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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm Jan 2008

Exploring The Relationship Between Income And Property Taxation At The Municipal Level, Casey J. Muhm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Municipalities in Iowa are heavily reliant upon property tax revenue as a means of finance; a phenomenon which many feel has negative implications for local governance. A frequently cited remedy for this is the diversification of municipal revenue sources by enabling municipalities to collect income tax. Proponents claim that doing so would allow municipal governments to become less dependent upon property tax revenue, as well as provide relief to property taxpayers in the form of lower rates and collections. The purpose of this thesis is to explore those claims by examining whether municipalities with income tax exhibit lower property taxes ...


Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson Jan 2008

Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Field research was conducted in the Li Cheng District (about 1,200 km 2) of Shan Dong Province. Data collection occurred during a two-week period in July 2006. At that time, seven villages represented all relevant sites in the district that contained gasification technologies. Small-group interviews with village leaders, station managers, and community members were conducted locally. Contact with external government agencies and technology scientists completed the set of potential stakeholders.;This study analyzes the failure of state-owned energy development initiatives in China. Communication barriers in bureaucratic structures and culturally prescribed patterns of interaction were revealed as inhibiting information transfer ...


The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds Jan 2008

The Development Of A Case Based Reasoning Tool For High-Speed Signalized Expressway Intersections In The State Of Iowa, Josh Nicholas Hinds

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The safety of signalized expressway intersections has been the focus of prior research. These efforts have yielded results that were either inconclusive or required further investigation. This thesis presents the application of case-based reasoning to the issue. Similar intersections and crash reduction factors (CRFs) are used to establish expected crash performance for a candidate intersection. A spreadsheet based tool is developed that compares candidate intersections to these comparison sites. The tool uses expert opinions, attribute weights, and crash reduction factors to assist in the decision to signalize a site, to compare performance of existing signalized intersections to similar sites, or ...


An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem Jan 2008

An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study that seeks to examine the foster care experience through the narratives of fifteen participants. This study specifically examines how foster care and family disruptions impact a young adult's ability to form and establish meaningful and trusting romantic relationships. The data were collected from interviews of young adults raised in long-term foster care and adoptive foster care placements. As I set out to explore the foster care experience, I noted the recurring themes that resonated from interviews with the participants. Participants' experiences and understandings of attachment are reflected in my findings.;Many researchers, such as ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...


An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt Jan 2008

An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The creative economy concept has recently become increasingly popular. Although the concept is popular and research is being conducted on it, there has been a lack of research on the creative economy in rural communities. This thesis attempts to determine the characteristics that define the creative economy in rural communities. Previous research found that creative workers prefer communities with certain characteristics which include technology, talent, tolerance, lifestyle, and authenticity/identity (Florida 2002). The results of this study indicate that rural creative communities in the Midwest tend to have higher percentages of residents with at least a bachelor's degree, more ...


Forces Affecting Prospects For Joint Land Use Planning Services In Boone County, Iowa, Luke Paul Nelson Jan 2008

Forces Affecting Prospects For Joint Land Use Planning Services In Boone County, Iowa, Luke Paul Nelson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study utilizes grounded theory to analyze the factors associated with a joint planning department in Boone County, Iowa.


Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six Jan 2008

Analysis Of Policy And Educational Approaches Within The Seattle Recycling Program, Ryan Joel Six

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to deepen our understanding of the policy and educational approaches within the Seattle, Washington residential recycling program. Through an analysis of Seattle's policy approaches and the role of education, this study makes recommendations for both its improvement and other communities looking to bolster and or implement their own recycling program. To guide the recommendations, it was necessary to find how a recycling program can target a broad audience to create more awareness and reach those in the community that have not been involved. Straughan (1999) noted that the success of a community's' recycling program relies ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...


Gis Modeling Of Urbanization Impacts On Natural Resources, Dakota County, Minnesota, Lan Wei Jan 2007

Gis Modeling Of Urbanization Impacts On Natural Resources, Dakota County, Minnesota, Lan Wei

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the impacts of urbanization in natural resources and land-cover changes due to urban development in Dakota County, Minnesota. An existing planning guide, the 2030 Regional Development Framework (2030 RDF) for the Twin Cities Metro Area, was analyzed and employed as a reference in this research. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help determine characteristics of urban land-cover changes, such as population change, land cover changes, and the environmental impacts on natural resources caused by urban development. Furthermore, land suitability modeling was utilized to analyze possible future development, from the perspectives of urban expansion and ...


A Full Bayesian Assessment Of The Effect Of Highway Bypasses On Crashes, Crash Rates And Citizens' Safety In Iowa Communities, Lorenzo Cena Jan 2007

A Full Bayesian Assessment Of The Effect Of Highway Bypasses On Crashes, Crash Rates And Citizens' Safety In Iowa Communities, Lorenzo Cena

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The construction of highway bypasses raises economic and safety concerns among citizens of bypassed communities. This thesis describes the use of a full Bayesian analysis to evaluate the impact of bypasses on traffic safety. Traffic safety has been assessed for the periods before and after the construction of the bypass both on the old road network consisting of the main road through town and on the new road network consisting of the main road and the bypass. Furthermore traffic safety has been assessed for all travelers through or around the communities and then for local citizens of the communities only ...


Transportation Construction Administration, Cole Joseph Landau Jan 2007

Transportation Construction Administration, Cole Joseph Landau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


State Transportation Agencies' Utilization Of Work Zone Congestion Mitigation Strategies, Jonathan Devan Wiegand Jan 2007

State Transportation Agencies' Utilization Of Work Zone Congestion Mitigation Strategies, Jonathan Devan Wiegand

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Work zone congestion mitigation strategies are utilized by transportation agencies to reduce or eliminate congestion through a work zone as part of the project's Transportation Management Plan (TMP). The objective of this research is to assist agencies' strategy selection by identifying strategies used by State Transportation Agencies (STAs) nationwide and their experiences. A survey was developed to focus on STAs' current strategy implementation, past implementation, and future strategy research and objectives. STA respondents were asked questions concerning strategy implementation for projects similar to four developed scenarios: rural reconstruction, rural resurfacing, urban reconstruction and urban resurfacing projects. Other areas investigated ...


Frequency Analysis Of Hazardous Material Transportation Incidents As A Function Of Distance From Origin To Incident Location, Carlos Samuel Jan 2007

Frequency Analysis Of Hazardous Material Transportation Incidents As A Function Of Distance From Origin To Incident Location, Carlos Samuel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), more than 3.1 billion tons of hazardous materials (HazMat) are shipped within the country annually. This averages to about 800,000 individual shipments of hazardous materials per day, of which 300,000 are shipments of petroleum/flammable-combustible liquids. This paper presents a temporal trend study (1995-2004) of 1,850 HazMat incidents occurring through the transportation of flammable-combustible liquids. The study was centered about HazMat shipments originating within five states (California, Illinois, Iowa, New Jersey, Texas) chosen for their geographic variations in size and location. The main objective of this study ...


An Analysis Of The Safety Effectiveness Of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity, Daniel J. Ormand Jan 2007

An Analysis Of The Safety Effectiveness Of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity, Daniel J. Ormand

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown in previous research that greater longitudinal pavement marking retroreflectivity levels increase drivers' visibility and detection distance. However, increased visibility may also cause drivers to feel too comfortable during nighttime conditions and drivers may then pay less attention and/or operate at unsafe speeds. Before-and-after studies have been conducted on pavement marking improvements such as repainting stripes or changing to a more durable marking material. Studies have also used models to estimate the retroreflectivity based on the date of installment, the vehicle exposure, or assumed a linear reduction in retroreflectivity over time. Only two studies have related ...


Program Theory Of A Usda Grants Program For Use In Evaluation Based On Quantitative Content Analysis And Oral History Narrative Analysis, Elena Yu Polush Jan 2007

Program Theory Of A Usda Grants Program For Use In Evaluation Based On Quantitative Content Analysis And Oral History Narrative Analysis, Elena Yu Polush

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research was conceived on the premise that a good evaluation plan for a program begins with explicating the program's essential conceptual underpinnings, namely the program theory. Theory-based evaluation is generally recognized as enhancing the quality of evaluation. However, the theory-based approach remains underutilized in evaluation of federal competitive grants programs. The goal of the research was to depict a coherent description of program theory for the Higher Education Challenge (HEC) grants program grounded on core aspects of theories developed in two studies. The research used quantitative content analysis to systematically study the texts of Request for Application (RFA ...


A Comparison Of Design-Bid-Build And Design-Build Project Delivery Methods On Military Construction Projects, Darren Dwayne Mcwhirt Jan 2007

A Comparison Of Design-Bid-Build And Design-Build Project Delivery Methods On Military Construction Projects, Darren Dwayne Mcwhirt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The US Army Corps of Engineers has adopted the design-build project delivery method as a means to produce military facilities faster and cheaper. An analysis was conducted on 119 military construction projects executed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. While design-build awards may be made earlier in the delivery of military construction projects the design-build project delivery method was shown to have larger contract time growth compared to design-bid-build projects. Military design-build projects experienced a lower total cost of change orders as well as a reduced change order cost associated with field changes.;Finally, statistical analysis demonstrated that no ...


Exploring Micropolitan Areas As A Source Of Population Growth In Iowa, David G. Inbody Jan 2007

Exploring Micropolitan Areas As A Source Of Population Growth In Iowa, David G. Inbody

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As sluggish growth persists in the state of Iowa, micropolitan areas may provide a viable source for expanding development. This thesis has two primary objectives: to better understand those factors driving population growth among micropolitan areas and to explore micropolitan areas in the state of Iowa as compared to micropolitan areas in other parts of the country. The analyses show a relationship between four of the five growth factors (agglomeration, recreation, immigration, education and diversification) and effective growth rate, the difference between micropolitan population growth and statewide population growth. As the number of qualifying categories increase for a micropolitan area ...


Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui Jan 2007

Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Guided by family ecological theory, this paper empirically explored how family demographic, socioeconomic, and community characteristics, as well as public and government factors, are related to changes in a family's food insecurity status. Using 2001 and 2003 data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a multinomial logit model of food security status was estimated. About 33.16% of the families with children under age 18 that were food insecure in 2001 became food secure in 2003. Meanwhile, about 4.48% of the families who were food secure in 2001 became food insecure in 2003. Although the average ...


"Perhaps We Can Hit Upon Some Medium Of Course": Rockefeller Philanthropy, Economic Research, And The Structure Of Social Science--1911-1946, David Lee Seim Jan 2007

"Perhaps We Can Hit Upon Some Medium Of Course": Rockefeller Philanthropy, Economic Research, And The Structure Of Social Science--1911-1946, David Lee Seim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In January 1957, Merle Curti published "The History of American Philanthropy as a Field of Research." Curti believed the time was right for historians to ask: "how important has relatively disinterested benevolence been in giving expression to, and in promoting at home and abroad, a major American value---human welfare?" Historians have done much research over fifty years to answer Curti's question. Some historians argue that philanthropic benevolence has been relatively unbiased when supporting research to solve social and economic problems; these historians interpret philanthropic support of social research as generally "compatible" with unbiased selection of research problems and methods ...


Redefining Independence: Voices Of Single Mothers On Welfare About Motherhood, Marriage, And Welfare Policy, Wan-Juo Cheng Jan 2007

Redefining Independence: Voices Of Single Mothers On Welfare About Motherhood, Marriage, And Welfare Policy, Wan-Juo Cheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dependency discourse has become a prominent concern in discussions of welfare policies in the United States. To address the cultural fear of dependence on welfare, the 1996 welfare reform greatly emphasized work and marriage promotion. Poor single mothers on welfare were mandated to move into the workforce under a cultural belief held by the Administration that work leads to independence. Feminists suggest that independence upheld by welfare reform is discussed from a middle-class, patriarchal perspective with an emphasis on financial self-sufficiency, which largely overlooks issues of gender and social class intertwined with poverty. Additionally, marriage promotion is deemed by ...


A Study Of The Association Of The Iowa Hotel And Motel Tax With The General Property Tax Mill Rate For Iowa Communities, Arleen Marie Griesemer Faeth Jan 2007

A Study Of The Association Of The Iowa Hotel And Motel Tax With The General Property Tax Mill Rate For Iowa Communities, Arleen Marie Griesemer Faeth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The availability of tax revenue data in digital format prompted a study of Iowa communities with respect to their general property tax mill rate and the presence or absence of a hotel and motel tax. Both of these revenue sources are dispersed entirely to the local community. The revenue does not remain in the State's general fund. Alternative tax revenue sources are an important component in the decision making process of local city planners, city managers and community development administrators.;The intent of this thesis was to determine if there is an association between the general property tax mill ...


The Role Of The City Administrator And Small Town Planning: A Qualitative Study Of Iowa's Small Town Managers, Ryan A. Bland Jan 2007

The Role Of The City Administrator And Small Town Planning: A Qualitative Study Of Iowa's Small Town Managers, Ryan A. Bland

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Small town city administrators have the responsibility of managing all functions for the community in which they are employed, but often lack the resources of their larger counterparts to devote to specific city functions such as planning. This includes planning and development functions.;Studies show that city administrators, in all sizes of cities, have varying roles that accompany their positions. For the purpose of this study, those roles have been separated into traditional/technical roles, and contemporary/proactive roles. This study questions whether these roles impact the quality of small town planning.;Through surveys and interviews with small town Iowa ...


An Examination Of Contributing Factors To Land Use/Land Cover Change In Southern Belize And The Use Of Satellite Image Analysis To Track Changes, Marissa Lenée Moore Jan 2007

An Examination Of Contributing Factors To Land Use/Land Cover Change In Southern Belize And The Use Of Satellite Image Analysis To Track Changes, Marissa Lenée Moore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Land use and land cover change analyses are important tools for planning and development decisions. Tropical deforestation has both local and global implications. One main reason for deforestation is the conversion of forest to agricultural land. This study explores influences and potential causes for agricultural expansion and deforestation within the Toledo District in southern Belize, Central America. Many factors play into the deforestation and degradation of tropical forests in this district, including social, cultural, political and economic issues, all of which need serious consideration if planners and politicians are to combat the problem. Understanding the reasons for deforestation goes hand ...


The Role Of Government And Regulation In The Emerging Real Estate Industry In Ghana, Nana Kusi Appiah Jan 2007

The Role Of Government And Regulation In The Emerging Real Estate Industry In Ghana, Nana Kusi Appiah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The need to provide quality and affordable housing to Ghanaian professionals, including teachers, doctors, nurses, university professors have led the government to explore different alternative investment options in the housing sector. Given the government's embrace of World Bank-supported neo-liberal economic policies, it is not surprising that it opted to shift from government-support and provision approach to a private sector-led housing policy. One visible result of this policy shift is the emergence of private real estate companies in many major cities. This study discusses the effectiveness of past housing policies and the increasing role of the private sector in the ...


How Urban Form Effects Sense Of Community: A Comparative Case Study Of A Traditional Neighborhood And Conventional Suburban Development In Northern Virginia, Jason Lee Beske Jan 2007

How Urban Form Effects Sense Of Community: A Comparative Case Study Of A Traditional Neighborhood And Conventional Suburban Development In Northern Virginia, Jason Lee Beske

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Urban form and sense of community have been explored as distinct disciplinary concepts for decades; however, often without the endorsement of a normative standard or measure. The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of these concepts by comparing two Northern Virginia neighborhoods, which are in close proximity to Washington, DC. Brambleton, a traditional neighborhood development, and Stratford, a nearby conventional suburban development, were chosen as case study communities due to their physical representation of distinct urban forms and socio-demographic characteristics. Neighborhood residents were surveyed regarding the impact of their immediate built environment and their perception of physical ...


Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost Jan 2006

Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative research was conducted at a Midwestern state women's prison to explore how six incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women created their mothering subjectivities prior to their imprisonment. It also investigated how their mothering subjectivities were affected by their experiences in the prison's intervention programs specifically with the Storybook Project of Iowa: a mother-child support program that focused on literacy. This feminist narrative research explored how prison intervention programs, when coupled with the mother-child support project, transformed the women's understandings of themselves and their mothering. This transformation was aided by the women's self-reflective use of narrative through ...


Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn Jan 2006

Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to synthesize evidence concerning welfare participation behavior and the consequences of the behavior, both for participants and non-participants. Following the life-course theory view of family life, this study incorporates a dynamic model of family process and elaborates historical events into this model. Analyzing data from the NLSY79 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth), which provides a history of labor force participation and information related to job and family relationships, this study finds that low-income families reach self-sufficiency mostly through marriage, getting a higher wage job, and working longer hours;In terms of determinants of ...


Wayfinding Recommendations For The Navigation Of Taipei's Subway System Through Improved Graphic Design And Sign Design , Ying-Hsien Sonya Chen Jan 2006

Wayfinding Recommendations For The Navigation Of Taipei's Subway System Through Improved Graphic Design And Sign Design , Ying-Hsien Sonya Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Developing graphic design recommendations for a successful wayfinding system in a space that serves both internationals and locals is an especially difficult task since the target audience is so broad. In addition, unique challenges occur with dual language use. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existing wayfinding system in the Main Station of Taipei's MRT subway system, and to determine effective ways for improving audience navigation and orientation through the system. The analysis of the existing Taipei signage system was based on a range of visual communication criteria adopted from previous professional studies and on the ...


Effect Of Spatial Data Aggregation On Highway Safety Analysis , Justin Cooper Jackson Jan 2006

Effect Of Spatial Data Aggregation On Highway Safety Analysis , Justin Cooper Jackson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent highway safety studies, there has been increasing attention to the accuracy and timeliness of crash data, but there have been limited studies on data aggregation. This thesis tests the effects of the underlying preprocessing of crash data for identifying high crash locations. The first portion of this thesis shows a sensitivity analysis of assigning crashes to intersections by spatial proximity and crash data attributes. In addition the sensitivity of using fixed length segmentation was tested along with the influence of using crash rate for identifying high crash locations.;The results indicate minimal effects of using different spatial proximities ...