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The Effects Of Estradiol-17Β On The Sex Reversal, Survival, And Growth Of Green Sunfish Lepomis Cyanellus, Chad N. Teal, Daniel J. Schill, Susan B. Fogelson, Colby M. Roberts, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Javan M. Bauder, William T. Stewart, Scott A. Bonar 2022 University of Arizona

The Effects Of Estradiol-17Β On The Sex Reversal, Survival, And Growth Of Green Sunfish Lepomis Cyanellus, Chad N. Teal, Daniel J. Schill, Susan B. Fogelson, Colby M. Roberts, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Javan M. Bauder, William T. Stewart, Scott A. Bonar

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The feminization of green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus could expand their utility as a game fish or aquacultured species by preventing overcrowding and precocious reproduction in stocked systems. Feminization of green sunfish could also help elucidate information on their sex determination system. We report the feminization of green sunfish cohorts via oral administration of estradiol-17β (E2) during early development. A low-dose (100 E2 mg per kg of diet) and a high-dose (150 E2 mg per kg of diet) experimental E2 treatment were fed to juvenile green sunfish from 30 to 90 days post-hatch. Fish were subsequently evaluated for any treatment effect …


Climate Change Alters Aging Patterns Of Reservoir Aquatic Habitats, Leandro E. Miranda, Nicky M. Faucheux 2022 U.S. Geological Survey

Climate Change Alters Aging Patterns Of Reservoir Aquatic Habitats, Leandro E. Miranda, Nicky M. Faucheux

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Two slow-moving developments are threatening reservoir aquatic habitats globally: aging and climate change. These events are projected to transform reservoir aquatic habitats in various and often unpredictable ways. Aging affects in-lake habitats directly, whereas climate change affects both in-lake and off-lake conditions. Climate change is expected to accelerate and, in some instances, possibly decelerate aging. Aging can be indexed as functional age, an index that signals the position of a reservoir along its lifespan relying on inlake descriptors of aquatic habitat. Using existing habitat datasets and climate projections, we developed semi-quantitative predictions about the effect of climate change on reservoir …


Sediment Source Fingerprinting As An Aid To Large-Scale Landscape Conservation And Restoration: A Review For The Mississippi River Basin, Zhen Xu, Patrick Belmont, Janice Brahney, Allen C. Gellis 2022 Utah State University

Sediment Source Fingerprinting As An Aid To Large-Scale Landscape Conservation And Restoration: A Review For The Mississippi River Basin, Zhen Xu, Patrick Belmont, Janice Brahney, Allen C. Gellis

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Reliable quantitative information on sediment sources to rivers is critical to mitigate contamination and target conservation and restoration actions. However, for large-scale river basins, determination of the relative importance of sediment sources is complicated by spatiotemporal variability in erosional processes and sediment sources, heterogeneity in sediment transport and deposition, and a paucity of sediment monitoring data. Sediment source fingerprinting is an increasingly adopted field-based technique that identifies the nature and relative source contribution of sediment transported in waterways. Notably, sediment source fingerprinting provides information that is independent of other field, modeling, or remotely sensed techniques. However, the diversity in sampling, …


Self-Supervised Learning For Invariant Representations From Multi-Spectral And Sar Images, Pallavi Jain, Bianca Schoen Phelan, Robert Ross 2022 Technological University Dublin

Self-Supervised Learning For Invariant Representations From Multi-Spectral And Sar Images, Pallavi Jain, Bianca Schoen Phelan, Robert Ross

Articles

Self-Supervised learning (SSL) has become the new state of the art in several domain classification and segmentation tasks. One popular category of SSL are distillation networks such as Bootstrap Your Own Latent (BYOL). This work proposes RS-BYOL, which builds on BYOL in the remote sensing (RS) domain where data are non-trivially different from natural RGB images. Since multi-spectral (MS) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors provide varied spectral and spatial resolution information, we utilise them as an implicit augmentation to learn invariant feature embeddings. In order to learn RS based invariant features with SSL, we trained RS-BYOL in two ways, …


How Green Lakes State Park Got Its Name: The Optics And Appearance Of Fayetteville Green Lakes, Eric A. Schiff 2022 Syracuse University

How Green Lakes State Park Got Its Name: The Optics And Appearance Of Fayetteville Green Lakes, Eric A. Schiff

Physics - All Scholarship

The extraordinary and variable appearance of the Fayetteville Green Lakes in the spring, summer, and fall has been the subject of journalistic and scientific attention for more than 150 years. This article addresses the subject in two sections for differing readerships. The first section is a description of the essential science for a general readership. The second section is an abstract of the science for technically knowledgeable readers. The layout of the article is designed for a folded paper flier suitable for distribution to visitors to the lakes.

The article describes the three key properties of the lakes’ waters that …


Characteristics Of Wet Downburst Wind Events Using Mrms Radar Products, Eliana Globus 2022 University of Alabama in Huntsville

Characteristics Of Wet Downburst Wind Events Using Mrms Radar Products, Eliana Globus

Summer Community of Scholars Posters (RCEU and HCR Combined Programs)

No abstract provided.


Seasonality Of Precipitation In The Southwestern United States During The Late Pleistocene Inferred From Stable Isotopes In Herbivore Tooth Enamel, Matthew J. Kohn, Kathleen B. Springer, Jeffrey S. Pigati, Linda M. Reynard, Amanda E. Drewicz, Justin Crevier, Eric Scott 2022 Boise State University

Seasonality Of Precipitation In The Southwestern United States During The Late Pleistocene Inferred From Stable Isotopes In Herbivore Tooth Enamel, Matthew J. Kohn, Kathleen B. Springer, Jeffrey S. Pigati, Linda M. Reynard, Amanda E. Drewicz, Justin Crevier, Eric Scott

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The late Pleistocene was a climatically dynamic period, with abrupt shifts between cool-wet and warmdry conditions. Increased effective precipitation supported large pluvial lakes and long-lived spring ecosystems in valleys and basins throughout the western and southwestern U.S., but the source and seasonality of the increased precipitation are debated. Increases in the proportions of C4/(C4+ C3) grasses in the diets of large grazers have been ascribed both to increases in summer precipitation and lower atmospheric CO2 levels. Here we present stable carbon and oxygen isotope data from tooth enamel of late Pleistocene herbivores recovered …


Limited Rigor In Studies Of Raptor Mortality And Mitigation At Wind Power Facilities, Tara J. Conkling, Christopher J.W. McClure, Sandra Cuadros, Scott R. Loss, Todd E. Katzner 2022 U.S. Geological Survey

Limited Rigor In Studies Of Raptor Mortality And Mitigation At Wind Power Facilities, Tara J. Conkling, Christopher J.W. Mcclure, Sandra Cuadros, Scott R. Loss, Todd E. Katzner

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Wind power is an expanding source of renewable energy. However, there are ecological challenges related to wind energy generation, including collisions of wildlife with turbines. Lack of rigor, and variation in study design, together limit efforts to understand the broad-scale effects of wind power infrastructure on wildlife populations. It is not clear, however, whether these types of limitations apply to groups of birds such as raptors that are particularly vulnerable to negative effects of wind energy. We reviewed 672 peer-reviewed publications, unpublished reports, and citations from 321 wind facilities in 12 countries to evaluate methods used to monitor and mitigate …


Early Miocene Redwood Fossils From Inner Mongolia: Co2 Reconstructions And Paleoclimate Effects Of A Low Mongolian Plateau, Jia-qi Liang, Qin Leng, Liang Xiao, Daianne F. Hofig, Dana L. Royer, Yi Ge Zhang, Hong Yang 2022 Bryant University

Early Miocene Redwood Fossils From Inner Mongolia: Co2 Reconstructions And Paleoclimate Effects Of A Low Mongolian Plateau, Jia-Qi Liang, Qin Leng, Liang Xiao, Daianne F. Hofig, Dana L. Royer, Yi Ge Zhang, Hong Yang

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

The early Miocene (~16–23 Ma) marks a critical transition in the Earth climate history from an Oligocene (~23–34 Ma) cooling trend towards the well-documented warm middle Miocene Climate Optimum at ~ 15 Ma. In eastern Asia, this transition links changes of key topographic features, such as the Tibetan plateau and the Mongolian plateau, and their impact on the reorganization of climate systems, such as the Eastern Asian summer monsoon. Yet the dynamics of the interplay among these factors remain poorly understood, precluding our understanding of future climate changes. Global temperatures during the early Miocene were warmer than the present day …


Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin forms part of West Texas's and New Mexico’s famous petroleum-generating Permian Basin. The Bone Spring Formation is a prolific hydrocarbon producer within this basin, creating one of the world’s richest oil shales. This formation has lithological sequences that are characterized by repeating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals of a third-order cycle which can largely be correlated to highstand and lowstand systems tracts, respectively. Lithological complexity and facies change are manifested by debris flows, turbidites, and slumps. In addition to glacio-eustasy, both tectonism and broader Milankovitch cycles have influenced the depositional history. Previous investigations have utilized cores and wireline …


Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky

Doctoral Dissertations

Molar-tooth structure (MTS) is an enigmatic carbonate fabric that occurs mainly within Proterozoic carbonate host rocks. It is composed of two distinct features: cracks of various morphologies and crack-filling calcite microspar. Although the origins of MTS remain unknown, most previous investigation has focused on the formation of the cracks and mechanisms involved in the void space generation, with less emphasis on the intriguing carbonate fill. In this study I have investigated molar-tooth bearing carbonates from regions that span both paleogeography and geologic time. Analysis at the microscopic scale, including traditional petrography, cathodoluminescence petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and micrometer-scale geochemical analyses …


Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki 2022 University of Maine

Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on glaciochemical records of trace elements, major ions, and stable water isotopes from three mountain regions: the Antarctic Peninsula, the Central Chilean Andes, and South Georgia Island.

The first section reports a significant increase in U concentration over 27 years on Detroit Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula. U concentrations in the ice core increase by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s, accompanied by increased variability in recent years. The U concentration increase coincides with expanded open pit mining in the Southern Hemisphere, most notably Australia. Since other land-source dust elements do not …


Investigation Of Dead Ocean Quahogs (Arctica Islandica) Shells On The Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf, Alyssa LeClaire 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigation Of Dead Ocean Quahogs (Arctica Islandica) Shells On The Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf, Alyssa Leclaire

Master's Theses

Ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica, are a long-lived, widely dispersed, biomass dominate in the Mid-Atlantic; therefore, quahog shells are valuable resources for studying climate change over time. Recently, dead ocean quahog shells were discovered south and inshore of the present biogeographic range of this animal. The presence of ocean quahog shells outside the current range is presumably a consequence of past regressions and transgressions of the Cold Pool, the bottom-trapped, cool body of water that allows boreal animals to live at lower latitudes. Dead ocean quahog shells were collected offshore of the DelMarVa Peninsula then radiocarbon-dated, evaluated for taphonomic condition, …


Spatial Stream Modeling Of Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia Motacilla) Foraging Substrate And Aquatic Prey In A Watershed Undergoing Shale Gas Development, Mack W. Frantz, Petra B. Wood, Steven C. Latta 2022 West Virginia University

Spatial Stream Modeling Of Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia Motacilla) Foraging Substrate And Aquatic Prey In A Watershed Undergoing Shale Gas Development, Mack W. Frantz, Petra B. Wood, Steven C. Latta

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We demonstrate the use of spatial stream network models (SSNMs) to explore relationships between a semiaquatic bioindicator songbird, Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla), and stream monitoring and benthic macroinvertebrate data in an area undergoing shale gas development. SSNMs allowed us to account for spatial autocorrelation inherent to these environmental data types and stream properties that traditional modeling approaches cannot capture to elucidate factors that affect waterthrush foraging locations. We monitored waterthrush along 58.1 km of 1st- and 2nd-order headwater stream tributaries (n = 14) in northwestern West Virginia over a two year period (2013–2014), sampled benthic macroinvertebrates in waterthrush …


Complex Unicellular Microfossils From The 1.9 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, Ana L. González Flores 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Complex Unicellular Microfossils From The 1.9 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, Ana L. González Flores

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of eukaryotic life during the early Paleoproterozoic has been a matter of debate because well-preserved fossils older than 1.8 Ga rarely exhibit eukaryotic cellular microstructures. In this study, microfossils from the 1.9 Ga Gunflint Chert were studied using the extended-focal-depth imaging technique, combined with scanning electron microscopy, resulting in recognition of three types of large (10–35 μm diameter) complex unicellular bodies (CUBs) and one type of “multicellular body” (< 50 μm diameter). The CUBs show the following eukaryotic cyst-like structures: (1) radially arranged internal strands similar to those in some acritarchs and dinoflagellates; (2) regularly spaced long tubular processes, stubby pustules, and/or robust podia on the cell surface; (3) reticulate cell-wall sculpturing such as pits, ridges, and scale-like ornaments; and (4) internal bodies that may represent membrane-bounded organelles. These morphological features provide strong evidence for the presence of protists in the late Paleoproterozoic.

Among the three types of CUBs from the Gunflint microbiota, a new species, Germinosphaera gunflinta sp. nov., was recognized. This species has the diagnostic characteristics of Germinosphaera, such …


Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a geological context, glasses are useful analogues for silicate melts as they are more readily studied in the laboratory using a wide range of techniques that are impractical for molten liquids. Understanding the structure of binary silicate glasses can help us understand more about the magmatic processes that affect terrestrial planetary bodies.

Potassium silicate glasses ranging in composition from 10 mol% to 35 mol% K2O were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). From high resolution O 1s XPS spectra, Bridging Oxygen (BO) mole fractions were calculated and compared with those of previous 29Si MAS NMR studies. …


Science Of The Total Environment, Benjamin Linhoff 2022 U.S. Geological Survey

Science Of The Total Environment, Benjamin Linhoff

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Recently, the subsoils of ephemeral stream(arroyos) floodplains in the northern Chihuahuan Desert were discovered to contain large naturally occurring NO3 reservoirs (floodplain:~38,000 kg NO3-N/ha; background:~60 kg NO3-N/ha). These reservoirs may be mobilized through land use change or natural stream channel migration which makes differentiating between anthropogenic and natural groundwaterNO3sources challenging. In this study, the fate and sources of NO3 were investigated in an area with multiple NO3 sources such as accidental sewer line releases and sewage lagoons aswell as natural reservoirs of subsoil NO3. …


Population Genetics Reveals Bidirectional Fish Movement Across The Continental Divide Via An Interbasin Water Transfer, Audrey C. Harris, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Jennifer A. Fike, Matthew P. Fairchild, Christopher M. Kennedy, Harry J. Crockett, Dana L. Winkelman, Yoichiro Kanno 2022 Colorado State University, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission

Population Genetics Reveals Bidirectional Fish Movement Across The Continental Divide Via An Interbasin Water Transfer, Audrey C. Harris, Sara J. Oyler-Mccance, Jennifer A. Fike, Matthew P. Fairchild, Christopher M. Kennedy, Harry J. Crockett, Dana L. Winkelman, Yoichiro Kanno

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Interbasin water transfers are becoming an increasingly common tool to satisfy municipal and agricultural water demand, but their impacts on movement and gene flow of aquatic organisms are poorly understood. The Grand Ditch is an interbasin water transfer that diverts water from tributaries of the upper Colorado River on the west side of the Continental Divide to the upper Cache la Poudre River on the east side of the Continental Divide. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population genetic structure in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and determine if fish utilize the Grand Ditch as a movement corridor. …


A Technique-Based Approach To Structure-From-Motion: Applications To Human-Coastal Environments, Robert Van Alphen 2022 University of South Florida

A Technique-Based Approach To Structure-From-Motion: Applications To Human-Coastal Environments, Robert Van Alphen

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Photogrammetry is a method by which physical information can be extracted from thecorrespondence of 2-dimensional images. In the geosciences, Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry is a technique that has seen considerable interest in the past decade of research. Here I present three case studies of various scope and methodologies which can inform the use of SfM in the geosciences. First, I discuss the theoretical and algorithmic basis of SfM photogrammetry and its uses thus far in the geosciences. Chapters two through four show specific studies which highlight several approaches to SfM and the data which can be produced. Chapter five then concludes …


Foraging Habitat Selection Of Shrubland Bird Community In Tropical Dry Forest, Anant Deshwal, Steven L. Stephenson, Pooja Panwar, Brett A. DeGregorio, Ragupathy Kannan, John D. Willson 2022 University of Arkansas

Foraging Habitat Selection Of Shrubland Bird Community In Tropical Dry Forest, Anant Deshwal, Steven L. Stephenson, Pooja Panwar, Brett A. Degregorio, Ragupathy Kannan, John D. Willson

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Habitat loss due to increasing anthropogenic disturbance is the major driver for bird population declines across the globe. Within the Eastern Ghats of India, shrubland bird communities are threatened by shrinking of suitable habitats due to increased anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. The development of an effective habitat management strategy is hampered by the absence of data for this bird community. To address this knowledge gap, we examined foraging sites for 14 shrubland bird species, including three declining species, in three study areas representing the shrubland type of forest community in the Eastern Ghats. We recorded microhabitat features within an …


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