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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm Jan 2008

Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Municipalities in Iowa are heavily reliant upon property tax revenue as a means of finance; a phenomenon which many feel has negative implications for local governance. A frequently cited remedy for this is the diversification of municipal revenue sources by enabling municipalities to collect income tax. Proponents claim that doing so would allow municipal governments to become less dependent upon property tax revenue, as well as provide relief to property taxpayers in the form of lower rates and collections. The purpose of this thesis is to explore those claims by examining whether municipalities with income tax exhibit lower property taxes ...


The Right Of Access, The Right To Hear, And The Right To Speak: Applying First Amendment Theories To The Network Neutrality Debate, Sarah Carpenter Barrow Jan 2008

The Right Of Access, The Right To Hear, And The Right To Speak: Applying First Amendment Theories To The Network Neutrality Debate, Sarah Carpenter Barrow

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Scholarship on the network neutrality debate has focused primarily on economic and technological arguments for or against regulation to protect the Internet's open and democratic qualities. Concerned that congressional discussion is similarly two-dimensional, this thesis examines the First Amendment concerns in the debate. Following Moran Yemini's 2007 paper, a matrix of possible First Amendment claims on the Internet is created. Legal case analysis identifies which of these claims are supported by Supreme Court precedent. The only potential First Amendment challenge to neutrality regulation would be broadband service providers' (BSPs') claim that the regulation infringed on their editorial rights ...


Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba Jan 2008

The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to relate farmer attitudes, perceptions, and management characteristics to field soil quality and laboratory fertility indicators. Farmer interviews were conducted to document recent practices on the farm as well as farmer attitudes about farming. To obtain soil quality measures, both the Natural Resource Conservation Service's field soil quality kit and laboratory tests were employed. Sites from the eastern half of Cherokee County, Iowa, were selected.;Key considerations of this study included farmer practices of renting versus owning land and organic or synthetic nitrogen application. Additional farmer data, including attitudes about farming, are used in this analysis ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan Jan 2008

Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Falls among older adults are a growing public health problem. Previous research suggests that the regular practice of physical activity in older adults improves balance and reduces falls. The objective of this study was to determine whether balance-specific training, in addition to regular physical activity, could improve balance in older adults, and whether there would be a dose-response to frequency of balance training.;A six-week balance-training program was conducted with 60 older adults (60-87 years) who were already participating in a regular program of physical activity. All participants continued with their regular exercise program while adding balance training in one ...


Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo Jan 2008

Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the social support network of pregnant (n=10) and parenting (n=22) teens recruited through local agencies. The support network was viewed both as support and as an agent of stress to adolescents. The pregnant and parenting teens' perceptions of motherhood and their attitudes toward being a parent were also studied. The teens had a variety of support types and support sources, but the two groups did not differ in those types and sources. They preferred support from boyfriend and mother over other sources and both groups had similar expectations and beliefs about motherhood and social support ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su Jan 2008

Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The level of consumer sentiment influences decision making of policy makers, and therefore it is important to examine if media have powerful impacts on consumer sentiment. Based on the theories of business cycles and second-level agenda-setting, this study applies Granger causal analysis and time series analysis to explore the causal relationships among economic reporting by media, consumer sentiment and the real state of the economy embodied in Business Week, the Index of Consumer Confidence (CCI) and the Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P 500). The results indicate that interpretation by media have only limited effects on the level of consumer ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson Jan 2008

Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The collapse of the 1994 Agreed Framework in early 2003 has had far reaching consequences for the diplomatic relationship of the United States and North Korea. In the following thesis, neoclassical realist theory is applied to the collapse of the Agreed Framework in an effort to gain insight on the importance of domestic level variables in the successful implementation of foreign policy. The thesis also provides a roadmap for American policy makers toward the successful construction of a lasting nuclear agreement between the United States and Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku Jan 2008

Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influx of the worldwide web has brought about dynamism in the way news is formulated and reported. Over the years scholars have debated the key ingredients that influence news selection. At the bottom of this discussion rests the question: what is considered newsworthy? But an even more evolving question is: who sets the media agenda? This study argues that the news worthiness of print and online media or state and private media is based on inter-media agenda setting. It examines the inter-media agenda setting effects of four publications in Ghana-the Daily Graphic-a government controlled newspaper which has both print ...


Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following is an exploratory study investigating the difference in the incidental vocabulary learning (or recall) of Spanish vocabulary while reading for comprehension. A secondary area of investigation is the influence of learner characteristics on gloss access. High-intermediate/low-advanced Spanish students from two sections of the same Spanish course at an American university participated in this study. One group of participants was provided traditional English marginal glosses to the left of the reading while the second group of students was provided with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) glosses. The participants took three constructed response vocabulary post-tests in the following three weeks ...


Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx Jan 2008

Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The increasing dominance of visual communication puts pressure on professional communicators and students of rhetoric to understand the nature of the scopic regime and how competing ways of seeing affect communication networks and the societies they serve. This document focuses on the attempts of the early twentieth-century avant gardists to profoundly shift social realities by challenging the scopic regime of their time through book design. Their attempts to seize agency through aesthetics failed to directly enact a new social order, but the avant gardists succeeded in establishing the necessary visual grammars for new ways of visually presenting information, including the ...


Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova Jan 2008

Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Professional discussion of nonsexual multiple role relationships (NMRR) has been extensive in the last fifteen years. However, only a few investigations have explored clients or former clients' views on NMRR. This analogue experimental study focused on the former clients' views on NMRR with mental health professionals. Additionally, associations between participants' attachment styles and their emotional and cognitive reactions to the counseling situations, as well as their perceptions of the counselor, were explored.;An experimental mixed 2 (multiple roles: accepted, declined) x 2 (gender: male, female) x 2 (type of multiple roles: social, professional) factorial design was used in this analogue ...


Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite Jan 2008

Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Information Visualization impacts every day life. As life continues to become more technologically enhanced, increasing amounts of data are being collected, stored, and analyzed. Technology assists researchers and scientists not only to make new discoveries, but also to create new ways to explore the information they collect. This paper contains a small preview of the vast field of Information Visualization. From the various fields of visualization, visualization history, and current findings, we investigate the field's impact. After studying the current technologies and tools for visualizing networks, we believe there is a more optimal solution than ones currently in use ...


Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman Jan 2008

Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to specifically examine three domains that affect a spousal relationship in the presence of the progressive deterioration associated with Alzheimer's disease. The three domains are marital satisfaction, caregiver burden, and coping strategies. The second purpose of this study was to explore the current resources that the spousal dyad is utilizing for the purpose of informing those who are new to the experience of working with this population. Understanding what resources these dyads are already using will allow those in the MFT field to better serve in the areas where resource voids still remain.


Forces Affecting Prospects For Joint Land Use Planning Services In Boone County, Iowa, Luke Paul Nelson Jan 2008

Forces Affecting Prospects For Joint Land Use Planning Services In Boone County, Iowa, Luke Paul Nelson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study utilizes grounded theory to analyze the factors associated with a joint planning department in Boone County, Iowa.


Comparing Fashion Innovators And Non-Innovators' Characteristics And Perceptions Of Online Shopping: The Case Of Taiwan, Yitung Lo Jan 2008

Comparing Fashion Innovators And Non-Innovators' Characteristics And Perceptions Of Online Shopping: The Case Of Taiwan, Yitung Lo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined innovators and non-innovators in Taiwan. The study uses diffusion of innovations theory as theoretical framework, considering purchasing fashion items online as an innovation. Fashion innovators are a vital consumer group not only because their early purchase brings positive cash flow but also because their word-of-mouth legitimizations of new fashions.;This study compared fashion innovators and non-innovators' demographic characteristics, psychographic characteristics, media usage, online shopping behavior, and perceptions toward shopping fashion items online. The data used in this study were gathered by surveying undergraduate students in Taipei, Taiwan, and 318 questionnaires were used in statistical analysis.;The results ...


Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander Jan 2008

Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is oriented to study the motivation of minorities to adopt and learn new, innovative technologies. The primary research question: is there some reason the African-American experience is driving certain sub-groups of the population to the wrong side of the digital divide? To examine this, I introduce ethnic identity as a moderating variable to a leftward extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, both components of the classic TAM (ease of use and usefulness) are divided into two antecedents: (1) ease of use - (a) trait efficacy and (b) state efficacy and (2) usefulness (completely replaced by) - (a ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...


Three Essays On Agricultural Risk And Insurance, Li Zhang Jan 2008

Three Essays On Agricultural Risk And Insurance, Li Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The general theme of this dissertation is agricultural risk and insurance in the United States. Chapter 2 examines welfare effects of the 2002 farm bill programs and yield insurance as well as their impacts on acreage decision of a representative Iowa farmer. Instead of measuring welfare using expected utility to capture farmers' preferences over risky alternatives, we apply recent advances in decision theory and use prospect theory to measure welfare changes due to government programs. The results indicate that there is no policy distortion to farmers' acreage decisions and farmers' willingness to pay per dollar of program cost is greatest ...


Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer Jan 2008

Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated whether differences in user personality---specifically cognitive and affective styles---impact the user's perception of usability for different types of web sites, since perceived usability is an important aspect of persuasiveness of a web site. For this purpose, different measures of cognitive style and affective style were applied and two versions (high cognitive resp. affective appeal) of web sites educating users about a topic were designed. Users were instructed to explore the sites and rate their usability. Support was found that design for better perceived usability was possible based on need for cognition. Implications were discussed and deeper ...


Hezbollah's Nasrallah: The "Great Man" Of The Levant, Nathan William Swanson Jan 2008

Hezbollah's Nasrallah: The "Great Man" Of The Levant, Nathan William Swanson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Since its founding in the early 1980s, Hezbollah has become a major political player in Middle East politics. Attempts at explaining the organization's behavior, however, has been largely limited to one theory---that the group's actions are driven by long-time allies and benefactors Iran and Syria. This thesis challenges this "proxy" view of Hezbollah and explores, under the "great men" theory, the influence of the organization's Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, a charismatic leader with celebrity status across the entire Arab world. This study finds that, while Iran and Syria were defining forces in Hezbollah's early ideologies and actions ...


Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes Jan 2008

Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that reading motivation declines as elementary students grow older. This reading motivation is multi-faceted with a variety of influences. Additional research indicates that when families are involved with students' reading as well as with school activities, students can reap positive academic benefits. Involving families in reading, however, declines as students progress to the upper elementary and pre-adolescent years. There is a lack of research concerning family involvement in reading with pre-adolescent students, particularly in regard to the effect of family involvement on reading motivation.;The purpose of this study was to determine the reading motivation and family reading ...


Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha Jan 2008

Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Africa has experienced the least socioeconomic progress in recent decades by many measures. Poverty, disease, drought, and conflict have combined to trap many nations in endless cycles of misery and plummeting quality of life. Agriculture, one potentially significant avenue out of these cycles and Africa's largest economic sector, is burdened with significant problems. Over the last five decades, various approaches to agricultural development have been introduced with some modest levels of success. The latest extension innovation in the fight against rural poverty is the Farmer Field School (FFS), introduced to Africa from South East Asia in the early 1990s ...


Experiential Self-Focus As A Facilitator Of Processing Interpersonal Hurt And As A Buffer In The Relationship Between Anger Rumination And Psychological Outcomes, Kelly Yu-Hsin Liao Jan 2008

Experiential Self-Focus As A Facilitator Of Processing Interpersonal Hurt And As A Buffer In The Relationship Between Anger Rumination And Psychological Outcomes, Kelly Yu-Hsin Liao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined two writing conditions and interpersonal hurt. The results indicated that unforgiveness decreased over time in the experiential condition. Intrusive thoughts increased over time in the experiential and the control conditions. Unforgiveness, intrusive thoughts and benevolence did not differ between the two conditions. Negative affect decreased faster in the experiential group than the control group. Negative affect increased slower during follow-up sessions in the experiential condition. The results showed that writing served as a moderator. Benevolence increased during writing but decreased in the follow-up sessions among individuals with low anger rumination in the experiential condition. Benevolence significantly increased ...


Why Taiwanese Students Use Instant Messaging: A Uses And Gratifications Approach, Ko-Jung Chen Jan 2008

Why Taiwanese Students Use Instant Messaging: A Uses And Gratifications Approach, Ko-Jung Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to investigate the gratifications Taiwanese students sought and obtained from Instant Messaging use (IM). This study also examined the relationship among gratifications Taiwanese students obtained, gender, and their frequency of IM use. A 13-motivation with 37 statements scale derived from previous uses and gratifications studies is presented along with the demographic information as an instrument to determine Taiwanese students' gratifications from IM use. The participants were 406 undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral college students, who are the primary users of this new interactive communication technology. The results indicated there were 10 gratifications sought (Flexibility, Escape ...