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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan Jan 2008

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the ability of ESL students to revise their grammatical errors and produce more accurate writing in the future based on error codes. As the researcher, I analyzed the writing over time of four different students who received error codes. I examined three error types for three of the subjects, and two errors types for the fourth subject. The error types included verb errors, preposition errors, determiner errors and plural/singular confusion errors. I analyzed these errors to determine the correction ability and accuracy on future writing of the students.;The subjects were 4 males, two from ...


Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward Jan 2008

Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Educational outcomes for children with fathers absent due to death and those absent for other reasons were examined with children from two-parent homes using the Adolescent Health data. Children without fathers for any reason completed a year less of school than children living with two parents. Children with deceased fathers and children with fathers absent for other reasons did not differ in the amount of education each completed. There was no association between the child's age when the father died and the amount of education completed, but there was a small relationship between the length of time a child ...


Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee Jan 2008

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rampant, negative messages about the capabilities of African American women in the education system pervade society. I suggest that these negative messages fail to account for Black women's learning resilience. In this study, the voices of 27 African American women who described their experiences in the formal education environment emerged through interviews, focus groups, observations, and two electronic interactions, participation in a chat room and e-mail exchanges.;This multigenerational study spans 71 years of educational experiences that I organized into five generations that correspond with eras of significance for both the African American culture and the education system. These ...


Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells Jan 2008

The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This institutional ethnography was undertaken to address the problematic that far fewer women than men participate in the institution of agricultural conservation despite the fact that about the same numbers of men and women own roughly equal amounts of agricultural land in the U.S. Midwest. The institution of agricultural conservation---governmental agencies and private non-profit organizations---provides conservation services such as technical assistance and funding to clients, private farmland owners, who implement conservation practices on their lands.;As a qualitative research methodology, institutional ethnography (IE) is a way to examine otherwise intractable or elusive problems that exist on an institutional level ...


Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner Jan 2008

Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although much research has been conducted on cosmetic surgery and some research has been conducted on cosmetic use in general, little to no research has explored nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body, particularly as a symbolic form of consumption in shaping notions of the self. Thus, the purpose of the present qualitative study was to gain understanding of the consumption of nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body from multiple theoretical perspectives. Of particular interest was how this consumption serves as a symbolic means for shaping the self, specifically in the context of self-presentation and impression management (Goffman, 1959).;For this ...


Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King Jan 2008

Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I explored how female college students who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual made meaning of their racial and sexual identities, how they described their identity development process, and the ways in which college contributed to their identity formation. Utilizing a proposed model of biracial-bisexual identity development and the ecology of student development model as foundations for this study, I sought to better understand the experiences both before and during college, and the impacts of those two environments on the processes of racial and sexual identity formation for the female college students in this study. Findings, based on ...


An Equity Analysis Of The Iowa School Funding Model That Addresses The Instructional Support Program And The Influence This Program Has On Student Achievement, Nicholas Joseph Ouellette Jan 2008

An Equity Analysis Of The Iowa School Funding Model That Addresses The Instructional Support Program And The Influence This Program Has On Student Achievement, Nicholas Joseph Ouellette

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Financial equity among school districts across the country has been studied for many years. Research has given mixed reviews that increased funding will equate to higher student achievement. As educators and legislators debate the adequacy and equity of funding for all schools across states and the country, having a strong foundation of research in which to base the discussion is crucial. School funding models must be studied to ensure that all students have an opportunity for an equitable and adequate educational experience.;The purpose of this study was to take a look at the Iowa school funding model and the ...


The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor Jan 2008

The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of individual attributes (family socioeconomic status, gender, and race) and health behavior factors (vigorous physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, and sleeping pattern) as well as religion (religious affiliations and religious commitment) on African American and Caucasian adolescents' body weight. The sample for this study consisted of African American and Caucasian adolescents (N = 3,596) aged 14-18 years at Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Stratification of the percentage of adolescents based on CDC growth charts indicates greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among ...


Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo Jan 2008

Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the social support network of pregnant (n=10) and parenting (n=22) teens recruited through local agencies. The support network was viewed both as support and as an agent of stress to adolescents. The pregnant and parenting teens' perceptions of motherhood and their attitudes toward being a parent were also studied. The teens had a variety of support types and support sources, but the two groups did not differ in those types and sources. They preferred support from boyfriend and mother over other sources and both groups had similar expectations and beliefs about motherhood and social support ...


Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet Jan 2008

Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive paper on the state of identity preservation and traceability (IPT) as it relates domestically and internationally to food safety and economics. While not exhaustive, it is illustrative of trends. Identity preservation and traceability (IPT) are not new concepts; however, the growth of public and business interest and concerns regarding them has grown tremendously during the past decade due to many events, which has resulted in these concepts joining together within a single concept (with the same title). This paper, while attempting to be thorough, will highlight the major systems of IPT from a US business perspective. Before and ...


Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk Jan 2008

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Gottfredson's (1981) developmental theory of career choices was evaluated using longitudinal data. This study builds on previous research into Gottfredson's model by addressing methodological issues in the confounding of sex type, prestige, and interest measures when measuring expressed career choices by statistically controlling for the inter-relations among these variables in the analyses. Participants were 2,353 women enrolled at the Seven College Conference Schools and 321 men enrolled at Harvard and Vassar. Expressed career preferences were coded for sex type, prestige, and the Things/People and Data/Ideas interest dimension. Stability of expressed career choices over a one ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether language and nonlanguage factors affect international undergraduates' perceptions of international teaching assistants (ITAs). Fifty-five students enrolled in first-year composition classes listened to a short lecture under one of three guises related to nationality of the speaker and rated the lecture and the speaker based on eight response variables. Results indicate that the information provided to participants about the nationality of the speaker did not influence their perception of both lecture and speaker. However, when participants' variables were analyzed, statistically significant results were found for two response variables: accent and speaker likeability. The results for accent indicate ...


Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock Jan 2008

Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of community college students and their development of the concept of information literacy. The participants' individual definition of information literacy was explored as well as the people, places, and events that helped shape their concept of information literacy. Data were gathered applying narrative inquiry using a combination of interviews and document analysis. It was anticipated that reflection on their prior experiences would illuminate the meaning students make of information literacy, and could help inform instruction for future students.;Information literacy had different meanings to each of the participants. There ...


Guidance Counselors' Perceptions Of High School Family And Consumer Sciences Programs: A Case Study Of Eight Guidance Counselors In Eastern Iowa, Valarie L. Betz Jan 2008

Guidance Counselors' Perceptions Of High School Family And Consumer Sciences Programs: A Case Study Of Eight Guidance Counselors In Eastern Iowa, Valarie L. Betz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and analyze themes related to the perceptions of high school guidance counselors regarding family and consumer sciences (FCS) courses to understand their potential influence on students. Utilizing a descriptive case study approach, the researcher interviewed eight guidance counselors from eastern Iowa to determine their perceptions and understandings of FCS programs.;The data analysis indicated these guidance counselors assume many duties and responsibilities in their roles assisting secondary level students in reaching academic, career, and personal/social goals. Although the findings revealed guidance counselors have limited knowledge of the practice settings and ...


An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following is an exploratory study investigating the difference in the incidental vocabulary learning (or recall) of Spanish vocabulary while reading for comprehension. A secondary area of investigation is the influence of learner characteristics on gloss access. High-intermediate/low-advanced Spanish students from two sections of the same Spanish course at an American university participated in this study. One group of participants was provided traditional English marginal glosses to the left of the reading while the second group of students was provided with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) glosses. The participants took three constructed response vocabulary post-tests in the following three weeks ...


Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen Jan 2008

Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

While in the United States, more and more women are now entering the previously male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professions, not much vocational research on women in STEM careers has been conducted in India, where the traditionally patrifocal culture typically affords limited career choices and educational opportunities to women. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess potential gender differences in subject-specific self-efficacy, interests and academic performance of 316 high school students from a large city in India. The influence of other contextual factors such as tracking and parental education was also examined. Results indicated definite gender ...


Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes Jan 2008

Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that reading motivation declines as elementary students grow older. This reading motivation is multi-faceted with a variety of influences. Additional research indicates that when families are involved with students' reading as well as with school activities, students can reap positive academic benefits. Involving families in reading, however, declines as students progress to the upper elementary and pre-adolescent years. There is a lack of research concerning family involvement in reading with pre-adolescent students, particularly in regard to the effect of family involvement on reading motivation.;The purpose of this study was to determine the reading motivation and family reading ...


Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar Jan 2008

Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Being a student of color at a predominantly White institution can be extremely challenging, yet rewarding. For the select students in this mixed methods study, overcoming academic and social hurdles was paramount to their success in science, technology and engineering based disciplines at this large research intensive Midwestern institution. Some of the themes that arose from their academic and social challenges were: feelings of isolation and alienation, demystification of stereotypes, minimal relationships with faculty and staff, inadequate academic advising, and a lack of academic and social preparation and skills. Students of color in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences ...


Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six Jan 2008

Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to deepen our understanding of the policy and educational approaches within the Seattle, Washington residential recycling program. Through an analysis of Seattle's policy approaches and the role of education, this study makes recommendations for both its improvement and other communities looking to bolster and or implement their own recycling program. To guide the recommendations, it was necessary to find how a recycling program can target a broad audience to create more awareness and reach those in the community that have not been involved. Straughan (1999) noted that the success of a community's' recycling program relies ...


Young Adult Attitudes Regarding Individuals With Disabilities: A Post-Intervention Comparison Of High School Graduates, Kendra Kay Naef Jan 2008

Young Adult Attitudes Regarding Individuals With Disabilities: A Post-Intervention Comparison Of High School Graduates, Kendra Kay Naef

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study utilized an experimental research design to investigate the differences in long-term attitudes towards individuals with disabilities among young adults who had participated in an intervention program designed to develop positive academic and social relationships among students with and without disabilities, and young adults who had not. The Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale was employed to determine if the primary independent variable (P.A.R.T.N.E.R.S. Program) produced more favorable attitudes among participants. After scores from both groups were obtained, central tendency comparisons of the dependent variable were made and inferential statistics t -test analysis ...


Circles Of Support: Towards A Liberatory Pedagogy For Community Education, Chad William Timm Jan 2008

Circles Of Support: Towards A Liberatory Pedagogy For Community Education, Chad William Timm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine a unique attempt at community education where a grassroots community based organization collaborated with a local public school system in order to help low-income families leave poverty. It explores the relationship between a private organization dedicated to eliminating the structural barriers low-income families face, called Circles of Support and a public school system dedicated to helping low-income students meet the proficiency mandates of No Child Left Behind.;Using interview and observational data, this critical institutional ethnography describes the 4-year collaboration between Circles of Support and a public school system, which ultimately ended ...


Faculty And Student Experiences With Clickers: A Qualitative Exploration Of Engaging Students In Higher-Level Thinking, Jennifer Ann Diers Jan 2008

Faculty And Student Experiences With Clickers: A Qualitative Exploration Of Engaging Students In Higher-Level Thinking, Jennifer Ann Diers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that personal response systems, or clickers, are motivating and engaging for students in higher education. This phenomenological, qualitative study focuses on the exploration of the experiences of faculty and students using personal response systems in the college classroom. An understanding of instructor and student experiences with clickers is provided. In addition, the manner in which this sample of instructors is implementing clickers in their classrooms is compared to Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive domains. Instructors view the clicker as an evolving strategy that improves their teaching, increases student engagement and attendance, and makes classroom teaching more fun ...


Transformative Learning Partnerships: Bridging Research And Practice To Improve The Lives Of Older People, Rhoda Helton Meador Jan 2008

Transformative Learning Partnerships: Bridging Research And Practice To Improve The Lives Of Older People, Rhoda Helton Meador

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on consensus building and learning partnerships between researchers and practitioners aimed at improving the lives of older people. A series of three papers used an exploratory qualitative approach to describe the application of innovative methods that bridge the gap between research and practice in three case studies. Three research questions guided these case studies: (1) What joint perspectives and recommendations emerge when participants in community-based participatory research partnerships reach consensus about issues that impact the lives of older people?, (2) What role does learning play in community-based participatory research partnerships involving researchers and practitioners?, and (3) How ...


Queenbees And Wannabees: The Struggle For Power Through Bullying In Adolescent Girls, Deann Valorie Miller Jan 2008

Queenbees And Wannabees: The Struggle For Power Through Bullying In Adolescent Girls, Deann Valorie Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, I explore the lived experience of 5 middle school girls in grades 5-9, who have experienced bullying. My question for this study asks, "What is the lived experience of adolescent girls who have experienced female bullying?" The metaphor of queenbees and wannabees has helped me understand adolescent ways of being in the world as they have been bullied. In addition, understanding the lived experience of female bullying is developed through the exploration of the phenomenological life-world themes of body, time, space, and relationality. The theme of body is examined through physical being, emotional being, and ...


Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy Jan 2008

Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insight into the patient and volunteer perspective of their experiences at free medical clinics and, from the analysis of those data, inform health professions education. Many uninsured and underserved patients use the free clinic as their medical home to manage acute and chronic conditions and as a source of prescription medications. The volunteers find their experiences to be a fulfillment of their desire to give back to their community, a way to meet an obligation of professional duty, and hold to the moral belief that they should help those in need. Feminist ...


"Some Friends And I Started Talking...": A Participatory Action Research Project To Deconstruct White Privilege Among Student Affairs Practitioners, Jeffrey Edward Cullen Jan 2008

"Some Friends And I Started Talking...": A Participatory Action Research Project To Deconstruct White Privilege Among Student Affairs Practitioners, Jeffrey Edward Cullen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this participatory action research (PAR) project was to investigate and deconstruct white racial privilege as one step toward developing an anti-racist professional identity for white students in a student affairs graduate preparation program at a predominantly white university.;This qualitative study used the approach of PAR, influenced by a critical, emancipatory perspective. Five participants came together for a 30-hour group process that was both dialogical and experiential. Each group member was interviewed before and after the group process, and the transcripts of the interviews and group process formed the core of the data that was generated. Participants ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


The Effect Of Leads On Cognitive Load And Learning In A Conceptually Rich Hypertext Environment, Pavlo D. Antonenko Jan 2007

The Effect Of Leads On Cognitive Load And Learning In A Conceptually Rich Hypertext Environment, Pavlo D. Antonenko

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether leads affect cognitive load and learning from conceptually rich hypertext. Measures of cognitive load included self-report of mental effort, reading time, and event-related desynchronization percentage of alpha, beta, and theta brain wave rhythms. Conceptual and structural knowledge tests, as well as a recall measure were used to determine learning performance. Measures of learners' reading ability, prior knowledge, and metacognitive awareness were employed to establish the effect of individual differences on cognitive load and learning from traditional and lead-augmented hypertext. Results demonstrated that while leads appeared to reduce brain wave activity associated ...