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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer Jan 2008

Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the influence of interclass context on how people identify themselves as middle class. Data were collected from 676 employees of Iowa State University who categorized themselves as being in the middle class. Using an online survey design, all participants were randomly selected into an experimental condition in which they were asked to compare their own social class (i.e., the middle class) with either the working class or the upper class. In agreement with social identity theory, participants evaluated members of the upper class to be more successful, but less moral, than members of the middle class ...


Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet Jan 2008

Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive paper on the state of identity preservation and traceability (IPT) as it relates domestically and internationally to food safety and economics. While not exhaustive, it is illustrative of trends. Identity preservation and traceability (IPT) are not new concepts; however, the growth of public and business interest and concerns regarding them has grown tremendously during the past decade due to many events, which has resulted in these concepts joining together within a single concept (with the same title). This paper, while attempting to be thorough, will highlight the major systems of IPT from a US business perspective. Before and ...


Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk Jan 2008

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Gottfredson's (1981) developmental theory of career choices was evaluated using longitudinal data. This study builds on previous research into Gottfredson's model by addressing methodological issues in the confounding of sex type, prestige, and interest measures when measuring expressed career choices by statistically controlling for the inter-relations among these variables in the analyses. Participants were 2,353 women enrolled at the Seven College Conference Schools and 321 men enrolled at Harvard and Vassar. Expressed career preferences were coded for sex type, prestige, and the Things/People and Data/Ideas interest dimension. Stability of expressed career choices over a one ...


An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman Jan 2008

An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how attitudes and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions to eat irradiated food. This inquiry is important because, food irradiation is controversial and the public's attitude toward it can influence the extent to which it is eventually adopted.;The data received from the first, large-scale commercially funded market test of irradiated food in supermarkets located throughout Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been used for statistical analysis. The test was conducted by Huisken's Meats, Inc. on spring of 2000. The data includes questionnaire responses of 225 participants.;The data analysis of consumers' opinions, concerning food irradiation, confirms the theory ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su Jan 2008

Impacts Of Mass Media Coverage Of The Economy During Normal Times And Recessions On The Index Of Consumer Confidence Using Time Series Analysis And Granger Causal Analysis, Lishan Su

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The level of consumer sentiment influences decision making of policy makers, and therefore it is important to examine if media have powerful impacts on consumer sentiment. Based on the theories of business cycles and second-level agenda-setting, this study applies Granger causal analysis and time series analysis to explore the causal relationships among economic reporting by media, consumer sentiment and the real state of the economy embodied in Business Week, the Index of Consumer Confidence (CCI) and the Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P 500). The results indicate that interpretation by media have only limited effects on the level of consumer ...


Greenpeace Cyberadvocacy: Message Strategies And The Framing Of The "Say No To Genetic Engineering" Campaign, Avril Adrianne B. De Guzman Jan 2008

Greenpeace Cyberadvocacy: Message Strategies And The Framing Of The "Say No To Genetic Engineering" Campaign, Avril Adrianne B. De Guzman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A content analysis was conducted to examine campaign message characteristics and the framing of genetic engineering (GE) in news articles published in sites dedicated to two countries with different policy stances toward GE---Australia (precautionary) and Philippines (permissive).;The findings show the intent to generate awareness and encourage information seeking among audiences. Logical reasoning that highlighted risks using negative appeals indicate latent and aware publics as target audiences. The Australian and Philippine sites showed spikes in news items published preceding the commercial release of GM crops. In both countries, biotechnology policy was the most dominant frame used. The Philippines used significantly ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson Jan 2008

Neoclassical Realism And The Collapse Of The 1994 Agreed Framework, Chase O. Davidson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The collapse of the 1994 Agreed Framework in early 2003 has had far reaching consequences for the diplomatic relationship of the United States and North Korea. In the following thesis, neoclassical realist theory is applied to the collapse of the Agreed Framework in an effort to gain insight on the importance of domestic level variables in the successful implementation of foreign policy. The thesis also provides a roadmap for American policy makers toward the successful construction of a lasting nuclear agreement between the United States and Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


Are Bicultural Bonobos Able To Recognize Iconic Representations And Produce Referential Signs In Human Cultural Terms?, Itai Roffman Jan 2008

Are Bicultural Bonobos Able To Recognize Iconic Representations And Produce Referential Signs In Human Cultural Terms?, Itai Roffman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a visual communication study of the graphic sign making and recognition capabilities of bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). The study applies principles of semiotics to assess the bonobo-chimpanzee's potential for meaningful communication through figurative signs. This research sees a distinction between art (expressive) and visual communication (informative), with emphasis on meaningful information exchange. Three tests are conducted. Test 1 involved the production of recognizable and representational imagery by bonobo-chimpanzees, who were asked in a standardized testing format to depict subjects from photographs. Test 2 was an assessment of their ability to recognize extremely simplified iconic signs to their respective ...


Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus Jan 2008

Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The aging population, one of the fastest growing age groups in the United States, is an audience that graphic designers and visual communicators often fail to address. Fast-food menu displays are just one example of a design that may not meet the needs of a senior clientele. This study consolidates and summarizes a variety of literature relevant to the design needs of an aging population.;This study then poses four research questions: (1) How can we design a fast-food menu for the aging eye? (2) How can a designer understand the functional problems associated with the visual and motor deficits ...


Dyadic Power Shifts And Alliance Credibility: Analysis Of Gap Of The Threat Perception, Inhan Yeo Jan 2008

Dyadic Power Shifts And Alliance Credibility: Analysis Of Gap Of The Threat Perception, Inhan Yeo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A host of scholars have made great contributions to establishing a theory regarding potential causes on alliance credibility in areas including a quantitative and qualitative approach. Previous empirical findings support that taking account of only one ally in alliance power increase or decrease, which is a monadic power shift, regardless of the other ally's power shift is likely to affect alliance credibility; thus the power shift considering only one ally may be a significant contributor for decline of alliance credibility. Morrow and Leeds argue monadic power shifts might trigger a decline of alliance credibility providing a reasoning that one ...


The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara Jan 2008

The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effect of perceived control and stress on binge drinking cognitions (i.e., willingness and intention to binge drink). College students (N = 158) were randomly assigned to a high stress (delivering a speech) or low stress (writing an essay) condition and answered items regarding their willingness and intention to binge drink (counter-balanced as a between-subjects factor). While completing the questionnaire, participants were exposed to an aversive auditory stimulus; the ability to mute the stimulus was randomly assigned to manipulate perceived control.;It was hypothesized that high stress would elicit an increase in binge drinking cognitions, and ...


Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku Jan 2008

Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influx of the worldwide web has brought about dynamism in the way news is formulated and reported. Over the years scholars have debated the key ingredients that influence news selection. At the bottom of this discussion rests the question: what is considered newsworthy? But an even more evolving question is: who sets the media agenda? This study argues that the news worthiness of print and online media or state and private media is based on inter-media agenda setting. It examines the inter-media agenda setting effects of four publications in Ghana-the Daily Graphic-a government controlled newspaper which has both print ...


Framing China: How U.S. Media Reported Eight U.S. State Visits By Top Chinese Leaders, Yao Chang Jan 2008

Framing China: How U.S. Media Reported Eight U.S. State Visits By Top Chinese Leaders, Yao Chang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined ways in which eight Chinese leaders' state visits to the United States have been portrayed in terms of coverage and news framing in The New York Times, The Washington Post, Time, and Newsweek. This study included content analysis of both text and photos. It was expected that the content would match the underlying political and economic situations. However, results show coverage does not always fit into economic and political categories. Exceptions occurred when unexpected incidents took place such as protests in the Tiananmen Square Incident. Generally, text coverage was balanced, with positive and negative items in most ...


In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman Jan 2008

In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following study is an examination of the effects of globalization, regime type and macroeconomic policy on economic growth. 90 countries are examined between the years 1975-2003. While there are issues with the use of the proxy variable, the general effects can be explored. These effects are found to differ between high-income and low-income countries. The analysis finds that low-income countries should focus on improving inefficient distribution of services. High-income countries are able to choose from a range macroeconomic policies and are not forced to converge around any one policy.


Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha Jan 2008

Farmer Field Schools In Bungoma District Of Western Kenya: A Rapid Appraisal, Anthony Machacha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Africa has experienced the least socioeconomic progress in recent decades by many measures. Poverty, disease, drought, and conflict have combined to trap many nations in endless cycles of misery and plummeting quality of life. Agriculture, one potentially significant avenue out of these cycles and Africa's largest economic sector, is burdened with significant problems. Over the last five decades, various approaches to agricultural development have been introduced with some modest levels of success. The latest extension innovation in the fight against rural poverty is the Farmer Field School (FFS), introduced to Africa from South East Asia in the early 1990s ...


The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds Jan 2008

The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The safety of signalized expressway intersections has been the focus of prior research. These efforts have yielded results that were either inconclusive or required further investigation. This thesis presents the application of case-based reasoning to the issue. Similar intersections and crash reduction factors (CRFs) are used to establish expected crash performance for a candidate intersection. A spreadsheet based tool is developed that compares candidate intersections to these comparison sites. The tool uses expert opinions, attribute weights, and crash reduction factors to assist in the decision to signalize a site, to compare performance of existing signalized intersections to similar sites, or ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman Jan 2008

Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Interior Design is a field that greatly impacts society and the well being of the world's inhabitants. It is imperative to make sure that designs as well as students and professionals practicing interior design, impact society in a positive manner that are well received, emotionally, physically, and psychologically. But important questions to be asked are: how are designs perceived if the users are falsely educated about interior design? If the public is only educated about design through "design television" that has little or no credibility based on several factors such as entertainment demands, proper examination, education and experience of ...


Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to examine some incentive and informational properties of contingent valuation surveys and provide some suggestions in survey design. The contingent valuation method uses survey questions to elicit individuals' preferences for nonmarket goods. The essential task of a contingent valuation exercise is to design a questionnaire which elicits respondents' preference for the good being valued.;This dissertation includes three essays that contribute to the contingent valuation literature. The contingent valuation method is widely used in estimating the economic value of nonmarket goods. The first essay offers an empirical test of a theoretical result in the ...


Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


Tattoos And The Interaction Process: Managing A Tattooed Identity, Molly Catherine Sween Jan 2008

Tattoos And The Interaction Process: Managing A Tattooed Identity, Molly Catherine Sween

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The practice of tattooing is something which has undergone a dramatic shift in recent years. Once something deemed worthy for only the lower-class echelons of society, tattooing is now practiced by those from a wide variety of classes, statuses, and demographic compositions. After providing a brief account of the historical and contemporary views associated with tattooing, this paper will discuss the ways in which tattooed individuals manage and negotiate their tattooed identity in relation to audience perceptions and expectations. It is argued that through utilizing various forms of identity work and impression management techniques, an individual's tattooed identity is ...


An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether language and nonlanguage factors affect international undergraduates' perceptions of international teaching assistants (ITAs). Fifty-five students enrolled in first-year composition classes listened to a short lecture under one of three guises related to nationality of the speaker and rated the lecture and the speaker based on eight response variables. Results indicate that the information provided to participants about the nationality of the speaker did not influence their perception of both lecture and speaker. However, when participants' variables were analyzed, statistically significant results were found for two response variables: accent and speaker likeability. The results for accent indicate ...


Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa Jan 2008

Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Over the last twenty years computer engineers introduced concepts such as "ubiquitous computing", "embodied virtualization" (Weiser, 1991), "embodied interaction" (Harrison and Dourish 1996), "tangible bits" (Ishii and Ulmer, 1997), and "seamful interweaving" (Chalmers and Galani, 2004) in an attempt to describe and explain the increased embedding of computer technology into designed objects and environments, and to emphasize the crucial agency of the human mind and body in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Since the mid-1990s the apparent 'dissolving' of computers and sensors into ordinary and extraordinary environments is the focus of research and concern across the humanities, social sciences, and engineering as ...


The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau Jan 2008

The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the association between meaning in life and outcome in therapy. Most current studies examining meaning and mental health have not examined these variables in the context of the therapeutic relationship. As well as examining how meaning in life relates to level of functioning and well-being, this study collected data from clients undergoing therapy at two time periods to assess the association between clients' perceptions of their meaning in life and outcome in therapy. It was hypothesized that the presence of meaning in life would be positively related to well-being variables and negatively related to problems or psychological ...


Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock Jan 2008

Exploring The Development Of Information Literacy Concepts Among Community College Students, Lisa Anne Hermann Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of community college students and their development of the concept of information literacy. The participants' individual definition of information literacy was explored as well as the people, places, and events that helped shape their concept of information literacy. Data were gathered applying narrative inquiry using a combination of interviews and document analysis. It was anticipated that reflection on their prior experiences would illuminate the meaning students make of information literacy, and could help inform instruction for future students.;Information literacy had different meanings to each of the participants. There ...