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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Institution
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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


Syncretism: A Study Of Toshodai-Ji Wayo Architectural And Cultural Elements, Carole N. Edginton Jan 2008

Syncretism: A Study Of Toshodai-Ji Wayo Architectural And Cultural Elements, Carole N. Edginton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

When cultures come in contact with another an exchange of social constructs occurs. Very often this results in a syncretism or a blending of ideas which results in the development of new innovative ideas and materials. Wayo cultural traditions of Nara Japan are an example of this type of occurrence. With the transmission of Buddhism from China to Japan in 509 C.E. via Korea cultural, religious, political, as well as architectural advances in technologies occurred. Toshodai-ji successfully demonstrates the Buddhist ideology and methods of T'ang architectural design that was transferred to Japan from China. Wayo features are found ...


The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan Jan 2008

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the ability of ESL students to revise their grammatical errors and produce more accurate writing in the future based on error codes. As the researcher, I analyzed the writing over time of four different students who received error codes. I examined three error types for three of the subjects, and two errors types for the fourth subject. The error types included verb errors, preposition errors, determiner errors and plural/singular confusion errors. I analyzed these errors to determine the correction ability and accuracy on future writing of the students.;The subjects were 4 males, two from ...


Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock Jan 2008

Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of community college students and their development of the concept of information literacy. The participants' individual definition of information literacy was explored as well as the people, places, and events that helped shape their concept of information literacy. Data were gathered applying narrative inquiry using a combination of interviews and document analysis. It was anticipated that reflection on their prior experiences would illuminate the meaning students make of information literacy, and could help inform instruction for future students.;Information literacy had different meanings to each of the participants. There ...


Young Adult Risky Behavior: A Comparison Of Adoptee Vs. Non-Adoptee Outcomes, Shannon Patricia Hoffman Jan 2008

Young Adult Risky Behavior: A Comparison Of Adoptee Vs. Non-Adoptee Outcomes, Shannon Patricia Hoffman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether adoptees and non-adoptees, aged 18-26, differed on risky behavior outcomes. Variables such as delinquency, violence, impulsive behavior, drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use were defined as risky behaviors. Participants (n=280) were taken from Wave III of the Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. Individuals who answered "yes" to the variable "Have you ever been adopted?" made up the adopted sample (n=140, male=67, female=73). Non-adopted individuals were randomly selected from the remaining pool of participants and made up the control group, (n=140, male=69, female=71 ...


Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward Jan 2008

Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Educational outcomes for children with fathers absent due to death and those absent for other reasons were examined with children from two-parent homes using the Adolescent Health data. Children without fathers for any reason completed a year less of school than children living with two parents. Children with deceased fathers and children with fathers absent for other reasons did not differ in the amount of education each completed. There was no association between the child's age when the father died and the amount of education completed, but there was a small relationship between the length of time a child ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm Jan 2008

Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Municipalities in Iowa are heavily reliant upon property tax revenue as a means of finance; a phenomenon which many feel has negative implications for local governance. A frequently cited remedy for this is the diversification of municipal revenue sources by enabling municipalities to collect income tax. Proponents claim that doing so would allow municipal governments to become less dependent upon property tax revenue, as well as provide relief to property taxpayers in the form of lower rates and collections. The purpose of this thesis is to explore those claims by examining whether municipalities with income tax exhibit lower property taxes ...


The Effect Of The Internet On The Civic Engagement And Voting Behavior Of Young Americans, Katherine Anne Mcnitt Jan 2008

The Effect Of The Internet On The Civic Engagement And Voting Behavior Of Young Americans, Katherine Anne Mcnitt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Election returns from 2004 show increased voter turnout amongst 18 to 29 year olds. Is this reversal symptomatic of a larger trend? This paper examines what, if any, connection exists between the Internet, civic engagement, and turnout of young citizens. I test the hypothesis that increased use of the Internet to obtain news and political information will have a positive effect on civic engagement and voter turnout.


Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee Jan 2008

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rampant, negative messages about the capabilities of African American women in the education system pervade society. I suggest that these negative messages fail to account for Black women's learning resilience. In this study, the voices of 27 African American women who described their experiences in the formal education environment emerged through interviews, focus groups, observations, and two electronic interactions, participation in a chat room and e-mail exchanges.;This multigenerational study spans 71 years of educational experiences that I organized into five generations that correspond with eras of significance for both the African American culture and the education system. These ...


Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson Jan 2008

Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Field research was conducted in the Li Cheng District (about 1,200 km 2) of Shan Dong Province. Data collection occurred during a two-week period in July 2006. At that time, seven villages represented all relevant sites in the district that contained gasification technologies. Small-group interviews with village leaders, station managers, and community members were conducted locally. Contact with external government agencies and technology scientists completed the set of potential stakeholders.;This study analyzes the failure of state-owned energy development initiatives in China. Communication barriers in bureaucratic structures and culturally prescribed patterns of interaction were revealed as inhibiting information transfer ...


The Right Of Access, The Right To Hear, And The Right To Speak: Applying First Amendment Theories To The Network Neutrality Debate, Sarah Carpenter Barrow Jan 2008

The Right Of Access, The Right To Hear, And The Right To Speak: Applying First Amendment Theories To The Network Neutrality Debate, Sarah Carpenter Barrow

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Scholarship on the network neutrality debate has focused primarily on economic and technological arguments for or against regulation to protect the Internet's open and democratic qualities. Concerned that congressional discussion is similarly two-dimensional, this thesis examines the First Amendment concerns in the debate. Following Moran Yemini's 2007 paper, a matrix of possible First Amendment claims on the Internet is created. Legal case analysis identifies which of these claims are supported by Supreme Court precedent. The only potential First Amendment challenge to neutrality regulation would be broadband service providers' (BSPs') claim that the regulation infringed on their editorial rights ...


Why Taiwanese Students Use Instant Messaging: A Uses And Gratifications Approach, Ko-Jung Chen Jan 2008

Why Taiwanese Students Use Instant Messaging: A Uses And Gratifications Approach, Ko-Jung Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to investigate the gratifications Taiwanese students sought and obtained from Instant Messaging use (IM). This study also examined the relationship among gratifications Taiwanese students obtained, gender, and their frequency of IM use. A 13-motivation with 37 statements scale derived from previous uses and gratifications studies is presented along with the demographic information as an instrument to determine Taiwanese students' gratifications from IM use. The participants were 406 undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral college students, who are the primary users of this new interactive communication technology. The results indicated there were 10 gratifications sought (Flexibility, Escape ...


Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee Jan 2008

Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of persuasive strategies on perceived parasocial interactions between the host and viewers in the television home shopping environment. The effects of perceived parasocial interactions, perceived social involvement, and perceived loneliness on mood, and mood's consequent influence on perceived risk and impulse buying tendency are examined. Through two different sampling methods, 109 usable responses from female television home shopping shoppers aged 55 to 80 were retained for data analyses. Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 7.0 was used to derive the maximum-likelihood estimation for analysis of the model. In ...


Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski Jan 2008

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Prisonization theory asserts that inmates who internalize the attitudes and behaviors of a criminal lifestyle are most likely to continue their criminal careers and thus less likely to desist from crime. Unfortunately, virtually all prior studies of prisonization have used male samples and ignored female inmates. Using official data from 174 female inmates in Arizona, the current study examined predictors of 10 forms of institutional misconduct. Net the effects of demographic, social history, criminal career, and other risk factors, women who had served prior prison terms were significantly likely to commit all forms of misconduct. The effect of prior prison ...


Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung Jan 2008

Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Vicuna fiber has a high value in the textile and fashion industry and is seen on the runways of the most selective and luxurious clothing designers in Europe. However, the vicuna fiber process and commodity chain are little known. This thesis presents the commodity chain of vicuna fiber and the positive and negative impacts that vicuna fiber commercialization generates in Peruvian peasant communities. The research, based on in-depth interviews and document analysis, studies the development of this buyer-driven chain, the social actors' roles, and the policies and legislation implemented to preserve vicuna species. In response to consumption demands, the marketing ...


Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier Jan 2008

Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study investigated if attention to and processing of a movie could serve as input variables in the General Aggression Model. Specially, the type of scenes viewers attended to and their level of processing were examined. Participants completed personality measures and were instructed to either pay attention or just relax during a movie. They then completed a lexical decision task and reported the scene they found to be most striking. Results showed that aggressive cognitions did vary based on scene reported; participants who selected an aggressive scene were more primed for movie-related, non-aggressive concepts than aggression-related concepts. Exploratory analysis suggested ...


Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six Jan 2008

Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to deepen our understanding of the policy and educational approaches within the Seattle, Washington residential recycling program. Through an analysis of Seattle's policy approaches and the role of education, this study makes recommendations for both its improvement and other communities looking to bolster and or implement their own recycling program. To guide the recommendations, it was necessary to find how a recycling program can target a broad audience to create more awareness and reach those in the community that have not been involved. Straughan (1999) noted that the success of a community's' recycling program relies ...


"I Hope To Share My Struggles, My Successes, And Everything In Between": A Rhetorical Study Of Health Blogs, Marcy Deborah Leasum Jan 2008

"I Hope To Share My Struggles, My Successes, And Everything In Between": A Rhetorical Study Of Health Blogs, Marcy Deborah Leasum

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many patients who are experiencing a serious illness need a way to express their emotions and continue their everyday lives. For some patients, one outlet is through a health blog. Health blogs allow these individuals to share their emotions about their illness through narrative and with a wide audience over the Internet.;The visual and textual elements of health blogs work together to create an identity that is unique to each blogger. As these visual and textual elements combine, one can see the narratives emerge. Through these narratives, the bloggers persuade both themselves and others that they can to some ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar Jan 2008

Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Being a student of color at a predominantly White institution can be extremely challenging, yet rewarding. For the select students in this mixed methods study, overcoming academic and social hurdles was paramount to their success in science, technology and engineering based disciplines at this large research intensive Midwestern institution. Some of the themes that arose from their academic and social challenges were: feelings of isolation and alienation, demystification of stereotypes, minimal relationships with faculty and staff, inadequate academic advising, and a lack of academic and social preparation and skills. Students of color in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences ...


Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan Jan 2008

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of stress and self-control depletion on subsequent risk cognitions. Male college students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a stress induction, a self-control manipulation, or a control task. All participants then completed a questionnaire containing measures of behavioral willingness, behavioral intentions, perceived vulnerability, and consideration of negative consequences regarding two risk behaviors: heavy drinking and casual sex. The order of the dependent measures (drinking measures first vs. casual sex measures first) was counterbalanced as a between-subjects factor.;Compared to the control task, it was predicted that both the stress induction and self-control depletion ...


The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells Jan 2008

The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This institutional ethnography was undertaken to address the problematic that far fewer women than men participate in the institution of agricultural conservation despite the fact that about the same numbers of men and women own roughly equal amounts of agricultural land in the U.S. Midwest. The institution of agricultural conservation---governmental agencies and private non-profit organizations---provides conservation services such as technical assistance and funding to clients, private farmland owners, who implement conservation practices on their lands.;As a qualitative research methodology, institutional ethnography (IE) is a way to examine otherwise intractable or elusive problems that exist on an institutional level ...


Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the interrelationships between multiple technology adoptions, firm size, wages and human capital. The application is to four surveys of producers and employees in the US hog industry in the last two decades.;The first chapter investigates the size-wage premium in the competitive hog market. Particular attention is paid to the matching process by which workers are linked to farms of differing size and technology mix, and to whether the matching process can explain differences in wages across farms. The sector is characterized by large wage premia paid to workers on larger and more ...


Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner Jan 2008

Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although much research has been conducted on cosmetic surgery and some research has been conducted on cosmetic use in general, little to no research has explored nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body, particularly as a symbolic form of consumption in shaping notions of the self. Thus, the purpose of the present qualitative study was to gain understanding of the consumption of nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body from multiple theoretical perspectives. Of particular interest was how this consumption serves as a symbolic means for shaping the self, specifically in the context of self-presentation and impression management (Goffman, 1959).;For this ...


Queenbees And Wannabees: The Struggle For Power Through Bullying In Adolescent Girls, Deann Valorie Miller Jan 2008

Queenbees And Wannabees: The Struggle For Power Through Bullying In Adolescent Girls, Deann Valorie Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, I explore the lived experience of 5 middle school girls in grades 5-9, who have experienced bullying. My question for this study asks, "What is the lived experience of adolescent girls who have experienced female bullying?" The metaphor of queenbees and wannabees has helped me understand adolescent ways of being in the world as they have been bullied. In addition, understanding the lived experience of female bullying is developed through the exploration of the phenomenological life-world themes of body, time, space, and relationality. The theme of body is examined through physical being, emotional being, and ...


Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer Jan 2008

Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated whether differences in user personality---specifically cognitive and affective styles---impact the user's perception of usability for different types of web sites, since perceived usability is an important aspect of persuasiveness of a web site. For this purpose, different measures of cognitive style and affective style were applied and two versions (high cognitive resp. affective appeal) of web sites educating users about a topic were designed. Users were instructed to explore the sites and rate their usability. Support was found that design for better perceived usability was possible based on need for cognition. Implications were discussed and deeper ...


Post-Cold War Japan-Rok Relations: A Pluralist Approach, Yong Ouk Cho Jan 2008

Post-Cold War Japan-Rok Relations: A Pluralist Approach, Yong Ouk Cho

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between Japan and the ROK has been volatile in the post-Cold War period. Accounting for why the Japanese-South Korean relationship has combined cooperation and conflict in unexpected ways is a challenging task for international relations theory. The variations of the Japan-ROK relations in the post-Cold War are accounted for if we selectively use and combine different IR theoretical perspectives. This leads us to favor a pluralist approach.