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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm Jan 2008

Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Municipalities in Iowa are heavily reliant upon property tax revenue as a means of finance; a phenomenon which many feel has negative implications for local governance. A frequently cited remedy for this is the diversification of municipal revenue sources by enabling municipalities to collect income tax. Proponents claim that doing so would allow municipal governments to become less dependent upon property tax revenue, as well as provide relief to property taxpayers in the form of lower rates and collections. The purpose of this thesis is to explore those claims by examining whether municipalities with income tax exhibit lower property taxes ...


Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the interrelationships between multiple technology adoptions, firm size, wages and human capital. The application is to four surveys of producers and employees in the US hog industry in the last two decades.;The first chapter investigates the size-wage premium in the competitive hog market. Particular attention is paid to the matching process by which workers are linked to farms of differing size and technology mix, and to whether the matching process can explain differences in wages across farms. The sector is characterized by large wage premia paid to workers on larger and more ...


An Equity Analysis Of The Iowa School Funding Model That Addresses The Instructional Support Program And The Influence This Program Has On Student Achievement, Nicholas Joseph Ouellette Jan 2008

An Equity Analysis Of The Iowa School Funding Model That Addresses The Instructional Support Program And The Influence This Program Has On Student Achievement, Nicholas Joseph Ouellette

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Financial equity among school districts across the country has been studied for many years. Research has given mixed reviews that increased funding will equate to higher student achievement. As educators and legislators debate the adequacy and equity of funding for all schools across states and the country, having a strong foundation of research in which to base the discussion is crucial. School funding models must be studied to ensure that all students have an opportunity for an equitable and adequate educational experience.;The purpose of this study was to take a look at the Iowa school funding model and the ...


Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su Jan 2008

Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The level of consumer sentiment influences decision making of policy makers, and therefore it is important to examine if media have powerful impacts on consumer sentiment. Based on the theories of business cycles and second-level agenda-setting, this study applies Granger causal analysis and time series analysis to explore the causal relationships among economic reporting by media, consumer sentiment and the real state of the economy embodied in Business Week, the Index of Consumer Confidence (CCI) and the Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P 500). The results indicate that interpretation by media have only limited effects on the level of consumer ...


In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman Jan 2008

In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following study is an examination of the effects of globalization, regime type and macroeconomic policy on economic growth. 90 countries are examined between the years 1975-2003. While there are issues with the use of the proxy variable, the general effects can be explored. These effects are found to differ between high-income and low-income countries. The analysis finds that low-income countries should focus on improving inefficient distribution of services. High-income countries are able to choose from a range macroeconomic policies and are not forced to converge around any one policy.


Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to examine some incentive and informational properties of contingent valuation surveys and provide some suggestions in survey design. The contingent valuation method uses survey questions to elicit individuals' preferences for nonmarket goods. The essential task of a contingent valuation exercise is to design a questionnaire which elicits respondents' preference for the good being valued.;This dissertation includes three essays that contribute to the contingent valuation literature. The contingent valuation method is widely used in estimating the economic value of nonmarket goods. The first essay offers an empirical test of a theoretical result in the ...


Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt Jan 2008

An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The creative economy concept has recently become increasingly popular. Although the concept is popular and research is being conducted on it, there has been a lack of research on the creative economy in rural communities. This thesis attempts to determine the characteristics that define the creative economy in rural communities. Previous research found that creative workers prefer communities with certain characteristics which include technology, talent, tolerance, lifestyle, and authenticity/identity (Florida 2002). The results of this study indicate that rural creative communities in the Midwest tend to have higher percentages of residents with at least a bachelor's degree, more ...


Essays On Food Assistance Program Participation And Demand For Food, Ariun Ishdorj Jan 2008

Essays On Food Assistance Program Participation And Demand For Food, Ariun Ishdorj

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Household food demand and choices over food products are constantly evolving. Therefore better understanding of the relationship among household socioeconomic characteristics, expenditures, foods and nutrient choices of consumers and food prices is important to food producers, health professionals, policymakers and educators. This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to consumer behavior. The first two papers explore two important issues related to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program that have not been extensively addressed in the past. First, although the WIC program is primarily devised with the intent ...


Essays In Macroeconomics, International Trade And The Environment, Shiva Sikdar Jan 2008

Essays In Macroeconomics, International Trade And The Environment, Shiva Sikdar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the problem of optimal recapitalization of banking sectors after banking crises and analyzes the effect of trade liberalization on environmental policy and welfare in a strategic setting in the presence of transboundary pollution.;Government-financed bank restructuring programs, occasionally costing up to 50% of GDP, have commonly been used to resolve banking crises. In Chapter 2 analyze the Ramsey-optimal paths of bank recapitalization programs that weigh recapitalization benefits and costs under different financing options. In our model bank credit is essential, due to a working capital constraint on firms, and banks are financial intermediaries that borrow from households ...


The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu Jan 2007

The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This paper first sets up a theoretical model to describe a credit rating agency's (CRA) two roles, namely rating and monitoring. Through CRA's monitoring role, bonds no longer represent loan contracts without monitoring. In the model, bond issuers have to decide whether to go through CRA or borrow directly, and whether to take action to prevent future risk or not. CRA's monitoring ability is shown to be crucial. If CRA can observe creditworthiness changes more accurately so as to offer ratings with less noise, there will be more issuers willing to signal their qualities and take action ...


Effectiveness Evaluation Of The Hispanic Workforce Research Project (Hwrp), Fernando Aveiga Jan 2007

Effectiveness Evaluation Of The Hispanic Workforce Research Project (Hwrp), Fernando Aveiga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hispanics are a large and growing part of the United States workforce. Official projection state that by the year 2050 Hispanics will account for 25 percent of the population. For the Midwest in particular, the Hispanic population is expected to increase 35 percent by the year 2025. The construction industry is expected to experience greater percentage increase of its Hispanic population due to the labor intensive nature of the industry.;This study addresses the expected increase of Hispanic workers in the construction industry by investigating the best approaches for delivering training to construction crews with Hispanic workers as well as ...


Topics In Pricing American Type Financial Contracts, Qiang Meng Jan 2007

Topics In Pricing American Type Financial Contracts, Qiang Meng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis we study three pricing problems related to American type financial contracts: firstly, we derive a closed form upper bound for American put options. This upper bound can be used in conjunction with traditional Monte Carlo simulation, which usually generates a lower bound, to obtain a better estimate for the option price; secondly, we solve an optimal control problem and derive an optimal strategy for the owner of a stock which is subject to default risk; thirdly, we prove an ordering result for American options with a piecewise linear payoff under a family of equivalent martingale measures used ...


Three Essays On Child Labor, Schooling Outcomes And Health, Chanyoung Lee Jan 2007

Three Essays On Child Labor, Schooling Outcomes And Health, Chanyoung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the interrelationships between child labor, schooling and health, using nationally representative data from the United States and from Brazil. In developing countries, child labor can begin at an early age. However, child labor can be found in developed countries as well, particularly in the teenage years. This dissertation examines (1) whether and how much current state child labor legislation affects the employment and schooling decisions of U.S. high school students; (2) whether there is a cumulative effect of teen work on schooling outcomes; and (3) whether adults who worked as children experience increased incidence of illness ...


Program Theory Of A Usda Grants Program For Use In Evaluation Based On Quantitative Content Analysis And Oral History Narrative Analysis, Elena Yu Polush Jan 2007

Program Theory Of A Usda Grants Program For Use In Evaluation Based On Quantitative Content Analysis And Oral History Narrative Analysis, Elena Yu Polush

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research was conceived on the premise that a good evaluation plan for a program begins with explicating the program's essential conceptual underpinnings, namely the program theory. Theory-based evaluation is generally recognized as enhancing the quality of evaluation. However, the theory-based approach remains underutilized in evaluation of federal competitive grants programs. The goal of the research was to depict a coherent description of program theory for the Higher Education Challenge (HEC) grants program grounded on core aspects of theories developed in two studies. The research used quantitative content analysis to systematically study the texts of Request for Application (RFA ...


Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu Jan 2007

Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contract farming in China has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. The first part of this dissertation examines the evolution of contract farming, and explores the incentives to engage in contract farming, preferred contract provisions, and contract performance from the perspective of both Chinese farmers and contracting firms. Firm and household perceptions of contracting are assessed using data obtained from village and firm level surveys. Farmers identify price stability and market access as the key advantages to contracts, while firms consider improved product quality as the primary incentive to use contracts.;In Part II, the survey data are used ...


Four Essays On Environmental Policy Under Uncertainty With Applications To Water Quality And Carbon Sequestration, Sergey S. Rabotyagov Jan 2007

Four Essays On Environmental Policy Under Uncertainty With Applications To Water Quality And Carbon Sequestration, Sergey S. Rabotyagov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I present four essays that deal with several diverse issues in environmental economics, ranging from soil carbon sequestration, to a design of a pollution permit trading program, to proposing watershed-scale solutions to water quality problems, both on state and regional scale.;The first essay is titled "Environmental policy under benefit and cost uncertainty: application to soil carbon offsets". I characterize an optimal spatial allocation of land parcels to specific environmental practices explicitly dealing with uncertainty in both the benefits and program costs. The results provide a magnitude of uncertainty discount for soil carbon offsets and the margin ...


Three Essays In Macroeconomics, Xue Qiao Jan 2007

Three Essays In Macroeconomics, Xue Qiao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is concentrated on two different economic topics: unemployment insurance (UI) and longevity. The first two chapters examine how a government UI program affects individuals' behavior and the labor market performance. The last chapter investigates the role of the interaction between public health expenditure and private health investment in promoting a longer lifetime span.;In the first chapter, I study the effects of a publicly funded unemployment insurance (UI) system on a firm's decision to terminate employment contracts in a dynamic moral hazard model. It is shown that the optimal employment contract involves termination of both sufficiently rich ...


"Perhaps We Can Hit Upon Some Medium Of Course": Rockefeller Philanthropy, Economic Research, And The Structure Of Social Science--1911-1946, David Lee Seim Jan 2007

"Perhaps We Can Hit Upon Some Medium Of Course": Rockefeller Philanthropy, Economic Research, And The Structure Of Social Science--1911-1946, David Lee Seim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In January 1957, Merle Curti published "The History of American Philanthropy as a Field of Research." Curti believed the time was right for historians to ask: "how important has relatively disinterested benevolence been in giving expression to, and in promoting at home and abroad, a major American value---human welfare?" Historians have done much research over fifty years to answer Curti's question. Some historians argue that philanthropic benevolence has been relatively unbiased when supporting research to solve social and economic problems; these historians interpret philanthropic support of social research as generally "compatible" with unbiased selection of research problems and methods ...


A Study Of The Association Of The Iowa Hotel And Motel Tax With The General Property Tax Mill Rate For Iowa Communities, Arleen Marie Griesemer Faeth Jan 2007

A Study Of The Association Of The Iowa Hotel And Motel Tax With The General Property Tax Mill Rate For Iowa Communities, Arleen Marie Griesemer Faeth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The availability of tax revenue data in digital format prompted a study of Iowa communities with respect to their general property tax mill rate and the presence or absence of a hotel and motel tax. Both of these revenue sources are dispersed entirely to the local community. The revenue does not remain in the State's general fund. Alternative tax revenue sources are an important component in the decision making process of local city planners, city managers and community development administrators.;The intent of this thesis was to determine if there is an association between the general property tax mill ...


The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr. Jan 2007

The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Beginning in the 1970s, graduate assistants have organized labor unions. Presently, 36 universities have a graduate-student union. However, the effect graduate-student unions have on wages, wage variance, health benefits, and organizational structure is unknown. This study uses data from the Chronicle of Higher Education and government data to estimate the economic effects of unionization. By using a multilevel model is used to control for intra-university correlation of wages, this study concludes graduate unions are effective at raising stipends, but ineffective at lowering fees, providing health-care coverage, and lowering intra-university wage variance.


Three Essays On The Economics Of Innovation And Regional Economics, Oleg Yerokhin Jan 2007

Three Essays On The Economics Of Innovation And Regional Economics, Oleg Yerokhin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays in economics of innovation and regional economics. The first two essays of my dissertation attempt to fill gaps in the theoretical analysis of the optimal incentive structure when innovation is sequential and cumulative. In particular, the models studied in these chapters feature infinite horizon races with prizes collected continuously and study the effects of the research exemption provision on the incentives for sequential innovation.;In the first essay I develop a dynamic model of duopoly in which firms engage in research and development competition to improve the quality of a final good. The innovation ...


Existence And Uniqueness Of Cournot Equilibrium For An Oligopoly Under Linear And Nonlinear Demand: A Channel Model For One Manufacturer-Two Retailers With Substitutes, Nicholas Francis Kuennen Jan 2007

Existence And Uniqueness Of Cournot Equilibrium For An Oligopoly Under Linear And Nonlinear Demand: A Channel Model For One Manufacturer-Two Retailers With Substitutes, Nicholas Francis Kuennen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This paper considers the margin, price, and quantity decisions made by one manufacturer and two retailers in a two-echelon supply chain under Cournot competition. The manufacturer produces two types of substitutable products and sells one product to each retailer. The retailers carry one type of product, which is sold to the customer. The objective of this paper is to show existence and uniqueness of Cournot equilibrium for decisions made by one manufacturer and two retailers and to study the implications of these decisions through sensitivity analysis. This paper has three main findings: (1) the retailer with the lower price effect ...


A Phenomenological Study Of Family Influence On Millennial College Students' Money Beliefs And Behaviors, Mary Ann Briscoe Campbell Jan 2007

A Phenomenological Study Of Family Influence On Millennial College Students' Money Beliefs And Behaviors, Mary Ann Briscoe Campbell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although family systems theorists have long emphasized the family as an important influence on the individual's life choices, there is minimal qualitative research relating to Millennial college students and the impact of their families, particularly in the area of financial beliefs and behaviors. The purpose of this qualitative study was the exploration of the phenomenon of family influence on Millennial college students regarding how money messages from parents and grandparents have influenced their own money beliefs and behaviors. Seven college students between the ages of 21-23 were interviewed to gain insight into the perceived impact of family money messages ...


Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue Jan 2006

Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Product quality and product differentiation have become increasingly important to producers and policymakers for explaining consumer choice over food products. Consumers are often willing to pay large price premiums for products with preferred attributes. Heterogeneity in quality increases the diversity of goods for consumers and can improve welfare. However, variation in quality also leads to higher transaction costs for consumers, producers and policymakers because quality attributes are hard to identify precisely and vary when the state of the world changes. The first essay addresses the issue of food-quality attributes driven by protectionist policy that inhibits exchange between two countries. Technical ...


Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris Jan 2006

Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to determine if the graduation rates of students of color and majority students at public, research extensive and intensive institutions could be predicted by institutional resource allocation activities in the context of both the internal and external environments of universities. The independent variables for the internal environment were expenditures in regard to instruction, academic support, student services, institutional grants (scholarships, fellowships), research, public service, institutional support, plant operation and maintenance, and institutional selectivity. The independent variables for the external environment were geographical region and degree of urbanization. The independent variables for the internal environment were calculated in ...


Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman Jan 2006

Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate allegations of abuse related to the United States' bankruptcy system. This study used data on bankruptcy and financial problems from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to estimate a model of consumer bankruptcy abuse. The focus of this study was the extent to which consumers were abusing the right to file for bankruptcy protection;Specifically, this study used a cross-sectional, time-series model of bankruptcy and financial problems and assessed the relative importance of different personal and financial variables in predicting bankruptcy. This study sought to investigate (1) if households in this ...


The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali Jan 2006

The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many countries claim that foreign cultural goods threaten their national identities and culture and engage in protectionism. In this dissertation, I analyze the economics of trade protection in cultural services, focusing on domestic cultural content protection in terrestrial television and radio broadcasting, and cultural tariffs in the movie industry. My the first essay considers the impact of cultural quota imposed of radio stations in increasing consumption of domestic programs. Domestic content requirement may reduce (increase) consumption of domestic programs when consumer's demand is highly elastic (inelastic), the degree of preference for foreign content over domestic content is high (low ...


Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang Jan 2006

Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality ...