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Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-Band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations And Salinity Retrievals Over The Polar Regions - Part 1: Product Description, L. Brucker, Emmanuel P. Dinnat, L. S. Koenig 2014 NASA

Weekly Gridded Aquarius L-Band Radiometer/Scatterometer Observations And Salinity Retrievals Over The Polar Regions - Part 1: Product Description, L. Brucker, Emmanuel P. Dinnat, L. S. Koenig

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Passive and active observations at L band (frequency similar to 1.4 GHz) from the Aquarius/SAC-D mission offer new capabilities to study the polar regions. Due to the lack of polar-gridded products, however, applications over the cryosphere have been limited. We present three weekly polar-gridded products of Aquarius data to improve our understanding of L-band observations of ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost, and the polar oceans. Additionally, these products intend to facilitate access to L-band data, and can be used to assist in algorithm developments. Aquarius data at latitudes higher than 50 degrees are averaged and gridded into weekly ...


Glacier Response To Climate Change: Modeling The Effects Of Weather And Debris-Cover, Leif S. Anderson 2014 University of Colorado Boulder

Glacier Response To Climate Change: Modeling The Effects Of Weather And Debris-Cover, Leif S. Anderson

Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Glaciers change length in response to fluctuations in climate. In addition, atmospheric and geomorphic processes modulate glacier response to climate change. These factors must be explored in detail to understand glacier response. I engage two factors modulating glacier response: 1) the effect of year-to-year weather variability on glacier length and 2) the effect of debris cover on glacier dynamics. I use case studies from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Colorado in addition to modern glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya and Alaska to address these issues.

The effect of interannual variability on the moraine record

Multi-decadal, kilometer-scale fluctuations in glacier ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2014 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Geology Faculty Publications

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Surficial Geologic Map Of Kings Canyon: Implications For Relatively Slow Stream Incision Rates, Andrew Farris 2013 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Surficial Geologic Map Of Kings Canyon: Implications For Relatively Slow Stream Incision Rates, Andrew Farris

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Most of the Kings River in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California has responded to regional uplift with rapid incision, creating the deepest canyon in the United States. However, Kings Canyon near Cedar Grove is still a mountainous relict landscape with little evidence of fluvial incision. Mapping took place in the Cedar Grove area of Kings Canyon to assess factors and/or processes causing relatively low stream incision rates in the region during Holocene time. A surficial geologic map was created in the field, along with visual observations of the South Fork of the Kings River and characterization of geologic ...


Collaborative Research: Subglacial Water Intrusion In Greenland, Gordon K. Oswald 2013 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Research: Subglacial Water Intrusion In Greenland, Gordon K. Oswald

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

A full understanding of the flow and dynamics of an ice sheet will require knowledge of the state of its subglacial interface. While the topography of the Greenland Ice Sheet bed has been studied by radio echo sounding, its state in terms of melting and freezing, which itself affects its future evolution, has been inferred from numerical models, rather than from direct evidence.

This project is for analysis of existing radar echo data gathered under the PARCA and CReSIS programs, with the objective of generating direct evidence of the extent of subglacial water in Greenland and providing the glaciological community ...


Collaborative Research: Subglacial Water Intrusion In Greenland, Gordon K. Oswald 2013 The University of Maine

Collaborative Research: Subglacial Water Intrusion In Greenland, Gordon K. Oswald

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

The project's goals are:

  • To analyse radio echo sounding data acquired over the Greenland Ice Sheet by the University of Kansas / CReSIS team with the objective of discriminating between frozen and thawed conditions at the bed of the ice sheet.
  • To provide maps of the bed state, with the aim of making them available via the National Snow and Ice Data Centre.
  • To support ice sheet modelling activities by providing information on the bed state, thus related to the temperature at the bed and the rheological conditions at the bed.
  • To make available to educational establishments information on the ...


Glacier Slip And Seismicity Induced By Surface Melt, Peter Lindsay Moore, J. Paul Winberry, Neal R. Iverson, Knut A. Christianson, Sridhar Anandakrishnan, Mark E. Mathison, Denis Cohen 2013 Iowa State University

Glacier Slip And Seismicity Induced By Surface Melt, Peter Lindsay Moore, J. Paul Winberry, Neal R. Iverson, Knut A. Christianson, Sridhar Anandakrishnan, Mark E. Mathison, Denis Cohen

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Many of the key processes governing fast glacier flow involve interaction between a glacier and its basal hydrological system, which is hidden from direct observation. Passive seismic monitoring has shown promise as a tool for remotely monitoring basal processes, but lack of glacier-bed access prevents clear understanding of the relationships between subglacial processes and corresponding seismic emissions. Here we describe direct measurements of basal hydrology, sliding, and broadband seismicity made in a unique subglacial facility in Norway during the onset of two summer melt seasons. In the most pronounced of these episodes, rapid delivery of surface meltwater to the bed ...


Geogram 2013, David J. Keeling Editor, WKU Department of Geography and Geology 2013 Western Kentucky University

Geogram 2013, David J. Keeling Editor, Wku Department Of Geography And Geology

Geography and Geology Publications

No abstract provided.


Collaborative Research: Constraints On The Last Ross Ice Sheet From Glacial Deposits In The Southern Transantarctic Mountains, Brenda Hall 2013 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Research: Constraints On The Last Ross Ice Sheet From Glacial Deposits In The Southern Transantarctic Mountains, Brenda Hall

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to study the former thickness and retreat history of Shackleton and Beardmore Glaciers which flow through the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) into the southern Ross Sea. Lateral moraine deposits along the lower reaches of these major outlet glaciers will be mapped and dated and the results will help to date the LGM and constrain the thickness of ice where it left the Transantarctic Mountains and flowed into the Ross Sea. The intellectual merit of the project is that the results will allow scientists to distinguish between models of ice retreat, which have important implications for former ...


Collaborative Research: Sensitivity Of Local Glaciers In Central East Greenland To Holocene Climate Change, Brenda Hall 2013 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Research: Sensitivity Of Local Glaciers In Central East Greenland To Holocene Climate Change, Brenda Hall

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award will support an investigation of Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Scoresby Sund region of central East Greenland (~70-72¿N, 22-28¿W) along a transect from a coastal maritime setting to the continental conditions adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet. The 'Intellectual Merit' of the proposed study lies in the potential to affirm, or otherwise, the widely-held view that the scale of glacier and ice sheet change being observed today in Greenland is not unique in the Holocene. The current recession of glaciers in the Scoresby Sund region is exposing sub-fossil vegetation that grew at times when glaciers were ...


Lithic Analysis Of Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site Sediments, Kaitlin M. Hill, George V. Last 2013 PNNL

Lithic Analysis Of Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site Sediments, Kaitlin M. Hill, George V. Last

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The landforms and geologic layers of Southeastern Washington record fascinating, unique geologic events, including repeated catastrophic flooding that occurred during the last Ice Age. These floods left behind many distinctive features, and a variety of fossils. After discovery of mammoth-sized bones in 1999, and confirmation that more bones were still in place in 2008, the Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site near Kennewick, Washington was secured for research, and formal excavation began in 2010.

Previous research suggests that the remains are buried in Ice Age flood deposits, which are overlain by eolian sediments, and those in turn overlain by slope wash. We ...


Accelerated Thermokarst Formation In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, James L. Dickson, James W. Head, Marianne Okal, David R. Marchant, Jaclyn Watters 2013 University of Texas at Austin

Accelerated Thermokarst Formation In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, James L. Dickson, James W. Head, Marianne Okal, David R. Marchant, Jaclyn Watters

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently,10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven ...


Grounding Zone Processes: Ice Mechanics And Margin Lakes, Kamb Ice Stream And Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Mason Joseph Fried 2013 Portland State University

Grounding Zone Processes: Ice Mechanics And Margin Lakes, Kamb Ice Stream And Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Mason Joseph Fried

Dissertations and Theses

The lateral "corners" where Kamb and Whillans Ice Streams (KIS and WIS) discharge into the Ross Ice Shelf share common geometries and ice mechanical settings. At both corners of the now-stagnant KIS outlet, shear margins of apparently different ages confine regions with a relatively flat, smooth surface expression. These features are called the "Duckfoot" on the northern, right-lateral side and the "Goosefoot" on the other. It has been suggested, on evidence found in ice internal layers, that the flat ice terrains on KIS were afloat in the recent past, at a time when the ice stream grounding line was upstream ...


Glacier Change In The North Cascades, Washington: 1900-2009, Kristina Amanda Dick 2013 Portland State University

Glacier Change In The North Cascades, Washington: 1900-2009, Kristina Amanda Dick

Dissertations and Theses

Glaciers respond to local climate changes making them important indicators of regional climate change. The North Cascades region of Washington is the most glaciated region in the lower-48 states with approximately 25% of all glaciers and 40% of the total ice-covered area. While there are many on-going investigations of specific glaciers, little research has addressed the entire glacier cover of the region. A reference inventory of glaciers was derived from a comparison of two different inventories dating to about 1958. The different inventories agree within 93% of total number of glaciers and 94% of total ice-covered area. To quantify glacier ...


Investigations Into The Regional And Local Timescale Variations Of Subglacial Drainage Networks, Justin Hiester 2013 Portland State University

Investigations Into The Regional And Local Timescale Variations Of Subglacial Drainage Networks, Justin Hiester

Dissertations and Theses

Subglacial water plays an important role in the regulation of an ice sheet's mass balance. It may be the dominant control on the velocities of ice streams and outlet glaciers on scales of months to millennia. Recent satellite observations of ice surface elevation changes have given researchers new insights into how subglacial water is stored and transported. Localized uplift and settling of the ice surface implies that lakes exist beneath the ice sheet that are being filled and drained on relatively short time scales. %At the base of an ice sheet water can be transported through a variety of ...


Examining Antarctica From A Geodynamic Perspective: Backstripping, Ice Thickness, Tectonics And Erosion, Travis Gary Hayden 2013 Western Michigan University

Examining Antarctica From A Geodynamic Perspective: Backstripping, Ice Thickness, Tectonics And Erosion, Travis Gary Hayden

Dissertations

I have applied the principles of basin analysis and geodynamics to several cores recovered from on or near the Antarctic continent to answer 2 independent questions about the tectonic evolution of Antarctica; as well as estimate the thickness of the Antarctic Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum.

I developed, and applied a modification of the backstripping modeling technique to compensate for the loading and erosion of glacial ice at the AND-1B site by combining a backstripping driven inverse model, with a driven ice-load model. This modification allowed me to identify and constrain the timing of major pulses of subsidence ...


Improving The Performance Of The Parallel Ice Sheet Model On A Large-Scale, Distributed Supercomputer, Timothy J. Morey 2013 The University of Maine

Improving The Performance Of The Parallel Ice Sheet Model On A Large-Scale, Distributed Supercomputer, Timothy J. Morey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we describe our work to understand and improve the performance and scalability of the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) on the Ranger supercomputer. PISM enables the simulation of large-scale ice sheets, such as those found in Greenland and Antarctica, which are of particular interest to climate scientists due to their potential to contribute to sea-level rise.

PISM has a unique parallel architecture that is designed to take advantage of the computational resources available on state-of-the-art supercomputers. The problem, however, is that even though PISM can run without modifcation on a supercomputer, it is generally unable to do ...


Evolution With Depth From Detrital To Authigenic Smectites In Sediments From And-2a Drill Core (Mcmurdo Sound, Antarctica), Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Fernando Nieto, Isabella Memmi 2013 Università degli Studi di Siena

Evolution With Depth From Detrital To Authigenic Smectites In Sediments From And-2a Drill Core (Mcmurdo Sound, Antarctica), Francesco Iacoviello, Giovanna Giorgetti, Fernando Nieto, Isabella Memmi

Francesco Iacoviello

We have examined the nature and origin of smectites in glaciomarine sediments of the AND-2A drill core (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica) by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses on the clay fraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and SEM-EDS microanalyses on smectite particles. Relying on the smectite variation throughout the drill core it was possible to split the sequence into three units. Smectites throughout the core are either detrital or authigenic. Detrital smectites are close to montmorillonite-beidellite in composition while newly-formed smectites frequently have higher Fe-Mg contents and intermediate compositions between the saponite and nontronite ...


Impact And Signatures Of Deglaciation On The Cryosphere, Landscape, And Habitability Of Earth And Mars, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Andrew G. Fountain, J. S. Kargel 2013 SETI Institute/CSC and NASA Ames Research Center

Impact And Signatures Of Deglaciation On The Cryosphere, Landscape, And Habitability Of Earth And Mars, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Andrew G. Fountain, J. S. Kargel

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Science questions can help bridge Astrobiology and Earth Science disciples around the theme of planetary deglaciation.


7700 Years Of Holocene Climatic Variability In Sermilik Valley, Southeast Greenland Inferred From Lake Sediments, Samuel H. Davin 2013 University of Massachusetts Amherst

7700 Years Of Holocene Climatic Variability In Sermilik Valley, Southeast Greenland Inferred From Lake Sediments, Samuel H. Davin

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

During the latter half of the 20th century until present day there has been an unprecedented rise in global annual mean temperatures accompanied by rising sea levels and a decrease in Northern Hemisphere snow cover, which if it continues will lead to widespread disruption of climate patterns, ecosystems, and present-day landscapes. It is therefore of critical importance to establish an expanded network of paleoclimate records across the globe in order to better assesses how the global climate system has changed in the past, that we may create a metric by which to address modern change. Herein is presented a7 ...


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