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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee Jan 2008

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rampant, negative messages about the capabilities of African American women in the education system pervade society. I suggest that these negative messages fail to account for Black women's learning resilience. In this study, the voices of 27 African American women who described their experiences in the formal education environment emerged through interviews, focus groups, observations, and two electronic interactions, participation in a chat room and e-mail exchanges.;This multigenerational study spans 71 years of educational experiences that I organized into five generations that correspond with eras of significance for both the African American culture and the education system. These ...


Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson Jan 2008

Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Field research was conducted in the Li Cheng District (about 1,200 km 2) of Shan Dong Province. Data collection occurred during a two-week period in July 2006. At that time, seven villages represented all relevant sites in the district that contained gasification technologies. Small-group interviews with village leaders, station managers, and community members were conducted locally. Contact with external government agencies and technology scientists completed the set of potential stakeholders.;This study analyzes the failure of state-owned energy development initiatives in China. Communication barriers in bureaucratic structures and culturally prescribed patterns of interaction were revealed as inhibiting information transfer ...


Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee Jan 2008

Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of persuasive strategies on perceived parasocial interactions between the host and viewers in the television home shopping environment. The effects of perceived parasocial interactions, perceived social involvement, and perceived loneliness on mood, and mood's consequent influence on perceived risk and impulse buying tendency are examined. Through two different sampling methods, 109 usable responses from female television home shopping shoppers aged 55 to 80 were retained for data analyses. Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 7.0 was used to derive the maximum-likelihood estimation for analysis of the model. In ...


The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski Jan 2008

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Prisonization theory asserts that inmates who internalize the attitudes and behaviors of a criminal lifestyle are most likely to continue their criminal careers and thus less likely to desist from crime. Unfortunately, virtually all prior studies of prisonization have used male samples and ignored female inmates. Using official data from 174 female inmates in Arizona, the current study examined predictors of 10 forms of institutional misconduct. Net the effects of demographic, social history, criminal career, and other risk factors, women who had served prior prison terms were significantly likely to commit all forms of misconduct. The effect of prior prison ...


Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung Jan 2008

Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Vicuna fiber has a high value in the textile and fashion industry and is seen on the runways of the most selective and luxurious clothing designers in Europe. However, the vicuna fiber process and commodity chain are little known. This thesis presents the commodity chain of vicuna fiber and the positive and negative impacts that vicuna fiber commercialization generates in Peruvian peasant communities. The research, based on in-depth interviews and document analysis, studies the development of this buyer-driven chain, the social actors' roles, and the policies and legislation implemented to preserve vicuna species. In response to consumption demands, the marketing ...


Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan Jan 2008

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of stress and self-control depletion on subsequent risk cognitions. Male college students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a stress induction, a self-control manipulation, or a control task. All participants then completed a questionnaire containing measures of behavioral willingness, behavioral intentions, perceived vulnerability, and consideration of negative consequences regarding two risk behaviors: heavy drinking and casual sex. The order of the dependent measures (drinking measures first vs. casual sex measures first) was counterbalanced as a between-subjects factor.;Compared to the control task, it was predicted that both the stress induction and self-control depletion ...


The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells Jan 2008

The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This institutional ethnography was undertaken to address the problematic that far fewer women than men participate in the institution of agricultural conservation despite the fact that about the same numbers of men and women own roughly equal amounts of agricultural land in the U.S. Midwest. The institution of agricultural conservation---governmental agencies and private non-profit organizations---provides conservation services such as technical assistance and funding to clients, private farmland owners, who implement conservation practices on their lands.;As a qualitative research methodology, institutional ethnography (IE) is a way to examine otherwise intractable or elusive problems that exist on an institutional level ...


Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner Jan 2008

Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although much research has been conducted on cosmetic surgery and some research has been conducted on cosmetic use in general, little to no research has explored nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body, particularly as a symbolic form of consumption in shaping notions of the self. Thus, the purpose of the present qualitative study was to gain understanding of the consumption of nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body from multiple theoretical perspectives. Of particular interest was how this consumption serves as a symbolic means for shaping the self, specifically in the context of self-presentation and impression management (Goffman, 1959).;For this ...


The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba Jan 2008

The Effects Of Farmer Attitudes And Farm Management Practices On Soil Quality: A Study In Cherokee County, Iowa, Amber D. Anderson Mba

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study seeks to relate farmer attitudes, perceptions, and management characteristics to field soil quality and laboratory fertility indicators. Farmer interviews were conducted to document recent practices on the farm as well as farmer attitudes about farming. To obtain soil quality measures, both the Natural Resource Conservation Service's field soil quality kit and laboratory tests were employed. Sites from the eastern half of Cherokee County, Iowa, were selected.;Key considerations of this study included farmer practices of renting versus owning land and organic or synthetic nitrogen application. Additional farmer data, including attitudes about farming, are used in this analysis ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan Jan 2008

Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Falls among older adults are a growing public health problem. Previous research suggests that the regular practice of physical activity in older adults improves balance and reduces falls. The objective of this study was to determine whether balance-specific training, in addition to regular physical activity, could improve balance in older adults, and whether there would be a dose-response to frequency of balance training.;A six-week balance-training program was conducted with 60 older adults (60-87 years) who were already participating in a regular program of physical activity. All participants continued with their regular exercise program while adding balance training in one ...


A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler Jan 2008

A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A journey of a Caucasian adoptive couple, residing in the Midwest, followed when they pursued the adoption of a child from South Korea. The history of transracial adoption (the placement of children with parents of another race) and international adoption was described in terms of how the early adoption policies currently influence adoptive parents today. Adoptive parent's choice to travel to the child's birth country, their experiences and introduction to adoption, and their attitude towards adoption were discussed. The importance of the adoptive parents having a social support network and understanding of the child's birth culture were ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor Jan 2008

The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of individual attributes (family socioeconomic status, gender, and race) and health behavior factors (vigorous physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, and sleeping pattern) as well as religion (religious affiliations and religious commitment) on African American and Caucasian adolescents' body weight. The sample for this study consisted of African American and Caucasian adolescents (N = 3,596) aged 14-18 years at Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Stratification of the percentage of adolescents based on CDC growth charts indicates greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among ...


Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo Jan 2008

Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the social support network of pregnant (n=10) and parenting (n=22) teens recruited through local agencies. The support network was viewed both as support and as an agent of stress to adolescents. The pregnant and parenting teens' perceptions of motherhood and their attitudes toward being a parent were also studied. The teens had a variety of support types and support sources, but the two groups did not differ in those types and sources. They preferred support from boyfriend and mother over other sources and both groups had similar expectations and beliefs about motherhood and social support ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer Jan 2008

Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the influence of interclass context on how people identify themselves as middle class. Data were collected from 676 employees of Iowa State University who categorized themselves as being in the middle class. Using an online survey design, all participants were randomly selected into an experimental condition in which they were asked to compare their own social class (i.e., the middle class) with either the working class or the upper class. In agreement with social identity theory, participants evaluated members of the upper class to be more successful, but less moral, than members of the middle class ...


An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman Jan 2008

An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how attitudes and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions to eat irradiated food. This inquiry is important because, food irradiation is controversial and the public's attitude toward it can influence the extent to which it is eventually adopted.;The data received from the first, large-scale commercially funded market test of irradiated food in supermarkets located throughout Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been used for statistical analysis. The test was conducted by Huisken's Meats, Inc. on spring of 2000. The data includes questionnaire responses of 225 participants.;The data analysis of consumers' opinions, concerning food irradiation, confirms the theory ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus Jan 2008

Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The aging population, one of the fastest growing age groups in the United States, is an audience that graphic designers and visual communicators often fail to address. Fast-food menu displays are just one example of a design that may not meet the needs of a senior clientele. This study consolidates and summarizes a variety of literature relevant to the design needs of an aging population.;This study then poses four research questions: (1) How can we design a fast-food menu for the aging eye? (2) How can a designer understand the functional problems associated with the visual and motor deficits ...


The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara Jan 2008

The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effect of perceived control and stress on binge drinking cognitions (i.e., willingness and intention to binge drink). College students (N = 158) were randomly assigned to a high stress (delivering a speech) or low stress (writing an essay) condition and answered items regarding their willingness and intention to binge drink (counter-balanced as a between-subjects factor). While completing the questionnaire, participants were exposed to an aversive auditory stimulus; the ability to mute the stimulus was randomly assigned to manipulate perceived control.;It was hypothesized that high stress would elicit an increase in binge drinking cognitions, and ...


Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha Jan 2008

Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Africa has experienced the least socioeconomic progress in recent decades by many measures. Poverty, disease, drought, and conflict have combined to trap many nations in endless cycles of misery and plummeting quality of life. Agriculture, one potentially significant avenue out of these cycles and Africa's largest economic sector, is burdened with significant problems. Over the last five decades, various approaches to agricultural development have been introduced with some modest levels of success. The latest extension innovation in the fight against rural poverty is the Farmer Field School (FFS), introduced to Africa from South East Asia in the early 1990s ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


Tattoos And The Interaction Process: Managing A Tattooed Identity, Molly Catherine Sween Jan 2008

Tattoos And The Interaction Process: Managing A Tattooed Identity, Molly Catherine Sween

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The practice of tattooing is something which has undergone a dramatic shift in recent years. Once something deemed worthy for only the lower-class echelons of society, tattooing is now practiced by those from a wide variety of classes, statuses, and demographic compositions. After providing a brief account of the historical and contemporary views associated with tattooing, this paper will discuss the ways in which tattooed individuals manage and negotiate their tattooed identity in relation to audience perceptions and expectations. It is argued that through utilizing various forms of identity work and impression management techniques, an individual's tattooed identity is ...


An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem Jan 2008

An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study that seeks to examine the foster care experience through the narratives of fifteen participants. This study specifically examines how foster care and family disruptions impact a young adult's ability to form and establish meaningful and trusting romantic relationships. The data were collected from interviews of young adults raised in long-term foster care and adoptive foster care placements. As I set out to explore the foster care experience, I noted the recurring themes that resonated from interviews with the participants. Participants' experiences and understandings of attachment are reflected in my findings.;Many researchers, such as ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake Jan 2008

"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The loss of a child does not agree with most people's perceptions of the natural order of life and death. It marks an end to the hopes and dreams that parents have made for their children (Znoj & Keller, 2002). This feminist narrative inquiry explores mothers' experiences with decision-making and grief after receiving a lethal prenatal diagnosis for their unborn child. In such circumstances, mothers are often faced with two options: (1) expectant management/continue the pregnancy, or (2) termination of the pregnancy (Rapp, 1999; Hoeldtke & Calhoun, 2001). Through interviewing, participant observation, and personal narrative, I uncover the grief experiences of mothers as they reflect on their child's terminal diagnosis, decision-making pertaining to pregnancy management, and the unavoidable death of their child. These women's stories inform policy, practice, and future research by providing insight into the support services offered, or lack thereof, depending on the ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...