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Advances In Assessing Flood Hazard And Sediment Dynamics At The Coast, Hannah Baranes 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Advances In Assessing Flood Hazard And Sediment Dynamics At The Coast, Hannah Baranes

Doctoral Dissertations

Earth’s coastlines are shaped by geophysical and human dynamism. Waves, tides, currents, and sea level change reconfigure coastal environments on hourly to centennial timescales, and the coast is experiencing the fastest economic and population growth rates in the world. This coexistence of a dynamic environment and human development makes coastal communities uniquely vulnerable to natural hazards. Climate change is expected to exacerbate flooding and erosion hazards in the future; thus, it is critical that we understand the underlying physical drivers of coastal change. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to improve the mechanistic understanding and quantification of dynamic processes …


Timescales Of Magma Transport In The Columbia River Flood Basalts, Determined By Paleomagnetic Data, Joseph Biasi, Leif Karlstrom 2021 Dartmouth College

Timescales Of Magma Transport In The Columbia River Flood Basalts, Determined By Paleomagnetic Data, Joseph Biasi, Leif Karlstrom

Other Staff Materials

Flood basalts represent major events in Earth History, in part because they are linked to large climate perturbations and mass extinctions. However, the durations of individual flood basalt eruptions, which directly impact potential environmental crises, are poorly constrained. Here we use a combination of paleomagnetic data and thermal modeling to create a magnetic geothermometer (MGT) that can constrain the active transport lifetime of magmatic conduits and intrusions. We apply the MGT technique to eight feeder dike segments of the Columbia River basalts (CRB), demonstrating that some dike segments were actively heating host rocks for less than one month, while other …


Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The vegetation drought response index (VegDRI), which combines traditional climate- and satellite-based approaches for assessing vegetation conditions, offers new insights into assessing the impacts of drought from local to regional scales. In 2011, the U.S. southern Great Plains, which includes Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, was plagued by moderate to extreme drought that was intensified by an extended period of recordbreaking heat. The 2011 drought presented an ideal case study to evaluate the performance of VegDRI in characterizing developing drought conditions. Assessment of the spatiotemporal drought patterns represented in the VegDRI maps showed that the severity and patterns of the …


Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

This lecture will focus on three issues. The first is a presentation of data from the first greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the State of Nebraska, which will be published in the coming weeks. In 2016, emissions from beef cattle made up 23% of net state emissions, and coal for electricity made up 23.7% of net state emissions. The second issue to be addressed are the impacts of the 2012 drought on agriculture in Nebraska and the region. The drought of 2012 indicates that future droughts in the 21st century in the region can be a dominant influence on …


North River And South River Estuary Tidal Marsh And Channel Sediment And Water Level Data, Hannah Baranes, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff, W Rockwell Geyer, Justin Richardson, Frances Griswold 2021 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

North River And South River Estuary Tidal Marsh And Channel Sediment And Water Level Data, Hannah Baranes, Brian Yellen, Jonathan Woodruff, W Rockwell Geyer, Justin Richardson, Frances Griswold

Data and Datasets

The data within this repository are observations from the North-South Rivers estuary and tidal marsh in the Massachusetts (USA) towns of Marshfield, Scituate, and Norwell. Types of data include 1) sediment core data, including x-ray fluorescence data, organic content, and foraminifera counts; 2) tidal channel observations of water level and turbidity; and 3) marsh platform observations of water level and turbidity.


Analysis Of The Vertical Movement Of Active Gnss Stations As A Result Of Semidiurnal Tides, Rose Pearson, Eugen Niculae 2021 Technological University Dublin

Analysis Of The Vertical Movement Of Active Gnss Stations As A Result Of Semidiurnal Tides, Rose Pearson, Eugen Niculae

Conference papers

Ireland is subject to the constant effects and influence of semidiurnal tides. Western coastal regions are exposed to tidal ranges up to and exceeding five metres, consequentially introducing varied water volumes with temporal intervals. In addition, the Earth is elastic in composition, resulting in morphing and warping at the hands of celestial and oceanic forces.

This study looked at Online Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service to accurately monitor the vertical movement of coastal lands. In addition, GNSS Static Post-processing was conducted to discern which method of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) processing is best for detecting VLM (vertical land …


Stochastic Source Modelling And Tsunami Analysis Of The 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii Earthquake, Karina Martinez Alcala 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Stochastic Source Modelling And Tsunami Analysis Of The 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii Earthquake, Karina Martinez Alcala

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Mw 7.8 2012 Haida Gwaii Earthquake triggered a tsunami that highlighted the importance of tsunami hazard assessment on Canada’s Pacific coast. Stochastic source modelling serves as a valuable method to assess future tsunami hazard and has not been performed for this region. The source models characterize the uncertainty of earthquake ruptures by considering variability in fault geometry and slip heterogeneity, which, in turn, allows the consideration of a wide range of tsunami scenarios in the Haida Gwaii region. The model predictions are constrained by observational data and past source inversion studies. One hundred twenty-eight stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated …


Developing A Bytownite Calibration Curve As A Lunar Analogue, Trevor W. Matterson 2021 Western University

Developing A Bytownite Calibration Curve As A Lunar Analogue, Trevor W. Matterson

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Planetary analogue materials are useful to help interpret and predict planetary processes on other planetary bodies that we cannot observe directly. Lunar analogue materials include terrestrial rocks and minerals with compositions and textures like those on the moon. This project investigates the lunar analogue mineral bytownite to quantify shock effects on the moon using strain related mosaicity determined through micro x-ray diffraction (µXRD). Calibrating strain information as a function of shock pressure for these minerals will enable us to extract peak shock pressures (in GPa) from naturally shocked materials, such as lunar meteorites and Apollo samples, using µXRD


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are …


Analysis And Risk Estimation Of High Priority Unstable Rock Slopes In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee And North Carolina, Samantha Farmer 2021 East Tennessee State University

Analysis And Risk Estimation Of High Priority Unstable Rock Slopes In Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee And North Carolina, Samantha Farmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) received 12.5 million visitors in 2020. With a high traffic volume, it is imperative roadways remain open and free from obstruction. Annual unanticipated rockfall events in GRSM often obstruct traffic flow. Using the Unstable Slope Management Program for Federal Land Management Agencies (USMP for FLMA) protocols, this study analyzes high priority unstable rock slopes through 1) creation of an unstable slope geodatabase and 2) generation of a final rockfall risk model using Co-Kriging from a preliminary risk model and susceptibility model. A secondary goal of this study is to provide risk estimation for the …


Ground Control Point Assessment For Suas-Based Sfm Photogrammetry, Bailey Dianne Wolf 2021 Missouri State University

Ground Control Point Assessment For Suas-Based Sfm Photogrammetry, Bailey Dianne Wolf

MSU Graduate Theses

The use of small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) in combination with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry is an evolving tool for geoscientists. SfM photogrammetry allows for rapid acquisition of the data that is required to create orthophotos and Digital Surface Models (DSMs) for a variety of field applications. Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used to reconstruct the DSM and evaluate the accuracy of aerial imagery collected from sUAS. When acquiring data for SfM photogrammetry, GCPs are required for spatial referencing. However, questions remain open regarding the effect of methodological techniques on the precision and accuracy of the resulting DSMs. This …


A Typology Of Drought Decision Making: Synthesizing Across Cases To Understand Drought Preparedness And Response Actions, Amanda E. Cravens, Jen Henderson, Jack Friedman, Nina Burkardt, Ashley E. Cooper, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jamie McEnvoy, Stephanie Paladino, Adam K. Wilke, Hailey Wilmer 2021 Fort Collins Science Center

A Typology Of Drought Decision Making: Synthesizing Across Cases To Understand Drought Preparedness And Response Actions, Amanda E. Cravens, Jen Henderson, Jack Friedman, Nina Burkardt, Ashley E. Cooper, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jamie Mcenvoy, Stephanie Paladino, Adam K. Wilke, Hailey Wilmer

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought is an inescapable reality in many regions, including much of the western United States. With climate change, droughts are predicted to intensify and occur more frequently, making the imperative for drought management even greater. Many diverse actors – including private landowners, business owners, scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and managers and policymakers within tribal, local, state, and federal government agencies – play multiple, often overlapping roles in preparing for and responding to drought. Managing water is, of course, one of the most important roles that humans play in both mitigating and responding to droughts; but, focusing only on “water managers” …


Field And Remote Sensing Analysis Of The 2015 Pyroclastic Density Currents At Colima (Mexico) And Calbuco (Chile) Volcanoes: Implications For Hazard Assessment And Crisis Management, Elodie Macorps 2021 University of South Florida

Field And Remote Sensing Analysis Of The 2015 Pyroclastic Density Currents At Colima (Mexico) And Calbuco (Chile) Volcanoes: Implications For Hazard Assessment And Crisis Management, Elodie Macorps

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although one of the most spectacular phenomena of active volcanoes, Pyroclastic density currents, or PDCs, are considered the most dangerous volcanic hazards. PDCs are avalanches of hot volcanic gases, ash, and larger volcanic fragments that travel at incredible speed down the flank of a volcano. High dynamic pressures, high temperatures, and high velocities are the primary dangers associated with PDCs and lead to near-complete destruction and death.

I use a multi-disciplinary approach to study the deposits left behind by PDCs, in order to understand their dynamics, their interactions with the receiving landscape, and their final distribution, starting on the ground …


Development Of A Flash Drought Intensity Index, Jason A. Otkin, Yafang Zhong, Eric D. Hunt, Jordan I. Christian, Jeffrey B. Basara, Hanh Nguyen, Matthew C. Wheeler, Trent W. Ford, Andrew Hoell, Mark Svoboda, Martha C. Anderson 2021 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Development Of A Flash Drought Intensity Index, Jason A. Otkin, Yafang Zhong, Eric D. Hunt, Jordan I. Christian, Jeffrey B. Basara, Hanh Nguyen, Matthew C. Wheeler, Trent W. Ford, Andrew Hoell, Mark Svoboda, Martha C. Anderson

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Flash droughts are characterized by a period of rapid intensification over sub-seasonal time scales that culminates in the rapid emergence of new or worsening drought impacts. This study presents a new flash drought intensity index (FDII) that accounts for both the unusually rapid rate of drought intensification and its resultant severity. The FDII framework advances our ability to characterize flash drought because it provides a more complete measure of flash drought intensity than existing classification methods that only consider the rate of intensification. The FDII is computed using two terms measuring the maximum rate of intensification (FD_INT) and average drought …


Water Quality Threats, Perceptions Of Climate Change And Behavioral Responses Among Farmers In The Ethiopian Rift Valley, Tewodros R. Godebo, Marc A. Jeuland, Christopher J. Paul, Dagnachew L. Belachew, Peter G. McCornick 2021 Tulane University

Water Quality Threats, Perceptions Of Climate Change And Behavioral Responses Among Farmers In The Ethiopian Rift Valley, Tewodros R. Godebo, Marc A. Jeuland, Christopher J. Paul, Dagnachew L. Belachew, Peter G. Mccornick

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

This work aims to assess water quality for irrigated agriculture, alongside perceptions and adaptations of farmers to climate change in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Climate change is expected to cause a rise in temperature and variability in rainfall in the region, reducing surface water availability and raising dependence on groundwater. The study data come from surveys with 147 farmers living in the Ziway–Shala basin and water quality assessments of 162 samples from groundwater wells and surface water. Most groundwater samples were found to be unsuitable for long term agricultural use due to their high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio, …


Geologic Study Of The Palisades Park, Spokane, Washington, Ethan Jeffrey Ducken, Alex Michael Navarra 2021 Eastern Washington University

Geologic Study Of The Palisades Park, Spokane, Washington, Ethan Jeffrey Ducken, Alex Michael Navarra

Geosciences Student Work

The Palisades Park is a large City owned tract of land located on the western bluffs above Spokane. The purpose of this project was to create a geologic map and assess the features within the park for the benefit of a public conservation group, Friends of the Palisades. There are 3 main units identified by previous research in the vicinity. Volcanic rock units are part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), which erupted primarily between 16.5 to 15.6 MA (Hammond 2013). Large sedimentary interbeds identified as Latah formation present between CRB flows (Swanson et al 1979a, 1979b). Latah formation …


Hydrometeorological Responses To Abrupt Land Surface Change Following Hurricane Michael, Shannon Alexis Nelson 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Hydrometeorological Responses To Abrupt Land Surface Change Following Hurricane Michael, Shannon Alexis Nelson

LSU Master's Theses

While many of the destructive environmental conditions associated with tropical cyclones are well recognized, tropical cyclone-induced defoliation, a reduction in green leaves and mature vegetation, has been largely overlooked as a source of environmental stress following tropical cyclone passage. The land surface change associated with defoliation reduces evapotranspiration and shade, thus altering boundary layer moisture and energy fluxes that drive the local water cycle, for many months after tropical cyclone passage. Understanding the potential for any hydrometeorological impacts arising from such abrupt land surface change is important for guiding future post-hurricane preparedness and recovery planning in coastal communities.

This thesis …


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering forces encompass …


Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch 2021 Augustana College

Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch

Geology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Aeolian process have dominated the lower latitudes of Mars for billions of years. Aeolian landforms can act as records of current and past climates and landscape evolution processes. The etched deposits of Meridiani Planum, a vast suite of layered bedrock extending from southwest Arabia Terra to Schiaparelli crater, have long been noted to have been eroded by aeolian processes. However, little detailed work on the aeolian landforms of Meridiani Planum beyond the Opportunity rover landing site has been done. In this study, I examine wind streaks, aeolian bedforms (including dunes and large ripples), and yardangs in a valley about 370 …


Multi-Dimensional Drought Assessment In Abbay/Upper Blue Nile Basin: The Importance Of Shared Management And Regional Coordination Efforts For Mitigation, Yared Bayissa, Semu Moges, Assefa Melesse, Tsegaye Tadesse, Anteneh Z. Abiy, Abeyou Worqlul 2021 Texas A & M University - College Station

Multi-Dimensional Drought Assessment In Abbay/Upper Blue Nile Basin: The Importance Of Shared Management And Regional Coordination Efforts For Mitigation, Yared Bayissa, Semu Moges, Assefa Melesse, Tsegaye Tadesse, Anteneh Z. Abiy, Abeyou Worqlul

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought is one of the least understood and complex natural hazards often characterized by a significant decrease in water availability for a prolonged period. It can be manifested in one or more forms as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and/or socio-economic drought. The overarching objective of this study is to demonstrate and characterize the different forms of droughts and to assess the multidimensional nature of drought in the Abbay/ Upper Blue Nile River (UBN) basin and its national and regional scale implications. In this study, multiple drought indices derived from in situ and earth observation-based hydro-climatic variables were used. The meteorological drought …


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