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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward Jan 2008

Educational Outcomes Of Children With Absent-Fathers: An Examination Of Children With Deceased Fathers And Children With Fathers Absent For Other Reasons Compared With Children With Fathers Present In A Two-Parent Home, Brandie Marie Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Educational outcomes for children with fathers absent due to death and those absent for other reasons were examined with children from two-parent homes using the Adolescent Health data. Children without fathers for any reason completed a year less of school than children living with two parents. Children with deceased fathers and children with fathers absent for other reasons did not differ in the amount of education each completed. There was no association between the child's age when the father died and the amount of education completed, but there was a small relationship between the length of time a child ...


Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan Jan 2008

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of stress and self-control depletion on subsequent risk cognitions. Male college students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a stress induction, a self-control manipulation, or a control task. All participants then completed a questionnaire containing measures of behavioral willingness, behavioral intentions, perceived vulnerability, and consideration of negative consequences regarding two risk behaviors: heavy drinking and casual sex. The order of the dependent measures (drinking measures first vs. casual sex measures first) was counterbalanced as a between-subjects factor.;Compared to the control task, it was predicted that both the stress induction and self-control depletion ...


Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King Jan 2008

Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I explored how female college students who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual made meaning of their racial and sexual identities, how they described their identity development process, and the ways in which college contributed to their identity formation. Utilizing a proposed model of biracial-bisexual identity development and the ecology of student development model as foundations for this study, I sought to better understand the experiences both before and during college, and the impacts of those two environments on the processes of racial and sexual identity formation for the female college students in this study. Findings, based on ...


A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler Jan 2008

A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A journey of a Caucasian adoptive couple, residing in the Midwest, followed when they pursued the adoption of a child from South Korea. The history of transracial adoption (the placement of children with parents of another race) and international adoption was described in terms of how the early adoption policies currently influence adoptive parents today. Adoptive parent's choice to travel to the child's birth country, their experiences and introduction to adoption, and their attitude towards adoption were discussed. The importance of the adoptive parents having a social support network and understanding of the child's birth culture were ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


The Impact Of Body Image Self-Discrepancy On Body Dissatisfaction, Fashion Involvement, Concerns With Fit And Size Of Garments, And Loyalty Intentions In Online Apparel Shopping, Hyejeong Kim Jan 2008

The Impact Of Body Image Self-Discrepancy On Body Dissatisfaction, Fashion Involvement, Concerns With Fit And Size Of Garments, And Loyalty Intentions In Online Apparel Shopping, Hyejeong Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were: (1) to explore the domain of concerns with fit and size of garments using a qualitative technique; (2) to develop scales, measuring them in the offline and online shopping contexts; and (3) to examine the relationships among body image self-discrepancy, body dissatisfaction, fashion involvement, concerns with fit and size of garments, and loyalty intentions based on the self-discrepancy and cognitive dissonance theories.;In Phase 1, the domain of concerns with fit and size of garments was explored using a focus group interview technique. Results of this phase revealed seven distinct, interrelated themes, encompassing both ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk Jan 2008

Stability Of Career Aspirations: A Test Of Gottfredson's Theory Of Circumscription And Compromise, Kate E. Junk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Gottfredson's (1981) developmental theory of career choices was evaluated using longitudinal data. This study builds on previous research into Gottfredson's model by addressing methodological issues in the confounding of sex type, prestige, and interest measures when measuring expressed career choices by statistically controlling for the inter-relations among these variables in the analyses. Participants were 2,353 women enrolled at the Seven College Conference Schools and 321 men enrolled at Harvard and Vassar. Expressed career preferences were coded for sex type, prestige, and the Things/People and Data/Ideas interest dimension. Stability of expressed career choices over a one ...


An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman Jan 2008

An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how attitudes and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions to eat irradiated food. This inquiry is important because, food irradiation is controversial and the public's attitude toward it can influence the extent to which it is eventually adopted.;The data received from the first, large-scale commercially funded market test of irradiated food in supermarkets located throughout Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been used for statistical analysis. The test was conducted by Huisken's Meats, Inc. on spring of 2000. The data includes questionnaire responses of 225 participants.;The data analysis of consumers' opinions, concerning food irradiation, confirms the theory ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara Jan 2008

The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effect of perceived control and stress on binge drinking cognitions (i.e., willingness and intention to binge drink). College students (N = 158) were randomly assigned to a high stress (delivering a speech) or low stress (writing an essay) condition and answered items regarding their willingness and intention to binge drink (counter-balanced as a between-subjects factor). While completing the questionnaire, participants were exposed to an aversive auditory stimulus; the ability to mute the stimulus was randomly assigned to manipulate perceived control.;It was hypothesized that high stress would elicit an increase in binge drinking cognitions, and ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau Jan 2008

The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the association between meaning in life and outcome in therapy. Most current studies examining meaning and mental health have not examined these variables in the context of the therapeutic relationship. As well as examining how meaning in life relates to level of functioning and well-being, this study collected data from clients undergoing therapy at two time periods to assess the association between clients' perceptions of their meaning in life and outcome in therapy. It was hypothesized that the presence of meaning in life would be positively related to well-being variables and negatively related to problems or psychological ...


An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem Jan 2008

An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study that seeks to examine the foster care experience through the narratives of fifteen participants. This study specifically examines how foster care and family disruptions impact a young adult's ability to form and establish meaningful and trusting romantic relationships. The data were collected from interviews of young adults raised in long-term foster care and adoptive foster care placements. As I set out to explore the foster care experience, I noted the recurring themes that resonated from interviews with the participants. Participants' experiences and understandings of attachment are reflected in my findings.;Many researchers, such as ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...


A Recommendation For Improving The Sense Of Orientation By Enhancing Visual Communication On Wayfinding Systems: A Case Study Of Minneapolis Skyway System, Sohyun Kim Chung Jan 2008

A Recommendation For Improving The Sense Of Orientation By Enhancing Visual Communication On Wayfinding Systems: A Case Study Of Minneapolis Skyway System, Sohyun Kim Chung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the world becomes more complex and the population more mobile, people increasingly rely on wayfinding systems. The task for graphic designers, architects and other professionals who participate in building planning, is to design a sufficient and clear wayfinding system that will direct people in and out of the building, around the building, and to their destination effectively, comfortably, and confidently, without wasting any time or energy. The lack of orientation in an unfamiliar environment can lead to physical exhaustion, stress, anxiety, and frustration, all threaten their sense of well-being and limit one's mobility. This study focuses on wayfinding ...


Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier Jan 2008

Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study investigated if attention to and processing of a movie could serve as input variables in the General Aggression Model. Specially, the type of scenes viewers attended to and their level of processing were examined. Participants completed personality measures and were instructed to either pay attention or just relax during a movie. They then completed a lexical decision task and reported the scene they found to be most striking. Results showed that aggressive cognitions did vary based on scene reported; participants who selected an aggressive scene were more primed for movie-related, non-aggressive concepts than aggression-related concepts. Exploratory analysis suggested ...


Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova Jan 2008

Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Professional discussion of nonsexual multiple role relationships (NMRR) has been extensive in the last fifteen years. However, only a few investigations have explored clients or former clients' views on NMRR. This analogue experimental study focused on the former clients' views on NMRR with mental health professionals. Additionally, associations between participants' attachment styles and their emotional and cognitive reactions to the counseling situations, as well as their perceptions of the counselor, were explored.;An experimental mixed 2 (multiple roles: accepted, declined) x 2 (gender: male, female) x 2 (type of multiple roles: social, professional) factorial design was used in this analogue ...


An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt Jan 2008

An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study used a latent growth curve modeling approach to examine the effectiveness of online support group intervention on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction over time. A total of 83 Asian American lesbian and bisexual women were randomly assigned to participate in either a four-week online support group intervention or a no-intervention control group. Participation in the online support group intervention was found to predict higher levels of life satisfaction at post-intervention and those levels were maintained over the follow-up period. No differences were found for level or rate of change for depressive symptoms.;Three exploratory moderators were tested ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston Jan 2008

Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The accurate assessment of risk of sexual reoffense for juveniles has the potential to inform many actions, including the segregation of low risk from high risk offenders, allocation of limited resources, matching treatment assignments and other programming with risk, and implementation of various state and federal regulations (e.g., registration and community notification laws) (Epperson, Ralston, Fowers, DeWitt, & Gore, 2006). The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool -- II (JSORRAT-II; Epperson et al., 2006) is the only known fully actuarially-derived risk assessment tool designed specifically for juveniles who have offended sexually (JSOs). However, it has yet to be validated. To test the predictive validity of the JSORRAT-II, the present study employed an ...


Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen Jan 2008

Gender Differences In Subject-Specific Academic Performance Predicted By Self-Efficacy And Interests Of 12th Grade Indian Students, Asha Stephen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

While in the United States, more and more women are now entering the previously male-dominated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professions, not much vocational research on women in STEM careers has been conducted in India, where the traditionally patrifocal culture typically affords limited career choices and educational opportunities to women. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess potential gender differences in subject-specific self-efficacy, interests and academic performance of 316 high school students from a large city in India. The influence of other contextual factors such as tracking and parental education was also examined. Results indicated definite gender ...


Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman Jan 2008

Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to specifically examine three domains that affect a spousal relationship in the presence of the progressive deterioration associated with Alzheimer's disease. The three domains are marital satisfaction, caregiver burden, and coping strategies. The second purpose of this study was to explore the current resources that the spousal dyad is utilizing for the purpose of informing those who are new to the experience of working with this population. Understanding what resources these dyads are already using will allow those in the MFT field to better serve in the areas where resource voids still remain.


Young Adult Risky Behavior: A Comparison Of Adoptee Vs. Non-Adoptee Outcomes, Shannon Patricia Hoffman Jan 2008

Young Adult Risky Behavior: A Comparison Of Adoptee Vs. Non-Adoptee Outcomes, Shannon Patricia Hoffman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether adoptees and non-adoptees, aged 18-26, differed on risky behavior outcomes. Variables such as delinquency, violence, impulsive behavior, drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use were defined as risky behaviors. Participants (n=280) were taken from Wave III of the Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. Individuals who answered "yes" to the variable "Have you ever been adopted?" made up the adopted sample (n=140, male=67, female=73). Non-adopted individuals were randomly selected from the remaining pool of participants and made up the control group, (n=140, male=69, female=71 ...