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516 full-text articles. Page 5 of 14.

High-Resolution Ground-Penetrating Radar Profiles Of Perennial Lake Ice In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Horizon Attributes, Unconformities, And Subbottom, Hilary A. Dugan, Steven A. Arcone, Maciej K. Obryk, Peter T. Doran 2016 University of Wisconsin - Madison

High-Resolution Ground-Penetrating Radar Profiles Of Perennial Lake Ice In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Horizon Attributes, Unconformities, And Subbottom, Hilary A. Dugan, Steven A. Arcone, Maciej K. Obryk, Peter T. Doran

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is not commonly used to study lake ice, and in general, the ground-based use of radar frequencies greater than 500 MHz in cryosphere geophysics is rare, due to a general interest in deeper stratigraphy and the difficulty of extensive profiling over rough snow surfaces. Our goal was to find further information on the origin of the deposition and formation of intra-ice layers, bottom topography, and subbottom deposits using GPR with pulses centered near 850 MHz on two permanently ice-covered lakes in the Mc- Murdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The profiles were obtained using a one-person sled operation over ...


Apparent Glacially Induced Structural Controls On Limestone Conduit Development In Ohio Caverns, United States, Adrienne M. Watts, Ira D. Sasowsky 2015 University Of Akron

Apparent Glacially Induced Structural Controls On Limestone Conduit Development In Ohio Caverns, United States, Adrienne M. Watts, Ira D. Sasowsky

International Journal of Speleology

Rock discontinuities such as bedding planes and joints are important controls on the form that caves take. We examined structural controls on the development of Ohio Caverns. The cave formed in Devonian limestone underlying a small bedrock knob (Mt. Tabor) within the Interior Lowland province, United States. The area has been overridden by continental glaciation multiple times. The bedrock is pervasively fractured, with many curved and wavy near-vertical fractures showing many different orientations. In the case of Ohio Caverns, it appears that the controlling fractures in map view may not be joints sensu stricto, but rather some combination of tensile ...


Climb To The Ice, Richard Vaughan 2015 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Climb To The Ice, Richard Vaughan

Richard Vaughan

The article, originally presented as a lecture, discusses George Bird Grinnell's 1887 climb of the Montana glacier that eventually become known as Grinnell Glacier. Grinnell’s efforts to establish Glacier National Park are detailed. Grinnell's previously unpublished descriptions of the glacier and its surrounding area are analyzed by the author. Originally delivered as a lecture at the Montana History Conference, October 2, 2010. Full issue available at: http://issuu.com/um_crown_gye/docs/crownofthecontinent-autumn2012


To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan 2015 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

To The Ice: George Bird Grinnell's 1887 Ascent Of Grinnell Glacier, Richard Vaughan

Richard Vaughan

This article discusses a climbing expedition undertaken by U.S. conservationist George Bird Grinnell to ascend what would come to be known as Grinnell Glacier in Montana. Grinnell’s efforts to establish Glacier National Park are detailed. Grinnell’s previously unpublished descriptions of the glacier and its surrounding area are analyzed by the author.


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2015 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Geology Faculty Publications

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Geology Of The Steens Area, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds 2015 Linfield College

Geology Of The Steens Area, Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds

Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Documents

This document is part of a larger discussion in the Dr. Jane Claire Dirks-Edmunds Papers on the geology of Steens Mountain, a large fault-block mountain in Harney County, Oregon. Often confused for a mountain range because of its size and scope, Steens Mountain lies near the Oregon-Nevada border.

For a full-text searchable version of this document, refer to the Additional Files below.


Putting The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Into Context, George H. Denton, Brenda L. Hall 2015 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Putting The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Into Context, George H. Denton, Brenda L. Hall

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Grant Reports

This award supports a project to develop new insights into the cause and pattern of events during the last glacial termination in South America and Antarctica. One emerging view is that a warming Southern Ocean (SO), driven by a chain of events initiated in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and tied to the interhemispheric climate seesaw of the last termination, was the underlying mechanism that drove the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) from its Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) position back to present-day grounding lines. This ocean thermal forcing would have impacted WAIS by accelerating basal melt rates on fringing floating ice ...


Dynamics Of Thermally Induced Ice Streams Simulated With A Higher-Order Flow Model, Douglas Brinkerhoff, Jesse Johnson 2015 University of Alaska Fairbanks

Dynamics Of Thermally Induced Ice Streams Simulated With A Higher-Order Flow Model, Douglas Brinkerhoff, Jesse Johnson

Computer Science Faculty Publications

We use a new discretization technique to solve the higher-order thermomechanically coupled equations of glacier evolution. We find that under radially symmetric continuum equations, small perturbations in symmetry due to the discretization are sufficient to produce the initiation of non-symmetric thermomechanical instabilities which we interpret as ice streams, in good agreement with previous studies which have indicated a similar instability. We find that the inclusion of membrane stresses regularizes the size of predicted streams, eliminating the ill-posedness evident in previous investigations of ice stream generation through thermomechanical instability. Ice streams exhibit strongly irregular periodicity which is influenced by neighboring ice ...


Patterns And Processes Of Salt Efflorescences In The Mcmurdo Region, Antarctica, Kelsey M. Bisson, Kathleen A. Welch, Susan A. Welch, Julia Meyer Sheets, W. Berry Lyons, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain 2015 Ohio State University

Patterns And Processes Of Salt Efflorescences In The Mcmurdo Region, Antarctica, Kelsey M. Bisson, Kathleen A. Welch, Susan A. Welch, Julia Meyer Sheets, W. Berry Lyons, Joseph S. Levy, Andrew G. Fountain

Andrew G. Fountain

Evaporite salts are abundant around the McMurdo region, Antarctica (~78°S) due to very low precipitation, low relative humidity, and limited overland flow. Hygroscopic salts in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) are preferentially formed in locations where liquid water is present in the austral summer, including along ephemeral streams, ice-covered lake boundaries, or shallow groundwater tracks. In this study, we collected salts from the Miers, Garwood, and Taylor Valleys on the Antarctic continent, as well as around McMurdo Station on Ross Island in close proximity to water sources with the goal of understanding salt geochemistry in relationship to the hydrology ...


Impact And Signatures Of Deglaciation On The Cryosphere, Landscape, And Habitability Of Earth And Mars, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Andrew G. Fountain, J. S. Kargel 2015 SETI Institute/CSC and NASA Ames Research Center

Impact And Signatures Of Deglaciation On The Cryosphere, Landscape, And Habitability Of Earth And Mars, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Andrew G. Fountain, J. S. Kargel

Andrew G. Fountain

Science questions can help bridge Astrobiology and Earth Science disciples around the theme of planetary deglaciation.


Introduction To Special Section On Microcosms In Ice: The Biogeochemistry Of Cryoconite Holes, Andrew G. Fountain, Martyn Tranter 2015 Portland State University

Introduction To Special Section On Microcosms In Ice: The Biogeochemistry Of Cryoconite Holes, Andrew G. Fountain, Martyn Tranter

Andrew G. Fountain

Cryoconite holes are small, water filled, cylindrical melt-holes on glacial ice surface. Cryoconite, 'cold dust,' refers to the thin layer of sediment at the hole bottom. The holes form from surficial sediment patches that absorbs more solar radiation than the surrounding ice and which preferentially melt into the glacier forming a cylindrical water-filled hole. These holes form on the ice-covered, as opposed to snow covered, parts of glaciers world-wide, wherever there is sufficient energy for melting. Biogeochemically, cryoconite holes are interesting because the sediment is inncoculated with biologic material, a fraction of which thrives in the cryoconite environment of near-freezing ...


Biogeochemical Stoichiometry Of Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems, John E. Barrett, Ross A. Virginia, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. McKnight, John Charles Priscu, Peter T. Doran, Andrew G. Fountain, Diana H. Wall, D. L. Moorhead 2015 Dartmouth College

Biogeochemical Stoichiometry Of Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems, John E. Barrett, Ross A. Virginia, W. Berry Lyons, Diane M. Mcknight, John Charles Priscu, Peter T. Doran, Andrew G. Fountain, Diana H. Wall, D. L. Moorhead

Andrew G. Fountain

Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10–10⁶ years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass ...


A Strategy For Monitoring Glaciers, Andrew G. Fountain, Robert M. Krimmel, Dennis C. Trabant 2015 Portland State University

A Strategy For Monitoring Glaciers, Andrew G. Fountain, Robert M. Krimmel, Dennis C. Trabant

Andrew G. Fountain

Glaciers are important features in the hydrologic cycle and affect the volume, variability, and water quality of runoff. Assessing and predicting the effect of glaciers on water resources require a monitoring program to provide basic data for this understanding. The monitoring program of the U.S. Geological Survey employs a nested approach whereby an intensively studied glacier is surrounded by less intensively studied glaciers and those monitored solely by remote sensing. Ideally, each glacierized region of the United States would have such a network of glaciers. The intensively studied glacier provides a detailed understanding of the physical processes and their ...


The Effect Of Glaciers On Streamflow Variations, Andrew G. Fountain, Wendell V. Tangborn 2015 Portland State University

The Effect Of Glaciers On Streamflow Variations, Andrew G. Fountain, Wendell V. Tangborn

Andrew G. Fountain

The effect of temperate glaciers on runoff variations is examined for the North Cascade Mountains of Washington State. The principal influences of glaciers on streamflow are often unexpected contributions to streamflow volume, a delay of the maximum seasonal flow, and a decrease in annual and monthly variation of runoff. The delay of maximum flow is caused by temporary englacial storage of spring meltwater and by peak meltwater production occurring in midsummer. The englacial storage, for one case, is 54% of the potential May runoff. An algorithm is presented that calculates the coefficient of variation of runoff for any arbitrary glacier ...


Biogeochemical Evolution Of Cryoconite Holes On Canada Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Elizabeth A. Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Andrew G. Fountain, Kathleen A. Welch, Hassan J. Basagic, W. Berry Lyons 2015 University of Bristol

Biogeochemical Evolution Of Cryoconite Holes On Canada Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Elizabeth A. Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Andrew G. Fountain, Kathleen A. Welch, Hassan J. Basagic, W. Berry Lyons

Andrew G. Fountain

The cryoconite holes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys are simple, closed biogeochemical systems involving water, ice, mineral and organic debris, which serve as ecosystems for consortia of microorganisms. This study is the first to document the seasonal and annual chemical evolution of solutes in cryoconite holes. Samples of glacier ice, frozen cryoconite holes and those containing water were collected during the austral summer of 2005–2006. The isolation age was calculated from the excess Cl‾ in the holes, and varied from 0 to 5 years (a), consistent with the last hot summer when the cryoconite holes were open to the ...


A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic 2015 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

A Dynamic Physical Model For Soil Temperature And Water In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, H. W. Hunt, Andrew G. Fountain, Peter T. Doran, Hassan J. Basagic

Andrew G. Fountain

We developed a simulation model for terrestrial sites including sensible heat exchange between the atmosphere and ground surface, inter- and intra-layer heat conduction by rock and soil, and shortwave and longwave radiation. Water fluxes included snowmelt, freezing/thawing of soil water, soil capillary flow, and vapour flows among atmosphere, soil, and snow. The model accounted for 96-99% of variation in soil temperature data. No long-term temporal trends in soil temperature were apparent. Soil water vapour concentration in thawed surface soil in summer often was higher than in frozen deeper soils, leading to downward vapour fluxes. Katabatic winds caused a reversal ...


Quantifying 20th Century Glacier Change In The Sierra Nevada, California, Andrew G. Fountain, Hassan J. Basagic 2015 Portland State University

Quantifying 20th Century Glacier Change In The Sierra Nevada, California, Andrew G. Fountain, Hassan J. Basagic

Andrew G. Fountain

Numerous small alpine glaciers occupy the high elevation regions of the central and southern Sierra Nevada, California. An inventory based on 1:24,000 topographic maps revealed 1719 glaciers and perennial snowfields for a total area of 39.15 +/- 0.13 km(2). The number of 'true' glaciers, versus non-moving ice, is estimated to be 122 covering 14.89 +/- 0.08 km(2) or 38% of the ice-covered area. Historic photographs, geologic evidence, and field mapping were used to determine the magnitude of area change over the past century at 14 glaciers. The area change between 1903 and 2004 ranged ...


Near-Surface Internal Melting: A Substantial Mass Loss On Antarctic Dry Valley Glaciers, Matthew J. Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Near-Surface Internal Melting: A Substantial Mass Loss On Antarctic Dry Valley Glaciers, Matthew J. Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston

Andrew G. Fountain

The McMurdo Dry Valleys, southern Victoria Land, East Antarctica, are a polar desert, and melt from glacial ice is the primary source of water to streams, lakes and associated ecosystems. Previous work found that to adequately model glacier ablation and subsurface ice temperatures with a surface energy-balance model required including the transmission of solar radiation into the ice. Here we investigate the contribution of subsurface melt to the mass balance of (and runoff from) Dry Valley glaciers by including a drainage process in the model and applying the model to three glacier sites using 13years of hourly meteorological data. Model ...


Glacier Status And Contribution To Streamflow In The Olympic Mountains, Usa, Jon L. Riedel, Steve Wilson, William Baccus, Michael Larrabee, T.J. Fudge, Andrew G. Fountain 2015 National Park Service

Glacier Status And Contribution To Streamflow In The Olympic Mountains, Usa, Jon L. Riedel, Steve Wilson, William Baccus, Michael Larrabee, T.J. Fudge, Andrew G. Fountain

Andrew G. Fountain

The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, currently holds 184 alpine glaciers larger than 0.01 km² and their combined area is 30.2 ± 0.95km². Only four glaciers are >1km² and 120 of the others are -¹ (1900–80) to 0.54 km² a-¹ (1980–2009). Thinning rates on four of the largest glaciers averaged nearly 1ma-¹ from 1987 to 2010, resulting in estimated volume losses of 17–24%. Combined glacial snow, firn and ice melt in the Hoh watershed is in the range 63–79 ± 7 × 106m3, or 9–15% of total May–September streamflow. In the critical August–September ...


Surface Energy Balance And Melt Thresholds Over 11 Years At Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, Matthew James Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston 2015 Portland State University

Surface Energy Balance And Melt Thresholds Over 11 Years At Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, Matthew James Hoffman, Andrew G. Fountain, Glen E. Liston

Andrew G. Fountain

In the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Victoria Land, Antarctica, melting of glacial ice is the primary source of water to streams, lakes, and associated ecosystems. To understand geochemical fluxes and ecological responses to past and future climates requires a physically based energy balance model. We applied a one-dimensional model to one site on Taylor Glacier using 11 years of daily meteorological data and seasonal ablation measurements. Inclusion of transmission of solar radiation into the ice was necessary to accurately model summer ablation and ice temperatures. Results showed good correspondence between calculated and measured ablation and ice temperatures over the 11 years ...


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