the lithosphere is very important in structural geology and tectonics. The overall rheology of Earth’s lithosphere on a given observation scale must be obtained from the properties of all constituents and may evolve during the deformation due to the fabric development. Both the problem of flow partitioning and characterization of the overall rheology are closely related …


Late Cretaceous Stratigraphy And Paleoceanographic Evolution In The Great Australian Bight Basin Based On Results From Iodp Site U1512, K. G. MacLeod, Lloyd T. White, Carmine C. Wainman, Mathieu Martinez, Matthew M. Jones, Sietske J. Batenburg, Laurent Riquier, Shannon J. Haynes, David K. Watkins, K. A. Bogus, H.-J. Brumsack, R. do Monte Guerra, Kirsty M. Edgar, Trine Edvardsen, Dennis Harry, Takashi Hasegawa, R. W. Hobbs, Brian T. Huber, T. Jiang, J. Kuroda, E. Y. Lee, Yong-Xiang Li, Alessandro Maritatai, Lauren K. O'Connor, Maria Rose Petrizzo, Tracy M. Quan, C. Richter, Maria Luisa Garcia Tejada, G. Tagliaro, Erik Wolfgring, Zhaokai Xu 2020 University of Missouri

Late Cretaceous Stratigraphy And Paleoceanographic Evolution In The Great Australian Bight Basin Based On Results From Iodp Site U1512, K. G. Macleod, Lloyd T. White, Carmine C. Wainman, Mathieu Martinez, Matthew M. Jones, Sietske J. Batenburg, Laurent Riquier, Shannon J. Haynes, David K. Watkins, K. A. Bogus, H.-J. Brumsack, R. Do Monte Guerra, Kirsty M. Edgar, Trine Edvardsen, Dennis Harry, Takashi Hasegawa, R. W. Hobbs, Brian T. Huber, T. Jiang, J. Kuroda, E. Y. Lee, Yong-Xiang Li, Alessandro Maritatai, Lauren K. O'Connor, Maria Rose Petrizzo, Tracy M. Quan, C. Richter, Maria Luisa Garcia Tejada, G. Tagliaro, Erik Wolfgring, Zhaokai Xu

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Upper Cretaceous sedimentary sequence at International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1512 in the Ceduna Sub-basin of the Great Australian Bight represents a continuous, N 690 m thick interval of black silty clay and claystone spanning the lower Turonian through Lower Campanian (~10 million years). Sediments were deposited in an elongate, ~E-W oriented, ~2500 km long rift system that developed between Australia and Antarctica with an open-ocean connection to the west and a continental bridge to the east. Site U1512 cores provide a unique, continuous record of Late Cretaceous deposition in the Ceduna Sub-basin on the hanging wall of the …


Microwave Brightness Temperature Characteristics Of Three Strong Earthquakes In Sichuan Province, China, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh, Yueju Cui, Ke Sun 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Microwave Brightness Temperature Characteristics Of Three Strong Earthquakes In Sichuan Province, China, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh, Yueju Cui, Ke Sun

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Passive microwave remote sensing technology is an effective means to identify the thermal anomalies associated with earthquakes due to its penetrating capability through clouds compared with infrared sensors. However, observed microwave brightness temperature is strongly influenced by soil moisture and other surface parameters. In the present article, the segmented threshold method has been proposed to detect anomalous microwave brightness temperature associated with the strong earthquakes occurred in Sichuan province, China, an earthquake-prone area with high soil moisture. The index of microwave radiation anomaly (IMRA) computed by the proposed method is found to enhance prior to the three strong earthquakes, 2008 …


Comparisons Between Tethyan Anorthosite-Bearing Ophiolites And Archean Anorthosite-Bearing Layered Intrusions: Implications For Archean Geodynamic Processes, Ali Polat, Paul Sotiriou 2020 University of Windsor

Comparisons Between Tethyan Anorthosite-Bearing Ophiolites And Archean Anorthosite-Bearing Layered Intrusions: Implications For Archean Geodynamic Processes, Ali Polat, Paul Sotiriou

Earth & Environmental Sciences Publications

Elucidating the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting(s) of anorthosites in Archean layered intrusions and Tethyan ophiolites has significant implications for crustal evolution and growth throughout Earth history. Archean anorthosite-bearing layered intrusions occur on every continent. Tethyan ophiolites occur in Europe, Africa, and Asia. In this contribution, the field, petrographic, petrological, and geochemical characteristics of 100 Tethyan anorthosite-bearing ophiolites and 155 Archean anorthosite-bearing layered intrusions are compared. Tethyan anorthosite-bearing ophiolites range from Devonian to Paleocene in age, are variably composite, contain anorthosites with highly calcic (An44-100) plagioclase and magmatic amphibole. These ophiolites formed predominantly at convergent plate margins, with some …


Testing Interpretations Of The Displacement Magnitude Of The Teton Fault And Uplift Of The Teton Range, Wyoming With Integrated Flexural-Kinematic And Thermal Modeling, Autumn Helfrich 2020 University of Kentucky

Testing Interpretations Of The Displacement Magnitude Of The Teton Fault And Uplift Of The Teton Range, Wyoming With Integrated Flexural-Kinematic And Thermal Modeling, Autumn Helfrich

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The Teton fault is a range-front normal fault in northwestern Wyoming. Previous estimates of the maximum displacement (Dmax) on the Teton fault cover a wide range (2 - 11 km). Discrepancies also exist regarding the slip onset timing, which spans 2 - 13 Ma. To address these discrepancies, the exhumation history of the Teton Range is here investigated using forward flexural-kinematic (Move) and thermal-kinematic (Pecube) models that can be compared with previously reported apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages from Mount Moran, which has been previously hypothesized to represent the …


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