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Viscous Anisotropy Of Wet Olivine Aggregates, Megan Ryan 2022 The University of Akron

Viscous Anisotropy Of Wet Olivine Aggregates, Megan Ryan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I will deform natural olivine aggregates (Anita Bay dunite) cores in various orientations relative to a natural mineral alignment in the rock under both dry and wet conditions. Different orientations in regards to this mineral alignment will produce deformation on different slip systems. Stress measurements will be taken during the deformation of the samples in order to characterize any changes in viscous anisotropy observed due to the changes in slip system. Anita Bay dunite is a proxy for the main mineral found in the mantle wedge of subduction zones. Therefore, understanding the transformation of viscosity and slip systems in this …


Dynamic Relationship Study Between The Observed Seismicity And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of Lineament Changes In Palghar, North Maharashtra (India), Biswajit Nath, Ramesh P. Singh, Vineet K. Gahalaut, Ajay P. Singh 2021 University of Chittagongc

Dynamic Relationship Study Between The Observed Seismicity And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of Lineament Changes In Palghar, North Maharashtra (India), Biswajit Nath, Ramesh P. Singh, Vineet K. Gahalaut, Ajay P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Palghar region (north Maharashtra, India), located in the northwestern part of the stable continental region of India, experienced a low magnitude earthquake swarm, which was initiated in September 2018 and is continuing to date (as of October 2021). From December 2018 to December 2020, ~5000 earthquakes with magnitudes from M1.2 to M3.8 occurred in a small region of 20 × 10 km2. These earthquakes were probably triggered by fluid migration during seasonal rainfall. In this study, we have used multi-temporal Landsat satellite data of the year 2000, 2015, 2018, 2019, and 2020, extracted lineaments, and studied the …


Spatial Variations Of Stochastic Noise Properties In Gps Time Series, Xiaoxing He, Michael Simon Bos, Jean-Philippe Montillet, Rui Fernandes, Timothy I. Melbourne, Weiping Jiang, Wudong Li 2021 Jiangxi University of Science and Technology

Spatial Variations Of Stochastic Noise Properties In Gps Time Series, Xiaoxing He, Michael Simon Bos, Jean-Philippe Montillet, Rui Fernandes, Timothy I. Melbourne, Weiping Jiang, Wudong Li

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The noise in position time series of 568 GPS (Global Position System) stations across North America with an observation span of ten years has been investigated using solutions from two processing centers, namely, the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) and New Mexico Tech (NMT). It is well known that in the frequency domain, the noise exhibits a power-law behavior with a spectral index of around −1. By fitting various noise models to the observations and selecting the most likely one, we demonstrate that the spectral index in some regions flattens to zero at long periods while in other regions it …


Timescales Of Magma Transport In The Columbia River Flood Basalts, Determined By Paleomagnetic Data, Joseph Biasi, Leif Karlstrom 2021 Dartmouth College

Timescales Of Magma Transport In The Columbia River Flood Basalts, Determined By Paleomagnetic Data, Joseph Biasi, Leif Karlstrom

Other Staff Materials

Flood basalts represent major events in Earth History, in part because they are linked to large climate perturbations and mass extinctions. However, the durations of individual flood basalt eruptions, which directly impact potential environmental crises, are poorly constrained. Here we use a combination of paleomagnetic data and thermal modeling to create a magnetic geothermometer (MGT) that can constrain the active transport lifetime of magmatic conduits and intrusions. We apply the MGT technique to eight feeder dike segments of the Columbia River basalts (CRB), demonstrating that some dike segments were actively heating host rocks for less than one month, while other …


Tectonic And Geotechnical Review Of Bengal Basin For Seismic Risk Assessment In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Jnana Ranjan Kayal, Daya Shanker, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Arif M. Sikder, M Zillur Rahman, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan 2021 John Turner Consulting, Inc.

Tectonic And Geotechnical Review Of Bengal Basin For Seismic Risk Assessment In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Jnana Ranjan Kayal, Daya Shanker, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Arif M. Sikder, M Zillur Rahman, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan

Publications and Research

Four major geotectonic provinces of the basin are recognized: 1) the continental slope to the west of the Hinge Zone, 2) the stable shelf, 3) the deep central trough (Sylhet-Hatiya) and 4) the Chittagong-Tripura fold belt to the east. The ~300 km long Dauki Fault demarcates the elevated Shillong Plateau, part of the Indian Shield to the north and the deep basin to the south. The basin experienced three strong to major intraplate earthquakes: a) 1885 Bengal earthquake (rev. Mw 6.8) close to the Hinge Zone, b) 1918 Srimangal earthquake (rev. Mw 7.1) on the Sylhet (trough) fault and c) …


Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti 2021 Foundation “G. Giuliani ONLUS”

Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This contribution is addressed to an introductive university course on the correlation existing between radon emission and earthquakes processes held following a flipped-class approach where students receive didactic materials prior to face-to-face lessons. This research was initially started to investigate the real correlation between Radon emission from the Earth and the occurrence of strong earthquakes by using measurements of hourly Radon flow variation. During quiet seismogenic conditions, we observe an unvarying level of Radon emission in the air. Before a strong earthquake, substantial variations of Radon (222Rn) concentration have been observed in the air, probably because of the …


Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. DePaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn MacInnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. Depaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn Macinnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

On September 16, 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake struck the north-central Chile coast, triggering a tsunami observed along 500 km of coastline, between Huasco (28.5°S) and San Antonio (33.5°S). This tsunami provided a unique opportunity to examine the nature of tsunami deposits in a semi-arid, siliciclastic environment where stratigraphic and sedimentological records of past tsunamis are difficult to distinguish. To improve our ability to identify such evidence, we targeted one of the few low-energy, organic-rich depositional environments in north-central Chile: Pachingo marsh in Tongoy Bay (30.3°S).

We found sedimentary evidence of the 2015 and one previous tsunami as tabular …


Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski 2021 Missouri State University

Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski

MSU Graduate Theses

Landslides are common hazards that produce devastating effects worldwide. Within the United States, the Appalachian Mountains are identified as an area of moderate to high susceptibility and incidence for landslides (Mirus et al., 2020; Wieczorek and Morgan, 2008). Given the presence of active seismic zones (eastern Tennessee and Giles County seismic zones) and variable rainfall due to seasonal storms (hurricanes) throughout the Appalachians, ancient earthquake activity or intense rainfall may trigger mass wasting events. Regional bedrock joints may further control the susceptibility of landslides to develop in specific locations during trigger events by providing a pre-existing weakness in the substrate. …


Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu 2021 Missouri State University

Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu

MSU Graduate Theses

The Alabama Blue Ridge (USA) of the southern Appalachians contains metamorphic rocks and structures associated with island arc accretion and continent-continent collision that record the Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. The western Blue Ridge is underlain by Cambrian to Mississippian, clastic and carbonate, low-grade, greenschist facies metamorphic Talladega belt that formed outboard from the Alabama promontory or along the Laurentian margin. The eastern Blue Ridge contains the Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic, lithologically diverse, high grade, middle to upper amphibolite facies Ashland Supergroup. Geologic mapping of the Clairmont Springs 7.5- minute quadrangle unveils tectonic relationships between the eastern and western Blue Ridge and …


Geologist Syed Humayun Akhter Is Leading The Bangladesh Open University, Nazrul I. Khandaker 2021 CUNY York College

Geologist Syed Humayun Akhter Is Leading The Bangladesh Open University, Nazrul I. Khandaker

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu 2021 CUNY Queens College

A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu

Publications and Research

The Sun comprises 99.9% of the solar system mass so it is expected that Sun terrestrial planet interactions can influence the motion as well as the rotation of the terrestrial planets.Gravity affects the planet orbital motions while the changing magnetic fields of the Sun can influence the planet rotations. Planets that manifest a magnetic field dominate any weaker magnetic fields from the Sun, but the rotation of terrestrial planets without a magnetic field interacts with the changing Sun’s field dependent on the electrical conductivity of the core region. It is determined that the average planet density becomes a useful quantity …


Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky 2021 Utah State University

Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky

Browse all Datasets

We performed macroscopic, optical petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and geochemical analyses on rock core acquired across the San Andreas Fault at Elizabeth Lake, California, in order to understand the distribution and accommodation of fault-related slip and energy within the shallow damage zone of this continental scale strike-slip fault. We characterized the deformation structures, alteration textures, and elemental variabilities to constrain the properties of the uppermost ~2 km fault-related damage zone at this site. We identified evidence for coseismic slip in the form of pulverized rocks, injection veins, clay-clast aggregates, and pseudotachylyte, and aseismic slip through calcite twins, dilatant vein fills, …


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering forces encompass …


Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter 2021 James Madison University

Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Conodont species, CAI and lithofacies analysis are used as methods of correlation to determine the relative age, depositional environment, and post depositional burial history of the Edinburg Formation in central Virginia. Samples collected for conodont microfossils yielded faunas of Baltoniodus sp. or Amorphognathus sp., Periodon grandis and Protopanderodus liripipus from a site near Luray and Drepanoistodus suberectus, Plectodina sp., Protopanderodus liripipus, Oistodus sp., Phragmodus undatus, Erismodus radicans and Panderodus gracilis from a site in Harrisonburg. The species supports a Late Ordovician (Late Sandbian age). Conodonts from both sites have a CAI of 4-5, indicating post-depositional heating of …


Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Joints are the most common deformation structure in the Earth’s upper crust and exert a significant influence on structural stability, landscape morphology, and fluid flow . Therefore, a greater understanding of fracture parameters (e.g., length, aperture, etc.) allows us to more accurately predict their presence, persistence, and prevalence, in the subsurface . We study the fracture spacing of two sub-orthogonal joint sets—66 NE-246 SW and 330 NW-150 SE—in the Caples Lake granodiorite of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Specifically, we investigate 1) their spacing distributions with a keen interest in power-law (fractal) spacing, 2) distribution comparisons between master and cross …


Geochemical Classification Of The East Central Minnesota Batholith, Simon Taylor 2021 Winona State University

Geochemical Classification Of The East Central Minnesota Batholith, Simon Taylor

Ramaley Celebration

The East Central Minnesota Batholith (ECMB) is a series of granitic plutons exposed along the Sauk river valley near St. Cloud Minnesota. The currently accepted understanding of the processes that generated these plutons relies on the location and age of emplacement. The location of the ECMB is within a terrain that was accreted onto the North American continent during the Penokean orogeny between 1875 to 1835 Ma (Van Schmus, 1976). However the granites within the ECMB are younger than that having ages between 1772 Ma and 1783 Ma (Holm et al., 2005), similar to ages for the Yavapai orogeny occurring …


Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden 2021 Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden

International Journal of Speleology

A novel method to map and quantitatively describe very gentle folds (limb dip <5o) at cratonic cave sites was evaluated at Snail Shell and Nanna Caves, central Tennessee, USA. Elevations from the global SRTM digital terrain model (DTM) were assigned to points on late Ordovician geologic contacts, and the elevations of the points were used to interpolate 28 m cell size natural neighbor digital elevation models (DEM’s) of the contacts. The global Forest Canopy Height Dataset was subtracted from the global 28 m cell size AW3D30 digital surface model (DSM) to create a DTM, and that DTM was applied …


An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari 2021 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Earth’s lithosphere is heterogeneous and composed of rheologically distinct elements at various scales of observations. This causes the flow of rocks to vary with space and time, which may influence the formation of various kinds of geological rock records. This thesis provides quantitative solutions to some first-order problems in structural geology regarding this heterogeneous flow variation and thereby the development of various geological rock records at different scales of observations.

Pressure in a rheologically heterogeneous element may deviate from its ambient value and if significant, may influence the metamorphic assemblages. This might cause problems in the routine use of geothermobarometry-based …


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the …


Boulders As A Lithologic Control On River And Landscape Response To Tectonic Forcing At The Mendocino Triple Junction, Charles Shobe, Georgina Bennett, Gregory Tucker, Kevin Roback, Scott Miller, Joshua Roering 2021 West Virginia University

Boulders As A Lithologic Control On River And Landscape Response To Tectonic Forcing At The Mendocino Triple Junction, Charles Shobe, Georgina Bennett, Gregory Tucker, Kevin Roback, Scott Miller, Joshua Roering

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Constraining Earth’s sediment mass balance over geologic time requires a quantitative understanding of how landscapes respond to transient tectonic perturbations. However, the mechanisms by which bedrock lithology governs landscape response remain poorly understood. Rock type influences the size of sediment delivered to river channels, which controls how efficiently rivers respond to tectonic forcing. The Mendocino triple junction region of northern California, USA, is one landscape in which large boulders, delivered by hillslope failures to channels, may alter the pace of landscape response to a pulse of rock uplift. Boulders frequently delivered by earthflows in one lithology, the Franciscan mélange, have …


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