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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan Jan 2008

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of stress and self-control depletion on subsequent risk cognitions. Male college students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a stress induction, a self-control manipulation, or a control task. All participants then completed a questionnaire containing measures of behavioral willingness, behavioral intentions, perceived vulnerability, and consideration of negative consequences regarding two risk behaviors: heavy drinking and casual sex. The order of the dependent measures (drinking measures first vs. casual sex measures first) was counterbalanced as a between-subjects factor.;Compared to the control task, it was predicted that both the stress induction and self-control depletion ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk Jan 2008

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Gottfredson's (1981) developmental theory of career choices was evaluated using longitudinal data. This study builds on previous research into Gottfredson's model by addressing methodological issues in the confounding of sex type, prestige, and interest measures when measuring expressed career choices by statistically controlling for the inter-relations among these variables in the analyses. Participants were 2,353 women enrolled at the Seven College Conference Schools and 321 men enrolled at Harvard and Vassar. Expressed career preferences were coded for sex type, prestige, and the Things/People and Data/Ideas interest dimension. Stability of expressed career choices over a one ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...


Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier Jan 2008

Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study investigated if attention to and processing of a movie could serve as input variables in the General Aggression Model. Specially, the type of scenes viewers attended to and their level of processing were examined. Participants completed personality measures and were instructed to either pay attention or just relax during a movie. They then completed a lexical decision task and reported the scene they found to be most striking. Results showed that aggressive cognitions did vary based on scene reported; participants who selected an aggressive scene were more primed for movie-related, non-aggressive concepts than aggression-related concepts. Exploratory analysis suggested ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen Jan 2008

Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

While in the United States, more and more women are now entering the previously male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professions, not much vocational research on women in STEM careers has been conducted in India, where the traditionally patrifocal culture typically affords limited career choices and educational opportunities to women. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess potential gender differences in subject-specific self-efficacy, interests and academic performance of 316 high school students from a large city in India. The influence of other contextual factors such as tracking and parental education was also examined. Results indicated definite gender ...


Experiential Self-Focus As A Facilitator Of Processing Interpersonal Hurt And As A Buffer In The Relationship Between Anger Rumination And Psychological Outcomes, Kelly Yu-Hsin Liao Jan 2008

Experiential Self-Focus As A Facilitator Of Processing Interpersonal Hurt And As A Buffer In The Relationship Between Anger Rumination And Psychological Outcomes, Kelly Yu-Hsin Liao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined two writing conditions and interpersonal hurt. The results indicated that unforgiveness decreased over time in the experiential condition. Intrusive thoughts increased over time in the experiential and the control conditions. Unforgiveness, intrusive thoughts and benevolence did not differ between the two conditions. Negative affect decreased faster in the experiential group than the control group. Negative affect increased slower during follow-up sessions in the experiential condition. The results showed that writing served as a moderator. Benevolence increased during writing but decreased in the follow-up sessions among individuals with low anger rumination in the experiential condition. Benevolence significantly increased ...


Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard Jan 2008

Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the underlying mechanisms in the accumulation of perceptual bias effects within the context of a criminal investigation. Biased assimilation processes, including the tendency to seek, interpret, and remember information in a manner consistent with one's expectation, and perceived consensus were proposed as potential mediators of accumulation. Two experiments tested this proposition by manipulating perceivers' expectations about a fabricated target's guilt and their interaction with another person. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that perceptual bias effects accumulated across those perceivers who reported having similar beliefs with another person's written statement. These perceivers reported more extreme ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


Seeking Professional Help For An Eating Disorder: The Role Of Stigma, Anticipated Outcomes, And Attitudes, Ashley Hill Hackler Jan 2007

Seeking Professional Help For An Eating Disorder: The Role Of Stigma, Anticipated Outcomes, And Attitudes, Ashley Hill Hackler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The perceived stigma, anticipated outcomes, and attitudes towards counseling may deter those with an eating disorder from seeking the help they need. Part 1 (N = 145) of a two-part study was conducted to examine the relationship between self-stigma and the anticipated outcomes (risks and benefits) associated with seeking counseling on attitudes toward counseling among those currently experiencing or at risk for an eating disorder. The results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma, anticipated risks, and anticipated benefits significantly predicted attitudes towards seeking help for people with disordered eating. In addition, self-stigma had a stronger relationship with men's ...


Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham Jan 2007

Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a trait-like disposition, optimism has received a wealth of research attention in connection with areas of physical and psychological well-being. However, less research attention has focused explicitly on the stability of optimism during adulthood. As such, we currently know very little about the long-term stability of optimism during middle adulthood, the developmental changes in optimism that occur across adulthood, or whether optimism changes in relation to specific life event experiences. The present research addressed these gaps in the optimism literature by examining stability and changes in optimism and pessimism over approximately nine years using longitudinal data from a sample ...


Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino Jan 2007

Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Forgiveness is a concept virtually everyone is familiar with, yet little empirical research has been conducted with regards to defining the concept across cultures. Thus, it is possible that current forgiveness theories, definitions, and models have a Western bias and may not be appropriate for other cultures. Given the gaps in the current literature, the goal of this research was to examine the similarities and differences in how members of Eastern and Western cultures characterize forgiveness. Following a forgiveness prototype analysis conducted by Kearns and Fincham (2004) in an American sample, we took a prototype approach across 3 studies such ...


Do You Hear What I Hear, Do You See What I See, Jeremy Michael Humphrey Jan 2007

Do You Hear What I Hear, Do You See What I See, Jeremy Michael Humphrey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Under the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002), this study investigated the effects of watching and listening to violent rap music videos and rap audio recordings on aggressive cognitions using a mixed between-within subjects design. We hypothesize that violent content would prime aggressive cognitions regardless of media mode (song alone or music video). Additionally, an interaction between mode and content was hypothesized in which we predicted that violent music videos would have a greater effect on aggression cognitions than violent audio tracks. Aggressive cognition was measured using a word pronunciation task that recorded reaction times to ...


Evaluation Of Virtual Reality Snowplow Simulation Training, Christopher Michael Masciocchi Jan 2007

Evaluation Of Virtual Reality Snowplow Simulation Training, Christopher Michael Masciocchi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effectiveness of virtual reality snowplow simulator training for current Iowa Department of Transportation employees was examined. Operators received approximately two hours of training, which included several drives in a driving simulator designed to emulate a snowplow. Performance on a test scenario was compared for operators who had received this training versus those who were trained after the test scenario. Participants also completed a variety of personality and training questionnaires designed to measure personality tendencies, as well as their opinions of training and the realism of the simulator. Responses to these questionnaires were generally positive: operators reported that the features ...


Adult Attachment, Dependence, Self-Criticism And Depression: A Test Of A Mediational Model, Amy Elizabeth Cantazaro Jan 2007

Adult Attachment, Dependence, Self-Criticism And Depression: A Test Of A Mediational Model, Amy Elizabeth Cantazaro

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dependence and self-criticism are two mediators between attachment anxiety and avoidance and depression. Participants were 424 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relationship between attachment anxiety and depression was fully mediated by dependence and self-criticism while the relationship between attachment avoidance and depression was partially mediated by dependence and self-criticism. Moreover, about 49% of the variance in dependence was explained by attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, 27% of the variance in self-criticism was explained by attachment anxiety and attachment ...


The Whole Is Created By The Sum Of Which Parts?: Using Prosopagnosia To Determine The Visual Primitives Used In Human Object Recognition, Alexander M. O'Brien Jan 2007

The Whole Is Created By The Sum Of Which Parts?: Using Prosopagnosia To Determine The Visual Primitives Used In Human Object Recognition, Alexander M. O'Brien

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Some contemporary theories of basic level object recognition posit visual object recognition through the use of structural descriptions (i.e., a form of representation in which objects are represented in terms of their parts and the categorical relations among the parts). Much empirical evidence exists supporting this suggestion, yet no empirical investigation has determined the exact visual primitives and categorical relations used in the structural descriptions that humans use for visual object recognition. The current study attempts to identify the exact visual primitives used in basic level object recognition by testing a prosopagnosic patient's ability to discriminate visual primitives ...


Avoiding Reactance: The Utility Of Ultraviolet Photography, Persuasion, And Parental Protectiveness In Improving The Effectiveness Of A Uv Exposure Intervention, Jennifer Leigh Dykstra Jan 2007

Avoiding Reactance: The Utility Of Ultraviolet Photography, Persuasion, And Parental Protectiveness In Improving The Effectiveness Of A Uv Exposure Intervention, Jennifer Leigh Dykstra

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mothers of young children (N = 151) participated in an ultraviolet (UV) intervention designed to change attitudes related to UV-safe behavior. The intervention consisted of a colorful brochure and information card pertaining to photoaging and skin cancer, UV photography, and a persuasive message designed to induce either reactance or hypocrisy, depending on experimental condition. It was expected that inducing reactance would lead to a less effective intervention whereas inducing dissonance would improve intervention effectiveness.;Participants were given information about reducing their UV exposure and increasing UV protection. The information was presented in conjunction with either a forcefully persuasive message, an open-ended ...


Expectancy Confirmation Effects: Accumulation And Moderation By Social Interaction, Ashley Arden Buller Jan 2007

Expectancy Confirmation Effects: Accumulation And Moderation By Social Interaction, Ashley Arden Buller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The confirmation of expectancies may result in either a self-fulfilling prophecy or perceptual bias, altering social reality. The current research posits that expectancy confirmation processes may become more powerful through accumulation of expectancy effects across perceivers. It also investigates the implicit question that these effects may be highly pervasive and have the potential to accumulate across perceivers who share similar false expectancies, but do not have contact with one another. There were two perceivers and one target in each group of participants for a total of 114 groups. Perceivers were induced with either a hostile or non-hostile expectancy and then ...


Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff Jan 2007

Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A discrepancy exists between the number of men and women pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To investigate this discrepancy, this study examined a model assessing the potential influence of multiple variables on the career aspirations of women pursuing these degrees. Two hundred thirty-two first and second-year women majoring in STEM fields completed measures assessing quality and quantity of role modeling relationships, STEM self-efficacy, STEM interests, sex role conflict, and career aspirations. Quality of role modeling relationships and STEM self-efficacy significantly predicted career aspirations. STEM self-efficacy did not mediate the relation between quality of role modeling relationships ...


Effect Of Counselor Self-Disclosure Of Religious Similarity On Client Perception Of Empathy Within The Therapeutic Relationship: An Analogue Study, Scott P. Young Jan 2007

Effect Of Counselor Self-Disclosure Of Religious Similarity On Client Perception Of Empathy Within The Therapeutic Relationship: An Analogue Study, Scott P. Young

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This analogue study was intended to investigate the impact of a specific counselor intervention, self-disclosure, on therapeutic empathy and working alliance by exposing 189 participants from a large Midwestern university to one of four randomly assigned conditions featuring a sex-matched, simulated counseling interaction. Participants' video-stimuli ratings were analyzed by a series of planned comparisons and ANCOVAs.;Planned comparisons revealed that Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) ratings were significantly higher for the mean of the combined self-disclosure treatment groups than for the non-disclosure control and that mean WAI ratings for the matched religious self-disclosure condition were significantly higher than for the control ...


Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos Jan 2006

Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive colors, called concurrents, when processing alphanumeric stimuli. Concurrents may arise from cross activation between cortical language and color processing areas. Two experiments used an attentional blink (AB) paradigm to test whether production of concurrents is an automatic or attention-demanding process. Two experiments used a visual-short-term-memory paradigm to test whether working memory (WM) representations of concurrents are capacity demanding. When target color was incongruent with concurrent color but color did not define targets, a synesthete (S1) showed delayed AB recovery compared to controls. When color defined targets and target color was congruent with concurrent color, the ...


Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill Jan 2006

Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the event of family breakdown, removing the child from the home is one of the most common forms of state intervention, and is one of the primary interventions provided when a parent experiences severe problems related to caring for their children. This investigation examined predictors and consequences of the transition from one primary caregiver to another among African American youth. The sample consisted of African American children being raised by various members of their families including biological parents, relatives, and non-relatives. Respondents were participants in a large-scale study of African American children and their families, the Family and Community ...


The Roles Of Awareness And Encoding Effectiveness In Repetition Blindness , Mary Lynn Still Jan 2006

The Roles Of Awareness And Encoding Effectiveness In Repetition Blindness , Mary Lynn Still

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Three experiments examined the necessity of awareness in producing the repetition blindness (RB) effect. This was done by using a novel procedure in which three orthographically similar items appeared in the RSVP stream (e.g., mine, mile, file). On these trials participants would often be unaware of the second similar item, so report of the third similar item served as an index of how often RB occurs when participants are unaware of the second similar item. Results give no indication that RB can occur without awareness of the preceding similar item. Additional comparisons revealed that RB late in the RSVP ...


Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2006

Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dual process theories propose that people possess two information processing systems (rational vs. experiential). The present study used two semantic priming techniques to influence health risk decisions via the two processing systems. Baseline measures of sexual attitudes (erotophobia), and willingness and intentions to engage in risky sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors were collected from 183 college males. Participants were then subliminally or supraliminally primed with the concept of sex while performing a lexical decision task. Changes in willingness and intentions were examined. Results yielded no clear pattern of priming effects on health risk decisions, although there was evidence that ...


A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner Jan 2006

A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The coordinate relations hypothesis theorizes that the recognition system that mediates most basic-level object recognition is a structural description that represents shape using categorical relations whereas the recognition system that mediates face recognition represents shape via a coordinate relations representation. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, the factor determining which visual recognition system mediates a given recognition task is the computational demands of the task. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, if the visual recognition task requires distinctions to be made among stimuli that share the same structural description, then the task will be performed by the face recognition system ...


D' Is Not Appropriate For Contrasting Yes-No And Forced-Choice Recognition , Moses Michael Langley Jan 2006

D' Is Not Appropriate For Contrasting Yes-No And Forced-Choice Recognition , Moses Michael Langley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The equal-variance signal detection (EVSD) model predicts superiority of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) detection over yes-no (YN) detection by a factor of √2. To make balanced comparisons between detection in these tasks, the equation for calculating 2AFC detection involves a division by √2. While the detection literature confirms this prediction (Wickelgren, 1968), the prediction sometimes fails when the model is extended to discrimination tasks (Creelman & Macmillan, 1979). Nevertheless, this model has been widely used in recent years to contrast discrimination in YN and 2AFC tasks. Three experiments tested the √2 prediction under conditions that previous research suggests are theoretically ideal for the use of EVSD in discrimination measurement; the √2 prediction failed across all three experiments. The present results challenge previous assertions that the EVSD model may be appropriate for discrimination under the present circumstances. The implications of these findings for the study of ...