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Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt 2021 University of Maine

Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Temperature changes in glaciated regions are of immediate concern for estimates of future sea level rise. Alaska and the surrounding region contain over 40 mm of potential sea level rise in its many alpine glaciers, which are experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss globally. However, records of both past and present temperatures in the region’s alpine sectors are sparse and limited in temporal and spatial extent. Here I examine the application of MODIS land surface temperatures and layers of refrozen melt in ice cores as temperature indicators in the St. Elias and Alaska Ranges. First, I find …


Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Joints are the most common deformation structure in the Earth’s upper crust and exert a significant influence on structural stability, landscape morphology, and fluid flow . Therefore, a greater understanding of fracture parameters (e.g., length, aperture, etc.) allows us to more accurately predict their presence, persistence, and prevalence, in the subsurface . We study the fracture spacing of two sub-orthogonal joint sets—66 NE-246 SW and 330 NW-150 SE—in the Caples Lake granodiorite of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Specifically, we investigate 1) their spacing distributions with a keen interest in power-law (fractal) spacing, 2) distribution comparisons between master and cross …


A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn 2021 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University

A Comparison Of The Localized Aviation Mos Program (Lamp) And Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (Taf) Accuracy For General Aviation, Douglas D. Boyd, Thomas A. Guinn

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Background. For general aviation (GA) pilots, operations in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) carry an elevated risk of a fatal accident. As to whether a general aviation flight can be safely undertaken, aerodrome-specific forecasts (TAF, LAMP) provide guidance. Although LAMP forecasts are more common for GA-frequented aerodromes, nevertheless, the FAA recommends that for such aerodromes (and for which a TAF is not issued) the airman uses the TAF generated for the geographically closest airport for pre-flight weather evaluation. Herein, for non-TAF-issuing airports, the LAMP (sLAMP) predictive accuracy for visual (VFR) and instrument (IFR) flight rules flight category was determined.

Method. sLAMP …


Investigating Gallium Inclusion In Aluminum And Iron Oxyhydroxides, Corey A. Palmer 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating Gallium Inclusion In Aluminum And Iron Oxyhydroxides, Corey A. Palmer

Masters Theses

Because Ga shares many physicochemical properties with Al and Fe, Ga may be able to incorporate into Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides. Understanding how Ga incorporates into these oxy-hydroxides may be crucial for finding Ga-rich bauxite deposits. In order to find the difference in Ga inclusion rates into oxy-hydroxides, as well as understand the mechanisms for this Ga inclusion, Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides were synthesized in the lab with Ga additions of 2 mol % Ga and 20 mol % Ga for a low-Ga and high-Ga treatment, respectively, along with a no added Ga control. X-Ray diffraction analyses confirmed the formation …


Exploring Viirs Continuity With Modis In An Expedited Capability For Monitoring Drought-Related Vegetation Conditions, Trenton D. Benedict, Jesslyn F. Brown, Stephen P. Boyte, Daniel M. Howard, Brian A. Fuchs, Brian D. Wardlow, Tsegaye Tadesse, Kirk A. Evenson 2021 U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center

Exploring Viirs Continuity With Modis In An Expedited Capability For Monitoring Drought-Related Vegetation Conditions, Trenton D. Benedict, Jesslyn F. Brown, Stephen P. Boyte, Daniel M. Howard, Brian A. Fuchs, Brian D. Wardlow, Tsegaye Tadesse, Kirk A. Evenson

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vegetation has been effectively monitored using remote sensing time-series vegetation index (VI) data for several decades. Drought monitoring has been a common application with algorithms tuned to capturing anomalous temporal and spatial vegetation patterns. Drought stress models, such as the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI), often use VIs like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The EROS expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer (eMODIS)-based, 7-day NDVI composites are integral to the VegDRI. As MODIS satellite platforms (Terra and Aqua) approach mission end, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) presents an alternate NDVI source, with daily collection, similar band passes, and …


Exploring Viirs Continuity With Modis In An Expedited Capability For Monitoring Drought-Related Vegetation Conditions, Trenton D. Benedict, Jesslyn F. Brown, Stephen P. Boyte, Daniel M. Howard, Brian A. Fuchs, Brian D. Wardlow, Tsegaye Tadesse, Kirk A. Evenson 2021 Contractor to U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center

Exploring Viirs Continuity With Modis In An Expedited Capability For Monitoring Drought-Related Vegetation Conditions, Trenton D. Benedict, Jesslyn F. Brown, Stephen P. Boyte, Daniel M. Howard, Brian A. Fuchs, Brian D. Wardlow, Tsegaye Tadesse, Kirk A. Evenson

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vegetation has been effectively monitored using remote sensing time-series vegetation index (VI) data for several decades. Drought monitoring has been a common application with algorithms tuned to capturing anomalous temporal and spatial vegetation patterns. Drought stress models, such as the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI), often use VIs like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The EROS expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer (eMODIS)-based, 7-day NDVI composites are integral to the VegDRI. As MODIS satellite platforms (Terra and Aqua) approach mission end, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) presents an alternate NDVI source, with daily collection, similar band passes, and …


Distribution And Trends Of Endemic Hawaiian Waterbirds, Eben H. Paxton, Kevin Brinck, Adonia Henry, Afsheen Siddiqi, Rachel Rounds, Jennifer Chutz 2021 U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center

Distribution And Trends Of Endemic Hawaiian Waterbirds, Eben H. Paxton, Kevin Brinck, Adonia Henry, Afsheen Siddiqi, Rachel Rounds, Jennifer Chutz

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Four endemic species of wetland-dependent waterbirds occur on the main Hawaiian Islands, all of which have experienced sharp population declines and are listed as endangered species. Twice per year, state-wide surveys are conducted to count waterbirds, but these surveys are evaluated only infrequently. We used a state-space approach to evaluate long-term (1986–2016) and short-term (2006–2016) trends and current distribution and abundance of endemic Hawaiian waterbirds. The most numerous species was the Ae‘o, or Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni), with a 5-year estimated average abundance of 1,932 individuals, followed by ‘Alae Ke‘oke‘o, or Hawaiian Coot (Fulica alai), …


The Drought Monitor Comes Of Age, Brad Rippey, Brian Fuchs, David Simeral, Deborah J. Bathke, Richard Heim, Mark Svoboda 2021 USDA

The Drought Monitor Comes Of Age, Brad Rippey, Brian Fuchs, David Simeral, Deborah J. Bathke, Richard Heim, Mark Svoboda

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The 20th century featured immense scientific discoveries and advances. Astrophysics gained Einstein’s life-altering theory of relativity, opening the door to nuclear weaponry and the mind-bending Big Bang theory. The medical field achieved stunning success in suppressing or vanquishing a host of deadly diseases, including polio and smallpox. And through advances in computing technology, meteorological forecasting moved from backof- the-envelope calculations to supercomputers. However, drought monitoring fell behind the curve of scientific advancement. Not until 1965, when the U.S. Department of Commerce published Wayne C. Palmer’s “Research Paper No. 45: Meteorological Drought,” was there even a complex mathematical definition of drought. …


From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko 2021 Russian Academy of Sciences

From Hector Mine M7.1 To Ridgecrest M7.1 Earthquake. A Look From A 20-Year Perspective, Sergey Pulinets, Marina Tsidilina, Dimitar Ouzounov, Dmitry Davidenko

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The paper provides a comparative analysis of precursory phenomena in the ionosphere and atmosphere for two strong earthquakes of the same magnitude M7.1 that happened in the same region (North-East from Los Angeles) within a time span of 20 years, the Hector Mine and Ridgecrest earthquakes. Regardless of the similarity of their location (South-Eastern California, near 160 km one from another), there was one essential difference: the Hector Mine earthquake happened during geomagnetically disturbed conditions (essential in the sense of ionospheric precursors identification). In contrast, the quiet geomagnetic conditions characterized the period around the time of the Ridgecrest earthquake. The …


Carbon Fluxes And Microbial Activities From Boreal Peatlands Experiencing Permafrost Thaw, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. McFarland, K. L. Manies, M. C. Leewis, S. J. Blazewicz, M. C. Jones, R. B. Neumann, Jason K. Keller, L. Cohen, E. S. Euskirchen, C. Edgar, M. R. Turetsky, W. L. Cable 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

Carbon Fluxes And Microbial Activities From Boreal Peatlands Experiencing Permafrost Thaw, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. Mcfarland, K. L. Manies, M. C. Leewis, S. J. Blazewicz, M. C. Jones, R. B. Neumann, Jason K. Keller, L. Cohen, E. S. Euskirchen, C. Edgar, M. R. Turetsky, W. L. Cable

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Permafrost thaw in northern ecosystems may cause large quantities of carbon (C) to move from soil to atmospheric pools. Because soil microbial communities play a critical role in regulating C fluxes from soils, we examined microbial activity and greenhouse gas production soon after permafrost thaw and ground collapse (into collapse‐scar bogs), relative to the permafrost plateau or older thaw features. Using multiple field and laboratory‐based assays at a field site in interior Alaska, we show that the youngest collapse‐scar bog had the highest CH4 production potential from soil incubations, and, based upon temporal changes in porewater concentrations and 13 …


Flash Drought Onset Over The Contiguous United States: Sensitivity Of Inventories And Trends To Quantitative Definitions, Mahmoud Osman, Bejamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jordan I. Christian, Tsegaye Tadesse, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson 2021 Johns Hopkins University

Flash Drought Onset Over The Contiguous United States: Sensitivity Of Inventories And Trends To Quantitative Definitions, Mahmoud Osman, Bejamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jordan I. Christian, Tsegaye Tadesse, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The term “flash drought” is frequently invoked to describe droughts that develop rapidly over a relatively short timescale. Despite extensive and growing research on flash drought processes, predictability, and trends, there is still no standard quantitative definition that encompasses all flash drought characteristics and pathways. Instead, diverse definitions have been proposed, supporting wide-ranging studies of flash drought but creating the potential for confusion as to what the term means and how to characterize it. Use of different definitions might also lead to different conclusions regarding flash drought frequency, predictability, and trends under climate change. In this study, we compared five …


A Reimagining Of The Chacoan World, Larry Benson, Richard W. Loose 2021 University of Colorado at Boulder

A Reimagining Of The Chacoan World, Larry Benson, Richard W. Loose

USGS Staff -- Published Research

A new paradigm of the Chacoan world is presented, wherein Chaco Canyon is considered to be a mostly unoccupied architectural complex that functioned primarily as a pilgrimage destination. Chaco was the political, religious, and social focal point of people living in outlying regions. The resident population of the Canyon consisted of a small number of caretakers, charged with maintaining great house structures, food supplies, and their ceremonial contents. Chacoan chiefdoms were mostly located in large, well-watered, agriculturally-based communities situated at the base of mountains that ring the San Juan Basin, e.g., the Chuskas. Chiefly elites lived year-round in those areas, …


Valuation Of Drought Information: Understanding The Value Of The Us Drought Monitor In Land Management, Tingting Liu, Richard Krop, Tonya Haigh, Kelly Helm Smith, Mark D. Svoboda 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Valuation Of Drought Information: Understanding The Value Of The Us Drought Monitor In Land Management, Tingting Liu, Richard Krop, Tonya Haigh, Kelly Helm Smith, Mark D. Svoboda

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Droughts affect recreation and tourism, grazing, forests, and timber, and can have important indirect effects for the ecosystems and species that rely on water. Despite its importance, the effect of drought in the land management sector is less understood than in other water-intensive sectors, such as agriculture and public water supplies. This study presents the first-ever estimates of the economic valuation of the information provided by the U.S. Drought Monitor using the avoided cost method. These estimates are based on the time and labor saved by using the U.S. Drought Monitor rather than compiling drought-related information from other sources, or …


Rapid Mapping Of Landslides In The Western Ghats (India) Triggered By 2018 Extreme Monsoon Rainfall Using A Deep Learning Approach, Sansar Raj Meena, Omid Ghorbanzadeh, Cees J. van Westen, Thimmaiah Gudiyangada Nachappa, Thomas Blaschke, Ramesh P. Singh, Raju Sarkar 2021 University of Salzburg

Rapid Mapping Of Landslides In The Western Ghats (India) Triggered By 2018 Extreme Monsoon Rainfall Using A Deep Learning Approach, Sansar Raj Meena, Omid Ghorbanzadeh, Cees J. Van Westen, Thimmaiah Gudiyangada Nachappa, Thomas Blaschke, Ramesh P. Singh, Raju Sarkar

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Rainfall-induced landslide inventories can be compiled using remote sensing and topographical data, gathered using either traditional or semi-automatic supervised methods. In this study, we used the PlanetScope imagery and deep learning convolution neural networks (CNNs) to map the 2018 rainfall-induced landslides in the Kodagu district of Karnataka state in theWestern Ghats of India.We used a fourfold cross-validation (CV) to select the training and testing data to remove any random results of the model. Topographic slope data was used as auxiliary information to increase the performance of the model. The resulting landslide inventory map, created using the slope data with the …


Future Energy: Opportunities & Challenges, Thomas W. Kerlin 2021 The University of Tennessee

Future Energy: Opportunities & Challenges, Thomas W. Kerlin

Open Educational Resources and Course Materials

Future Energy: Opportunities & Challenges was originally published in 2013 by the International Society of Automation. Rights for this work have been reverted to the authors by the original publisher. The author has chosen to license this work with a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Click the blue Download link on this page to download the full book PDF. Individual chapters are also listed and available for download in the list below.


Table of Contents

Part I. GETTING STARTED

Chapter 1 – Introduction to the Energy Story

Chapter 2 – Fundamentals

Chapter 3 – Energy Production and …


Ranchers’ Use Of Drought Contingency Plans In Protective Action Decision Making, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jolene Smyth, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Charles Francis, Mark Burbach 2021 University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Ranchers’ Use Of Drought Contingency Plans In Protective Action Decision Making, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jolene Smyth, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Charles Francis, Mark Burbach

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought contingency planning is an increasingly common tool in the ranchers’ climate adaptation toolboxes, but its effect on drought response has not yet been evaluated. We use cognitive models of protective action decision making and planning to explore the effects of having a drought plan on the use of drought early warning information and drought response (and timing). Results of a cross-sectional, probability-based survey of livestock producers affected by a 2016 flash-drought are used to describe the characteristics of operations with drought plans and provide evidence of whether having a plan predicts drought information use and response. While larger operations …


A Karst Feature Prediction Model For Prince Of Wales Island, Alaska Based On High Resolution Lidar Imagery, Alexander Lyles 2021 Fort Hays State University

A Karst Feature Prediction Model For Prince Of Wales Island, Alaska Based On High Resolution Lidar Imagery, Alexander Lyles

Master's Theses

Investigation into surface karst formation is significant to hazard prediction, hydrogeologic drainage, and land management. Southeast Alaska contains over 600,000 acres of mapped carbonate bedrock, and some of the fastest recorded karst dissolution in the world. The objectives of this study are to develop and compare multiple semi-automated models to map and delineate karst features from bare-earth LiDAR imagery using ArcGIS Desktop 10.7, and to apply a preliminary geostatistical analysis of sinkhole morphometric parameters to highlight potential spatial patterns of karst evolution on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. A semi-automated approach of mapping karst features provides a dataset that minimizes …


Characterizing The Geomagnetic Field At High Southern Latitudes: Evidence From The Antarctic Peninsula, Joseph Biasi, Joseph Kirschvink, Roger Fu 2021 Dartmouth College

Characterizing The Geomagnetic Field At High Southern Latitudes: Evidence From The Antarctic Peninsula, Joseph Biasi, Joseph Kirschvink, Roger Fu

Other Staff Materials

Due to a dearth of data from high-latitude paleomagnetic sites, it is not currently clear if the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis accurately describes the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field at high latitudes. Here we present new paleomagnetic and paleointensity data from the James Ross Island (JRI) volcanic group, located on the Antarctic Peninsula. This data set addresses a notable lack of data from the 60°–70°S latitude bin and includes 251 samples from 31 sites, spanning 0.99–6.8 Ma in age. We also include positive fold, conglomerate, and baked contact tests. Paleointensity data from three methods (Thellier- Thellier, pseudo-Thellier, and …


Performance Evaluation Of Uavsar And Simulated Nisar Data For Crop/Noncrop Classification Over Stoneville, Ms, Simon Kraatz, S. Rose, M. H. Cosh, N. Torbick, X. Huang, P. Siquiera 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Performance Evaluation Of Uavsar And Simulated Nisar Data For Crop/Noncrop Classification Over Stoneville, Ms, Simon Kraatz, S. Rose, M. H. Cosh, N. Torbick, X. Huang, P. Siquiera

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publication Series

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are well-suited for change detection over agricultural fields, owing to high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity to soil and vegetation. The goal of this work is to evaluate the science algorithm for the NASA ISRO SAR (NISAR) Cropland Area product using data collected by NASA's airborne Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) platform and the simulated NISAR data derived from it. This study uses mode 129, which is to be used for global-scale mapping. The mode consists of an upper (129A) and lower band (129B), respectively having bandwidths of 20 and 5 MHz. This work uses 129A …


Evaluation Of A Low-Cost Uas And Phenocams For Measuring Grapevine Greenness, Timothy J. Hoheneder 2021 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of A Low-Cost Uas And Phenocams For Measuring Grapevine Greenness, Timothy J. Hoheneder

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Unpersoned aerial systems (UAS) could provide winegrowers with the potential to monitor vineyard productivity with ultra-high-resolution imagery and low operational costs. This ability could prove particularly valuable in the challenging cool-climate viticultural areas of Appalachia. Especially in this mountainous region of increasingly variable microclimates, there could be of great value from an ability to use UAS-measured greenness to monitor wine grape phenology and predict harvest quality and quantity. In this study, I assess how UAS-measured greenness relates to three complementary measures of field-based: leaf angle measurements, phenocam measured greenness, and leaf spectral measurements of greenness. After correlating these field-based measures …


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