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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee Jan 2008

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rampant, negative messages about the capabilities of African American women in the education system pervade society. I suggest that these negative messages fail to account for Black women's learning resilience. In this study, the voices of 27 African American women who described their experiences in the formal education environment emerged through interviews, focus groups, observations, and two electronic interactions, participation in a chat room and e-mail exchanges.;This multigenerational study spans 71 years of educational experiences that I organized into five generations that correspond with eras of significance for both the African American culture and the education system. These ...


Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy Jan 2008

Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insight into the patient and volunteer perspective of their experiences at free medical clinics and, from the analysis of those data, inform health professions education. Many uninsured and underserved patients use the free clinic as their medical home to manage acute and chronic conditions and as a source of prescription medications. The volunteers find their experiences to be a fulfillment of their desire to give back to their community, a way to meet an obligation of professional duty, and hold to the moral belief that they should help those in need. Feminist ...


The Acceptance Of Domestic Technology: Tam As Applied To A Proposed Classification Scheme, Helen Marie Colvin Jan 2008

The Acceptance Of Domestic Technology: Tam As Applied To A Proposed Classification Scheme, Helen Marie Colvin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Information systems researchers have studied technology acceptance for decades. Domestic technologies, such as ambient computing devices or smart homes have more recently begun to show up in scientific literature, mostly in the area of computing design. Such studies often use an ethnographic method, or study the development and potential use of particular gadgets or systems. Consumers have largely not embraced these technologies. In asking why this is the case, a previously proven method to study technology acceptance was sought and found in Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This study seeks to demonstrate the applicability of TAM to the study of ...


Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova Jan 2008

Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Professional discussion of nonsexual multiple role relationships (NMRR) has been extensive in the last fifteen years. However, only a few investigations have explored clients or former clients' views on NMRR. This analogue experimental study focused on the former clients' views on NMRR with mental health professionals. Additionally, associations between participants' attachment styles and their emotional and cognitive reactions to the counseling situations, as well as their perceptions of the counselor, were explored.;An experimental mixed 2 (multiple roles: accepted, declined) x 2 (gender: male, female) x 2 (type of multiple roles: social, professional) factorial design was used in this analogue ...


Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard Jan 2008

Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the underlying mechanisms in the accumulation of perceptual bias effects within the context of a criminal investigation. Biased assimilation processes, including the tendency to seek, interpret, and remember information in a manner consistent with one's expectation, and perceived consensus were proposed as potential mediators of accumulation. Two experiments tested this proposition by manipulating perceivers' expectations about a fabricated target's guilt and their interaction with another person. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that perceptual bias effects accumulated across those perceivers who reported having similar beliefs with another person's written statement. These perceivers reported more extreme ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds Jan 2008

The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The safety of signalized expressway intersections has been the focus of prior research. These efforts have yielded results that were either inconclusive or required further investigation. This thesis presents the application of case-based reasoning to the issue. Similar intersections and crash reduction factors (CRFs) are used to establish expected crash performance for a candidate intersection. A spreadsheet based tool is developed that compares candidate intersections to these comparison sites. The tool uses expert opinions, attribute weights, and crash reduction factors to assist in the decision to signalize a site, to compare performance of existing signalized intersections to similar sites, or ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman Jan 2008

Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Interior Design is a field that greatly impacts society and the well being of the world's inhabitants. It is imperative to make sure that designs as well as students and professionals practicing interior design, impact society in a positive manner that are well received, emotionally, physically, and psychologically. But important questions to be asked are: how are designs perceived if the users are falsely educated about interior design? If the public is only educated about design through "design television" that has little or no credibility based on several factors such as entertainment demands, proper examination, education and experience of ...


Female Genital Mutilation: Multiple-Case Studies Of Communication Strategies Against A Taboo Practice, Kyung Sun Lee Jan 2008

Female Genital Mutilation: Multiple-Case Studies Of Communication Strategies Against A Taboo Practice, Kyung Sun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined female genital mutilation (FGM) in Africa and the global movement to eliminate the practice. Despite three decades of concerted efforts, behavior change of FGM-practicing population has been small. This thesis outlined international actions and how they influenced activities at the national and the local level.;A textual analysis of secondary sources revealed that the international community, guided by concerned UN organizations and large donor groups, define FGM as a violation of human rights and set a uniform goal to completely eliminate all forms of FGM. By coordinating actions not only at the international but also at the ...


Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes Jan 2008

Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that reading motivation declines as elementary students grow older. This reading motivation is multi-faceted with a variety of influences. Additional research indicates that when families are involved with students' reading as well as with school activities, students can reap positive academic benefits. Involving families in reading, however, declines as students progress to the upper elementary and pre-adolescent years. There is a lack of research concerning family involvement in reading with pre-adolescent students, particularly in regard to the effect of family involvement on reading motivation.;The purpose of this study was to determine the reading motivation and family reading ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following is an exploratory study investigating the difference in the incidental vocabulary learning (or recall) of Spanish vocabulary while reading for comprehension. A secondary area of investigation is the influence of learner characteristics on gloss access. High-intermediate/low-advanced Spanish students from two sections of the same Spanish course at an American university participated in this study. One group of participants was provided traditional English marginal glosses to the left of the reading while the second group of students was provided with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) glosses. The participants took three constructed response vocabulary post-tests in the following three weeks ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Young Adult Attitudes Regarding Individuals With Disabilities: A Post-Intervention Comparison Of High School Graduates, Kendra Kay Naef Jan 2008

Young Adult Attitudes Regarding Individuals With Disabilities: A Post-Intervention Comparison Of High School Graduates, Kendra Kay Naef

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study utilized an experimental research design to investigate the differences in long-term attitudes towards individuals with disabilities among young adults who had participated in an intervention program designed to develop positive academic and social relationships among students with and without disabilities, and young adults who had not. The Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale was employed to determine if the primary independent variable (P.A.R.T.N.E.R.S. Program) produced more favorable attitudes among participants. After scores from both groups were obtained, central tendency comparisons of the dependent variable were made and inferential statistics t -test analysis ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander Jan 2008

Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is oriented to study the motivation of minorities to adopt and learn new, innovative technologies. The primary research question: is there some reason the African-American experience is driving certain sub-groups of the population to the wrong side of the digital divide? To examine this, I introduce ethnic identity as a moderating variable to a leftward extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, both components of the classic TAM (ease of use and usefulness) are divided into two antecedents: (1) ease of use - (a) trait efficacy and (b) state efficacy and (2) usefulness (completely replaced by) - (a ...


Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six Jan 2008

Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to deepen our understanding of the policy and educational approaches within the Seattle, Washington residential recycling program. Through an analysis of Seattle's policy approaches and the role of education, this study makes recommendations for both its improvement and other communities looking to bolster and or implement their own recycling program. To guide the recommendations, it was necessary to find how a recycling program can target a broad audience to create more awareness and reach those in the community that have not been involved. Straughan (1999) noted that the success of a community's' recycling program relies ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite Jan 2008

Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Information Visualization impacts every day life. As life continues to become more technologically enhanced, increasing amounts of data are being collected, stored, and analyzed. Technology assists researchers and scientists not only to make new discoveries, but also to create new ways to explore the information they collect. This paper contains a small preview of the vast field of Information Visualization. From the various fields of visualization, visualization history, and current findings, we investigate the field's impact. After studying the current technologies and tools for visualizing networks, we believe there is a more optimal solution than ones currently in use ...


The Impact Of Body Image Self-Discrepancy On Body Dissatisfaction, Fashion Involvement, Concerns With Fit And Size Of Garments, And Loyalty Intentions In Online Apparel Shopping, Hyejeong Kim Jan 2008

The Impact Of Body Image Self-Discrepancy On Body Dissatisfaction, Fashion Involvement, Concerns With Fit And Size Of Garments, And Loyalty Intentions In Online Apparel Shopping, Hyejeong Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were: (1) to explore the domain of concerns with fit and size of garments using a qualitative technique; (2) to develop scales, measuring them in the offline and online shopping contexts; and (3) to examine the relationships among body image self-discrepancy, body dissatisfaction, fashion involvement, concerns with fit and size of garments, and loyalty intentions based on the self-discrepancy and cognitive dissonance theories.;In Phase 1, the domain of concerns with fit and size of garments was explored using a focus group interview technique. Results of this phase revealed seven distinct, interrelated themes, encompassing both ...


"Some Friends And I Started Talking...": A Participatory Action Research Project To Deconstruct White Privilege Among Student Affairs Practitioners, Jeffrey Edward Cullen Jan 2008

"Some Friends And I Started Talking...": A Participatory Action Research Project To Deconstruct White Privilege Among Student Affairs Practitioners, Jeffrey Edward Cullen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this participatory action research (PAR) project was to investigate and deconstruct white racial privilege as one step toward developing an anti-racist professional identity for white students in a student affairs graduate preparation program at a predominantly white university.;This qualitative study used the approach of PAR, influenced by a critical, emancipatory perspective. Five participants came together for a 30-hour group process that was both dialogical and experiential. Each group member was interviewed before and after the group process, and the transcripts of the interviews and group process formed the core of the data that was generated. Participants ...


Academic Research And Public Policy: Rhetorical Lessons From The Sophonow Inquiry, Tosh Tachino Jan 2008

Academic Research And Public Policy: Rhetorical Lessons From The Sophonow Inquiry, Tosh Tachino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a language-based case study that examines the relationship between academic research and public policy to understand the role of language and rhetoric in how academic research influences public policy. Using one Canadian public inquiry (the Sophonow Inquiry) that clearly resulted in policy uptake of research, this study examines the manner in which academic knowledge and discourse enter public policy, the rhetorical transformation of these knowledge and discourse, and the relevant rhetorical and discourse factors that facilitate policy uptake of research. The analysis in this dissertation reveals that circulation of knowledge and discourse from academic research to public ...


Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa Jan 2008

Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Over the last twenty years computer engineers introduced concepts such as "ubiquitous computing", "embodied virtualization" (Weiser, 1991), "embodied interaction" (Harrison and Dourish 1996), "tangible bits" (Ishii and Ulmer, 1997), and "seamful interweaving" (Chalmers and Galani, 2004) in an attempt to describe and explain the increased embedding of computer technology into designed objects and environments, and to emphasize the crucial agency of the human mind and body in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Since the mid-1990s the apparent 'dissolving' of computers and sensors into ordinary and extraordinary environments is the focus of research and concern across the humanities, social sciences, and engineering as ...


Circles Of Support: Towards A Liberatory Pedagogy For Community Education, Chad William Timm Jan 2008

Circles Of Support: Towards A Liberatory Pedagogy For Community Education, Chad William Timm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine a unique attempt at community education where a grassroots community based organization collaborated with a local public school system in order to help low-income families leave poverty. It explores the relationship between a private organization dedicated to eliminating the structural barriers low-income families face, called Circles of Support and a public school system dedicated to helping low-income students meet the proficiency mandates of No Child Left Behind.;Using interview and observational data, this critical institutional ethnography describes the 4-year collaboration between Circles of Support and a public school system, which ultimately ended ...


Faculty And Student Experiences With Clickers: A Qualitative Exploration Of Engaging Students In Higher-Level Thinking, Jennifer Ann Diers Jan 2008

Faculty And Student Experiences With Clickers: A Qualitative Exploration Of Engaging Students In Higher-Level Thinking, Jennifer Ann Diers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that personal response systems, or clickers, are motivating and engaging for students in higher education. This phenomenological, qualitative study focuses on the exploration of the experiences of faculty and students using personal response systems in the college classroom. An understanding of instructor and student experiences with clickers is provided. In addition, the manner in which this sample of instructors is implementing clickers in their classrooms is compared to Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive domains. Instructors view the clicker as an evolving strategy that improves their teaching, increases student engagement and attendance, and makes classroom teaching more fun ...


The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau Jan 2008

The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the association between meaning in life and outcome in therapy. Most current studies examining meaning and mental health have not examined these variables in the context of the therapeutic relationship. As well as examining how meaning in life relates to level of functioning and well-being, this study collected data from clients undergoing therapy at two time periods to assess the association between clients' perceptions of their meaning in life and outcome in therapy. It was hypothesized that the presence of meaning in life would be positively related to well-being variables and negatively related to problems or psychological ...


Reference Models For Network Trace Anonymization, Shantanu Gattani Jan 2008

Reference Models For Network Trace Anonymization, Shantanu Gattani

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Network security research can benefit greatly from testing environments that are capable of generating realistic, repeatable and configurable background traffic. In order to conduct network security experiments on systems such as Intrusion Detection Systems and Intrusion Prevention Systems, researchers require isolated testbeds capable of recreating actual network environments, complete with infrastructure and traffic details. Unfortunately, due to privacy and flexibility concerns, actual network traffic is rarely shared by organizations as sensitive information, such as IP addresses, device identity and behavioral information can be inferred from the traffic. Trace data anonymization is one solution to this problem. The research community has ...