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Machine Learning Predicts Aperiodic Laboratory Earthquakes, Olha Tanyuk, Daniel Davieau, Charles South, Daniel W. Engels 2019 Southern Methodist University

Machine Learning Predicts Aperiodic Laboratory Earthquakes, Olha Tanyuk, Daniel Davieau, Charles South, Daniel W. Engels

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we find a pattern of aperiodic seismic signals that precede earthquakes at any time in a laboratory earthquake’s cycle using a small window of time. We use a data set that comes from a classic laboratory experiment having several stick-slip displacements (earthquakes), a type of experiment which has been studied as a simulation of seismologic faults for decades. This data exhibits similar behavior to natural earthquakes, so the same approach may work in predicting the timing of them. Here we show that by applying random forest machine learning technique to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory …


In-Situ Zircon And Monazite Geochronology From Compositionally Distinct Layers In A Single Migmatitic Paragneiss Sample Located In The Eastern Adirondack Mountains, Ny, Kaitlyn Suarez 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

In-Situ Zircon And Monazite Geochronology From Compositionally Distinct Layers In A Single Migmatitic Paragneiss Sample Located In The Eastern Adirondack Mountains, Ny, Kaitlyn Suarez

Masters Theses

Migmatites are a common rock type in the Adirondack Mountains, NY. We analyzed a single sample of biotite-garnet-sillimanite paragneiss with foliation parallel leucosome along Route 22 south of Whitehall, NY in order to determine the timing of melting using both in-situ monazite and zircon U/Pb geochronology from the restite and leucosome layers of the same rock. Monazite was analyzed via in-situ EMPA on the Ultrachron microprobe at the University of Massachusetts. Zircon was analyzed via LA-ICP-MS (in-situ and mounted mineral separates) at the LaserChron Center. Monazite analyses from the restite yielded six compositionally distinct populations with dates of 1178 ± …


Geologic Mapping And Geochronology Of The Heavens Gate 7.5-Minute Quadrangle: How Long Does It Take To Accrete An Island Arc To A Continent?, Samuel Gordon DeYoung 2019 Missouri State University

Geologic Mapping And Geochronology Of The Heavens Gate 7.5-Minute Quadrangle: How Long Does It Take To Accrete An Island Arc To A Continent?, Samuel Gordon Deyoung

MSU Graduate Theses

The Blue Mountain province of western Idaho and eastern Oregon is composed of a mélange of geologic terranes that represent Permian and Triassic island arcs that collided with North America in the Mesozoic, resulting in westward growth of the continent. Separating these accreted rocks from North America are the mid- crustal metamorphic rocks of the Salmon River suture zone. Containing units and features associated with the accreted island arc terranes and suture zone is the Heavens Gate 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in Idaho county, Idaho. Within the quadrangle the Salmon River suture zone is divided into structural blocks by a series …


Fault Slip And Exhumation History Of The Willard Thrust Sheet, Sevier Fold‐Thrust Belt, Utah: Relations To Wedge Propagation, Hinterland Uplift, And Foreland Basin Sedimentation, W. A. Yonkee, Bryan Eleogram, Michael L. Wells, Daniel F. Stockli, Shari Kelley, D. E. Barber 2019 Weber State University

Fault Slip And Exhumation History Of The Willard Thrust Sheet, Sevier Fold‐Thrust Belt, Utah: Relations To Wedge Propagation, Hinterland Uplift, And Foreland Basin Sedimentation, W. A. Yonkee, Bryan Eleogram, Michael L. Wells, Daniel F. Stockli, Shari Kelley, D. E. Barber

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Zircon (U‐Th)/He (ZHe) and zircon fission track thermochronometric data for 47 samples spanning the areally extensive Willard thrust sheet within the western part of the Sevier fold‐thrust belt record enhanced cooling and exhumation during major thrust slip spanning approximately 125–90 Ma. ZHe and zircon fission track age‐paleodepth patterns along structural transects and age‐distance relations along stratigraphic‐parallel traverses, combined with thermo‐kinematic modeling, constrain the fault slip history, with estimated slip rates of ~1 km/Myr from 125 to 105 Ma, increasing to ~3 km/Myr from 105 to 92 Ma, and then decreasing as major slip was transferred onto eastern thrusts. Exhumation was …


Structural Control Of Mesic Vegetation Communities Within The Owl And Bear Creek Watersheds, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner, Matthew McBroom, Kenneth W. Farrish, Kevin Stafford 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Structural Control Of Mesic Vegetation Communities Within The Owl And Bear Creek Watersheds, Fort Hood Military Installation, Texas, Melinda S. Faulkner, Matthew Mcbroom, Kenneth W. Farrish, Kevin Stafford

Faculty Publications

The Fort Hood Military Installation is a karst landscape, dominated by Lower Cretaceous carbonates of the Trinity and Fredericksburg groups. The study area is the northeastern peninsula known as the Owl Mountain Province, utilized by the U.S. Army for troop maneuvers and training. The geomorphic evolution of the province has been controlled by the structural development of incised canyons in the Owl and Bear creek watersheds, following the deformational trend of the Balcones/Ouachita fault system and the transverse Belton High-Central Texas Reef Trend. These trends control cave development in the subsurface, karst manifestations at the surface, joints in outcrop, stream …


Ages Of Prehistoric Earthquakes On The Banning Strand Of The San Andreas Fault, Near North Palm Springs, California, Bryan Castillo 2019 CSUSAN BERNARDINO

Ages Of Prehistoric Earthquakes On The Banning Strand Of The San Andreas Fault, Near North Palm Springs, California, Bryan Castillo

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

We studied a paleoseismic trench that was excavated across the Banning strand of the San Andreas Fault by Petra Geosciences (33.9172°, -116.538°). The trench exposed a ~40 m wide fault zone in interbedded alluvial sand gravel, silt and clay deposits. We present the first paleoseismic record for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault. The most recent event occurred sometime between 730 and 950 cal BP, potentially coincident with rupture of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust. We interpret that five earthquakes have occurred since 3.3-2.5 ka and eight earthquakes have likely occurred since 7.1-5.7 ka. It is possible …


Middle Miocene To Holocene History Of The Delacroix Island Fault System, Jarrett Leigh Levesh 2019 University of New Orleans

Middle Miocene To Holocene History Of The Delacroix Island Fault System, Jarrett Leigh Levesh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

An in-depth field study of the Delacroix Island producing field illustrates the evolution of the east-trending Delacroix Island Fault during the last 13 My. Well log correlations and 3-D seismic interpretation of 22 subsurface bio-stratigraphic horizons across the fault reveal variable stratigraphic thicknesses and displacement. Wells, with well log curve data as shallow as 31 m (100 ft) below the surface, were used to calculate interval thicknesses, expansion indices, sediment accumulation rates, burial history and magnitudes of displacement. Through these analyses, a correlation was found between the positioning of ancient Miocene depocenters over Delacroix Island and a period of increased …


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd 2019 Missouri State University

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Mogollon-Datil Volcanic Field, New Mexico, Conor Lee O'Dowd

MSU Graduate Theses

The Mogollon-Datil volcanic field (MDVF), located in southern New Mexico, is the result of episodic volcanism and the transition between arc and rift magmatism. The MDVF has been the focus of several mapping, stratigraphic, petrologic, geochronological, and geochemical studies to understand the complete volcanic and tectonic history. However, the majority of previous studies lack geochemical analyses on intermediate composition volcanic rocks, giving more attention to the large-volume ignimbrites and rhyolite flows as well as the minor basalt flows that occurred between 36 and 20 Ma. I present new whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses and petrographic textures on one of the …


A Bayesian Framework For Estimating Seismic Wave Arrival Time, Hua Zhong 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Bayesian Framework For Estimating Seismic Wave Arrival Time, Hua Zhong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Because earthquakes have a large impact on human society, statistical methods for better studying earthquakes are required. One characteristic of earthquakes is the arrival time of seismic waves at a seismic signal sensor. Once we can estimate the earthquake arrival time accurately, the earthquake location can be triangulated, and assistance can be sent to that area correctly. This study presents a Bayesian framework to predict the arrival time of seismic waves with associated uncertainty. We use a change point framework to model the different conditions before and after the seismic wave arrives. To evaluate the performance of the model, we …


Seismic Landslide Hazard Mapping For Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Ali Fallah Yeznabad, Sheri E. Molnar, Hesham M. El Naggar 2019 Western University

Seismic Landslide Hazard Mapping For Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Ali Fallah Yeznabad, Sheri E. Molnar, Hesham M. El Naggar

Western Research Forum

The lower Mainland of southwest British Columbia (BC) hosts about 3.5 million people and significant infrastructures of national importance. Southwestern BC has the highest seismic risk in Canada with significant potential to cause earthquake-induced hazards including tsunamis, liquefaction and landslides. A Cascadia mega-thrust (MW 9) earthquake is predicted to generate $75 billion Canadian dollars in losses. This damage can be resulted from ground shaking or its secondary phenomena like landslides; ground shaking during earthquakes may trigger landslides that can damage or destroy buildings, bury roads and highways and kill and injure people. In Canada, during the past century and …


Geophysical Analysis Of The Midcontinent Rift’S Subsurface Structure In Southeastern Nebraska, Patrick Szopinski 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Geophysical Analysis Of The Midcontinent Rift’S Subsurface Structure In Southeastern Nebraska, Patrick Szopinski

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS) is a 1.1 billion-year-old failed rift system that spans much of the North American continental interior. The MCRS is exposed at Lake Superior and is buried in the subsurface along its southwest-extending arm through southeastern Nebraska. Due to the presence of buried volcanic rocks, the MCRS has characteristic highly-pronounced potential field anomalies (gravity and magnetic). Despite these large anomalies, not much is known about the subsurface faulting associated with the rift zone in the Midwest. The goal of this project is to attempt to use integrated analysis of collected geophysical data from multiple methods to …


Effectiveness Of Four Water-Bearing Zones Of The Glacierized Basin In Meltwater Runoff Modeling, Umesh K. Haritashya 2019 University of Dayton

Effectiveness Of Four Water-Bearing Zones Of The Glacierized Basin In Meltwater Runoff Modeling, Umesh K. Haritashya

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meltwater runoff modeling from glacierized basins needs several input data, including total meltwater contributing area. This study utilizes optical remote sensing data to assess glacierized basins in the central Himalayas where snow and glaciers contribute substantially to the water resources. Result shows that there are four main water-bearing zones in the basin: (a) dry snow, (b) wet snow, (c) exposed glacial ice, and (d) debris-covered glacial ice, and it is possible to differentiate and map these zones and their spatio-temporal variations from satellite sensor data. These zones can then be incorporated in meltwater runoff modeling as separate entities because they …


Climate Change And The Global Pattern Of Moraine-Dammed Glacial Lake Outburst Floods, Stephan Harrison, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Christian Huggel, John Reynolds, Dan H. Shugar, Richard A. Betts, Neil Glasser, Umesh K. Haritashya, Jan Klimeš, Liam Reinhardt, Yvonne Schaub, Andy Wiltshire, Dhananjay Regmi, Vít Vilímek 2019 University of Exeter

Climate Change And The Global Pattern Of Moraine-Dammed Glacial Lake Outburst Floods, Stephan Harrison, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Christian Huggel, John Reynolds, Dan H. Shugar, Richard A. Betts, Neil Glasser, Umesh K. Haritashya, Jan Klimeš, Liam Reinhardt, Yvonne Schaub, Andy Wiltshire, Dhananjay Regmi, Vít Vilímek

Umesh K. Haritashya

Despite recent research identifying a clear anthropogenic impact on glacier recession, the effect of recent climate change on glacier-related hazards is at present unclear. Here we present the first global spatio-temporal assessment of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) focusing explicitly on lake drainage following moraine dam failure. These floods occur as mountain glaciers recede and downwaste. GLOFs can have an enormous impact on downstream communities and infrastructure. Our assessment of GLOFs associated with the rapid drainage of moraine-dammed lakes provides insights into the historical trends of GLOFs and their distributions under current and future global climate change. We observe a …


Evolution And Controls Of Large Glacial Lakes In The Nepal Himalaya, Umesh K. Haritashya, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Dan H. Shugar, Gregory J. Leonard, Katherine Strattman, C. Scott Watson, David Shean, Stephan Harrison, Kyle T. Mandli, Dhananjay Regmi 2019 University of Dayton

Evolution And Controls Of Large Glacial Lakes In The Nepal Himalaya, Umesh K. Haritashya, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Dan H. Shugar, Gregory J. Leonard, Katherine Strattman, C. Scott Watson, David Shean, Stephan Harrison, Kyle T. Mandli, Dhananjay Regmi

Umesh K. Haritashya

Glacier recession driven by climate change produces glacial lakes, some of which are hazardous. Our study assesses the evolution of three of the most hazardous moraine-dammed proglacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya—Imja, Lower Barun, and Thulagi. Imja Lake (up to 150 m deep; 78.4 x 106 m3 volume; surveyed in October 2014) and Lower Barun Lake (205 m maximum observed depth; 112.3 x 106 m3 volume; surveyed in October 2015) are much deeper than previously measured, and their readily drainable volumes are slowly growing. Their surface areas have been increasing at an accelerating pace from a …


Supplemental Data For 'Evolution And Controls Of Large Glacial Lakes In The Nepal Himalaya', Umesh K. Haritashya, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Dan H. Shugar, Gregory J. Leonard, Katherine Strattman, C. Scott Watson, David Shean, Stephan Harrison, Kyle T. Mandli, Dhananjay Regmi 2019 University of Dayton

Supplemental Data For 'Evolution And Controls Of Large Glacial Lakes In The Nepal Himalaya', Umesh K. Haritashya, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Dan H. Shugar, Gregory J. Leonard, Katherine Strattman, C. Scott Watson, David Shean, Stephan Harrison, Kyle T. Mandli, Dhananjay Regmi

Umesh K. Haritashya

Supplementary data for the article "Evolution and Controls of Large Glacial Lakes in the Nepal Himalaya"


Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski 2019 Purdue University

Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


Late Devonian Sedimentary Record Of Appalachian Tectonics And Erosion: Geochronology And Geochemistry Of Detrital Muscovite And Zircon From Central Pennsylvania Strata, Cole T. Gardner 2019 Bucknell University

Late Devonian Sedimentary Record Of Appalachian Tectonics And Erosion: Geochronology And Geochemistry Of Detrital Muscovite And Zircon From Central Pennsylvania Strata, Cole T. Gardner

Honors Theses

Foreland basin sediment deposition in North-Central Pennsylvania during Late Devonian time records erosion of hinterland source terranes exhumed during regional plate convergence, including the collisional Acadian orogeny. The Catskill clastic wedge preserves a coarsening-upwards stratigraphic succession from marine to fluvial environments associated with sediment progradation and sea-level regression, yet depositional timescales and quantitative provenance data are largely unconstrained.

Detailed facies analysis of eight outcrops spanning >2 km of stratigraphy in Lycoming Co., Pennsylvania documents distinct upsection changes, interpreted to reflect changes in depositional environments consistent with previous sedimentology of the Catskill clastic wedge. Stratigraphy displays a transition from nearshore marine …


Refining The Onset Timing And Slip History Along The Northern Part Of The Teton Fault, Rachel Montague Hoar 2019 University of Kentucky

Refining The Onset Timing And Slip History Along The Northern Part Of The Teton Fault, Rachel Montague Hoar

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

A new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) dataset from subvertical transects collected in the Teton and Gallatin Ranges in the Teton-Yellowstone region provides insight for the slip history and length of the Teton fault. Along the northernmost segment of the Teton fault, inverse thermal history modeling of AHe data from Eagles Rest Peak yield a ~9 Ma age for onset of fault slip. This age supports previous interpretations that Mount Moran may be the true center of the Teton fault. This refined interpretation coupled with lengthdisplacement fault scaling analysis and previous estimates of total fault displacement (~6 km) indicates that the Teton …


Determining Rates Of Landscape Response To Tectonic Forcing Across A Range Of Temporal Scales And Erosional Mechanisms: Teton Range, Wy, Meredith Swallom 2019 University of Kentucky

Determining Rates Of Landscape Response To Tectonic Forcing Across A Range Of Temporal Scales And Erosional Mechanisms: Teton Range, Wy, Meredith Swallom

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Understanding how mountain landscapes respond to variations in tectonic forcing over a range of temporal scales in active mountain belts remains as a prominent challenge in tectonic and geomorphological studies. Although a number of empirical and numerical studies have examined this problem, many of them were complicated by issues of scale and climatic variability. More specifically, the relative efficiencies of fluvial and glacial erosion, which are presumably controlled by climate, are difficult to unravel. The Teton Range in Wyoming, which results from motion on the crustal-scale Teton fault, is an ideal natural laboratory for addressing this challenge as the tectonic …


Characterizations Of Linear Ground Motion Site Response In The New Madrid And Wabash Valley Seismic Zones And Seismicity In The Northern Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone And Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, Nicholas von Seth Carpenter 2019 University of Kentucky

Characterizations Of Linear Ground Motion Site Response In The New Madrid And Wabash Valley Seismic Zones And Seismicity In The Northern Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone And Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, Nicholas Von Seth Carpenter

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

The central and eastern United States is subject to seismic hazards from both natural and induced earthquakes, as evidenced by the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquake sequence, consisting of at least three magnitude 7 and greater earthquakes, and by four magnitude 5 and greater induced earthquakes in Oklahoma since 2011. To mitigate seismic hazards, both earthquake sources and their effects need to be characterized.

Ground motion site response can cause additional damage to susceptible infrastructure and buildings. Recent studies indicate that Vs30, one of the primary site-response predictors used in current engineering practice, is not reliable. To investigate site response in …


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