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Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2015 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Geology Faculty Publications

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Geology Of The Steens Area, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds 2015 Linfield College

Geology Of The Steens Area, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds

Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Documents

This document is part of a larger discussion in the Dr. Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Papers on the geology of Steens Mountain, a large fault-block mountain in Harney County, Oregon. Often confused for a mountain range because of its size and scope, Steens Mountain lies near the Oregon-Nevada border.

For a full-text searchable version of this document, refer to the Additional Files below.


Putting The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Into Context, George H. Denton, Brenda L. Hall 2015 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Putting The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Into Context, George H. Denton, Brenda L. Hall

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to develop new insights into the cause and pattern of events during the last glacial termination in South America and Antarctica. One emerging view is that a warming Southern Ocean (SO), driven by a chain of events initiated in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and tied to the interhemispheric climate seesaw of the last termination, was the underlying mechanism that drove the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) from its Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) position back to present-day grounding lines. This ocean thermal forcing would have impacted WAIS by accelerating basal melt rates on fringing floating ice ...


Dynamics Of Thermally Induced Ice Streams Simulated With A Higher-Order Flow Model, Douglas Brinkerhoff, Jesse Johnson 2015 University of Alaska Fairbanks

Dynamics Of Thermally Induced Ice Streams Simulated With A Higher-Order Flow Model, Douglas Brinkerhoff, Jesse Johnson

Computer Science Faculty Publications

We use a new discretization technique to solve the higher-order thermomechanically coupled equations of glacier evolution. We find that under radially symmetric continuum equations, small perturbations in symmetry due to the discretization are sufficient to produce the initiation of non-symmetric thermomechanical instabilities which we interpret as ice streams, in good agreement with previous studies which have indicated a similar instability. We find that the inclusion of membrane stresses regularizes the size of predicted streams, eliminating the ill-posedness evident in previous investigations of ice stream generation through thermomechanical instability. Ice streams exhibit strongly irregular periodicity which is influenced by neighboring ice ...


Biogeochemical Stoichiometry Of Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems, John E. Barrett, Ross A. Virginia, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. McKnight, John Charles Priscu, Peter T. Doran, Andrew G. Fountain, Diana H. Wall, D. L. Moorhead 2015 Dartmouth College

Biogeochemical Stoichiometry Of Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems, John E. Barrett, Ross A. Virginia, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. Mcknight, John Charles Priscu, Peter T. Doran, Andrew G. Fountain, Diana H. Wall, D. L. Moorhead

Andrew G. Fountain

Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10–10⁶ years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass ...


A Strategy For Monitoring Glaciers, Andrew G. Fountain, Robert M. Krimmel, Dennis C. Trabant 2015 Portland State University

A Strategy For Monitoring Glaciers, Andrew G. Fountain, Robert M. Krimmel, Dennis C. Trabant

Andrew G. Fountain

Glaciers are important features in the hydrologic cycle and affect the volume, variability, and water quality of runoff. Assessing and predicting the effect of glaciers on water resources require a monitoring program to provide basic data for this understanding. The monitoring program of the U.S. Geological Survey employs a nested approach whereby an intensively studied glacier is surrounded by less intensively studied glaciers and those monitored solely by remote sensing. Ideally, each glacierized region of the United States would have such a network of glaciers. The intensively studied glacier provides a detailed understanding of the physical processes and their ...


The Effect Of Glaciers On Streamflow Variations, Andrew G. Fountain, Wendell V. Tangborn 2015 Portland State University

The Effect Of Glaciers On Streamflow Variations, Andrew G. Fountain, Wendell V. Tangborn

Andrew G. Fountain

The effect of temperate glaciers on runoff variations is examined for the North Cascade Mountains of Washington State. The principal influences of glaciers on streamflow are often unexpected contributions to streamflow volume, a delay of the maximum seasonal flow, and a decrease in annual and monthly variation of runoff. The delay of maximum flow is caused by temporary englacial storage of spring meltwater and by peak meltwater production occurring in midsummer. The englacial storage, for one case, is 54% of the potential May runoff. An algorithm is presented that calculates the coefficient of variation of runoff for any arbitrary glacier ...


Near-Surface Internal Melting: A Substantial Mass Loss On Antarctic Dry Valley Glaciers, Matthew J. Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Near-Surface Internal Melting: A Substantial Mass Loss On Antarctic Dry Valley Glaciers, Matthew J. Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston

Andrew G. Fountain

The McMurdo Dry Valleys, southern Victoria Land, East Antarctica, are a polar desert, and melt from glacial ice is the primary source of water to streams, lakes and associated ecosystems. Previous work found that to adequately model glacier ablation and subsurface ice temperatures with a surface energy-balance model required including the transmission of solar radiation into the ice. Here we investigate the contribution of subsurface melt to the mass balance of (and runoff from) Dry Valley glaciers by including a drainage process in the model and applying the model to three glacier sites using 13years of hourly meteorological data. Model ...


Accelerated Thermokarst Formation In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, James L. Dickson, James W. Head, Marianne Okal, David R. Marchant, Jaclyn Watters 2015 University of Texas at Austin

Accelerated Thermokarst Formation In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain, James L. Dickson, James W. Head, Marianne Okal, David R. Marchant, Jaclyn Watters

Andrew G. Fountain

Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently,10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven ...


A Stable Isotopic Investigation Of A Polar Desert Hydrologic System, Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Michael N. Gooseff, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. McKnight, Bruce H. Vaughn, Andrew G. Fountain, Carolyn Dowling 2015 Colorado School of Mines

A Stable Isotopic Investigation Of A Polar Desert Hydrologic System, Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Michael N. Gooseff, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. Mcknight, Bruce H. Vaughn, Andrew G. Fountain, Carolyn Dowling

Andrew G. Fountain

The hydrologic system of the coastal McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, is defined by snow accumulation, glacier melt, stream flow, and retention in closed-basin, ice-covered lakes. During the austral summers from 1993-1996 and 1999-2000 to 2002-2003, fresh snow, snow pits, glacier ice, stream water, and lake waters were sampled for the stable isotopes deuterium (D) and 18O in order to resolve sources of meltwater and the interactions among the various hydrologic reservoirs in the dry valleys. This data set provides a survey of the distribution of natural water isotope abundances within the well-defined dry valley hydrologic system in Taylor Valley, which ...


Glacier Change On The Three Sisters Volcanoes, Oregon: 1900-2010, Justin George Ohlschlager 2015 Portland State University

Glacier Change On The Three Sisters Volcanoes, Oregon: 1900-2010, Justin George Ohlschlager

Dissertations and Theses

A glacier responds to changes in climate by subsequent retreat and advance as a result of changes in snow inputs and outputs. Understanding these changes is important because shrinking glaciers limit and diminish local water resources. They contribute to alpine runoff in the late-summer months by delaying the maximum runoff until late in the melt season. A comprehensive glacier and perennial snowfield inventory has not been completed for the Three Sisters in Central Oregon. Using aerial photography, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), previous studies, and historical ground based photographs these glacier and perennial snowfields were defined and their surface area change ...


Temperature Distribution And Thermal Anomalies Along A Flowline Of The Greenland Ice Sheet, Joel A. Harrington, Neil F. Humphrey, Joel T. Harper 2015 University of Wyoming

Temperature Distribution And Thermal Anomalies Along A Flowline Of The Greenland Ice Sheet, Joel A. Harrington, Neil F. Humphrey, Joel T. Harper

Geosciences Faculty Publications

Englacial and basal temperature data for the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) are sparse and mostly limited to deep interior sites and ice streams, providing an incomplete representation of the thermal state of ice within the ablation zone. Here we present 11 temperature profiles at five sites along a 34km east-west transect of West Greenland. These profiles depict ice temperatures along a flowline and local temperature variations between closely spaced boreholes. A temperate basal layer is present in all profiles, increasing in thickness in the flow direction, where it expands from about 3% of ice height furthest inland to 100% at ...


Evidence Of Late Quaternary Fires From Charcoal And Siliceous Aggregates In Lake Sediments In The Eastern U.S.A., Joanne P. Ballard 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Evidence Of Late Quaternary Fires From Charcoal And Siliceous Aggregates In Lake Sediments In The Eastern U.S.A., Joanne P. Ballard

Doctoral Dissertations

The late-glacial transition to the Holocene, 15,000–11,600 cal yr BP, is an enigmatic period of dynamic global changes and a major extinction event in North America. Fire is an agent of disturbance that transforms the environment physically and chemically, and affects plant community composition. To improve understanding of the linkages between fire, vegetation, and climate over the late glacial and Holocene in the eastern U.S., I analyzed lake-sediment cores for charcoal and indicators of wood ash, and compared results to existing pollen records. A new microscopic charcoal record from Anderson Pond, Tennessee revealed high fire activity ...


Timing And Extent Of The Little Ice Age Glacial Advances In The Eastern Tian Shan, China, Yanan Li 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Timing And Extent Of The Little Ice Age Glacial Advances In The Eastern Tian Shan, China, Yanan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Located in Central Asia, one of the most continental regions on Earth, the Tian Shan’s glaciers contribute critical fresh water to populated areas in the lowland. These glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and knowledge of contemporary glaciers and their changes in the past is of critical importance for sustainable development in this region. Constraining glacial fluctuations in recent centuries will fill a gap in numerical constraints on glacial history and paleoclimate information, and provide important evidence on the spatio-temporal changes of the climate systems in the Tian Shan. This doctoral dissertation investigates the timing and extent of Little ...


Establishing A Chronology Of Late Quaternary Glacial Advances In The Cordillera De Talamanca, Costa Rica, Rebecca Susan Potter 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Establishing A Chronology Of Late Quaternary Glacial Advances In The Cordillera De Talamanca, Costa Rica, Rebecca Susan Potter

Masters Theses

Little research has focused on glacial events in the tropics. Providing an absolute glacial chronology in Costa Rica will build a foundation for future glacial chronologies and paleoclimate reconstructions in the highlands of Central America. Evidence of past glaciation, including moraines and glacial lakes, is preserved within formerly glaciated valleys in the Cordillera de Talamanca. Orvis and Horn (2000) constrained deglaciation ages of the most recent glacial event in the Cordillera de Talamanca based on radiocarbon dates of glacial lake sediments. Radiocarbon ages indicated complete deglaciation after 12.4 ka cal BP but before 9.7 ka cal BP (Orvis ...


Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (Rice): Us Deep Ice Core Glaciochemistry Contribution (2011- 2014), Paul Andrew Mayewski, Karl J. Kreutz, Andrei V. Kurbatov 2015 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (Rice): Us Deep Ice Core Glaciochemistry Contribution (2011- 2014), Paul Andrew Mayewski, Karl J. Kreutz, Andrei V. Kurbatov

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to analyze a deep ice core which will be drilled by a New Zealand research team at Roosevelt Island. The objectives are to process the ice core at very high resolution to (a) better understand phasing sequences in Arctic/Antarctic abrupt climate change, even at the level of individual storm events; (b) determine the impact of changes in the Westerlies and the Amundsen Sea Low on past/present/future climate change; (c) determine how sea ice extent has varied in the area; (d) compare the response of West Antarctica climate to other regions during glacial ...


Dye Tracing To Determine Flow Properties Of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Rabots Glaciär, Kebnekaise, Sweden, Caroline C. Clason, C. Coch, J. Jarsjö, Keith A. Brugger, P. Jansson, G. Rosqvist 2015 Stockholm University

Dye Tracing To Determine Flow Properties Of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Rabots Glaciär, Kebnekaise, Sweden, Caroline C. Clason, C. Coch, J. Jarsjö, Keith A. Brugger, P. Jansson, G. Rosqvist

Geology Publications

Over 11 000 L of kerosene was deposited on the surface of Rabots glaciär on the Kebnekaise Massif, northern Sweden, following the crash of a Royal Norwegian Air Force aircraft in March 2012. An environmental monitoring programme was subsequently commissioned, including a series of dye tracing experiments during the 2013 melt season, conducted to investigate the transport of pollutants through the glacier hydrological system. This experimental set-up provided a basis from which we could gain new insight into the internal hydrological system of Rabots glaciär. Results of dye tracing experiments reveal a degree of homogeneity in the topology of the ...


Experimental Recreation Of The Sub-Glacial System, An Analysis Of Hold Time Versus Strengthening To Shed Light On The Mechanics Of Stick-Slip Ice Streams, Ian McBrearty 2015 Iowa State University

Experimental Recreation Of The Sub-Glacial System, An Analysis Of Hold Time Versus Strengthening To Shed Light On The Mechanics Of Stick-Slip Ice Streams, Ian Mcbrearty

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Ice streams in Antarctica are known to move ice rapidly, in a narrow band, over a loose permeable substrate to the sea- contributing to sea-level rise and the decay of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. It has been observed that some of these ice streams move in a “stick-slip” fashion, lurching ahead small steps at a time. Past workers have proposed this observation is indicative of temporal strengthening in the ice stream when it’s sitting at rest, but have not satisfactorily concluded which components of the glacial system are directly causing the strengthening. To understand the mechanics dictating ice stream ...


Determining Provenance Of Glacial Material In Southwestern Ohio, Jorian Krob 2015 Cedarville University

Determining Provenance Of Glacial Material In Southwestern Ohio, Jorian Krob

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

During the last glacial maximum, ice moved south from Canada to cover much of the northern United States. This included the northern and western portions of Ohio. As the ice migrated it picked up Canadian bedrock which it transported and then left in Ohio when the ice retreated. The goal of this project was to determine the provenance (the source of origin) of the glacial material that is located in Greene, Clark, Montgomery, Logan, and Champaign Counties in Ohio. To determine where in southern Canada the material in these counties came from, this project included literature review into the glacial ...


Glacial Till Prospecting In Southwest Ohio: Implications For Improved Sampling, Dylan J. McKevitt 2015 Cedarville University

Glacial Till Prospecting In Southwest Ohio: Implications For Improved Sampling, Dylan J. Mckevitt

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Glacial till (drift) prospecting has served a major role in corporate mineral exploration, especially for gold and diamond during the past 30 years. It involves analyzing heavy indicator minerals from bulk sampling of various glacial deposits in order to track up ice flow direction to the potential orebody (such as a kimberlite pipe or Cu-Ni deposit), a technique commonly used in Canada but not in the U.S. Heavy minerals including diamond, gold, and native copper have been found in Ohio glacial till; the provenance of these heavy minerals is the Precambrian bedrock north of Ohio. This study utilized standard ...


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