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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee Jan 2008

Television Shopping: The Effect Of Persuasive Strategies On Parasocial Interaction, Subjective Well-Being, And Impulse Buying Tendency Among Older Women, Min-Sun Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of persuasive strategies on perceived parasocial interactions between the host and viewers in the television home shopping environment. The effects of perceived parasocial interactions, perceived social involvement, and perceived loneliness on mood, and mood's consequent influence on perceived risk and impulse buying tendency are examined. Through two different sampling methods, 109 usable responses from female television home shopping shoppers aged 55 to 80 were retained for data analyses. Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 7.0 was used to derive the maximum-likelihood estimation for analysis of the model. In ...


Greenpeace Cyberadvocacy: Message Strategies And The Framing Of The "Say No To Genetic Engineering" Campaign, Avril Adrianne B. De Guzman Jan 2008

Greenpeace Cyberadvocacy: Message Strategies And The Framing Of The "Say No To Genetic Engineering" Campaign, Avril Adrianne B. De Guzman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A content analysis was conducted to examine campaign message characteristics and the framing of genetic engineering (GE) in news articles published in sites dedicated to two countries with different policy stances toward GE---Australia (precautionary) and Philippines (permissive).;The findings show the intent to generate awareness and encourage information seeking among audiences. Logical reasoning that highlighted risks using negative appeals indicate latent and aware publics as target audiences. The Australian and Philippine sites showed spikes in news items published preceding the commercial release of GM crops. In both countries, biotechnology policy was the most dominant frame used. The Philippines used significantly ...


Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer Jan 2008

Internet User Preferences In Relation To Cognitive And Affective Styles, Georg Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated whether differences in user personality---specifically cognitive and affective styles---impact the user's perception of usability for different types of web sites, since perceived usability is an important aspect of persuasiveness of a web site. For this purpose, different measures of cognitive style and affective style were applied and two versions (high cognitive resp. affective appeal) of web sites educating users about a topic were designed. Users were instructed to explore the sites and rate their usability. Support was found that design for better perceived usability was possible based on need for cognition. Implications were discussed and deeper ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


Latino/A Business Owners In Ames, Iowa, Mario A. Iñiguez Jan 2007

Latino/A Business Owners In Ames, Iowa, Mario A. Iñiguez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As more Latino/as become employers, their economic vitality will grow further, and assume a stronger position in the U.S. economy. In this study I have focused on the city of Ames, Iowa, and the personal stories of its Latino/a business owners. From their individual stories, insight can be gained into what if any common themes they have in starting, and maintaining their businesses, how much family plays a role, and how connected the owners are to the business community. In sum, the purpose of this study is to document the story of each Latino/a owner. Each ...


Small Meat Lockers Working Group: A Participatory Action Research Project To Revitalize The Decentralized Meatpacking Sector In Iowa, Arion Jean Thiboumery Jan 2007

Small Meat Lockers Working Group: A Participatory Action Research Project To Revitalize The Decentralized Meatpacking Sector In Iowa, Arion Jean Thiboumery

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Small meat lockers are critical pieces of Lyson's (2004) "civic agriculture." Unfortunately, in Iowa they have been declining for several decades. This thesis examines how civic engagement and our modern orientation towards bureaucratic structure have and do impact small meat lockers and how this impact can be negotiated by Habermas' (1987) "communicative rationality." The results come from a participatory action research working group composed of various stakeholders, attempting to revitalize small, decentralized meat processing in Iowa, specifically by negotiating bureaucracy. Lockers are found to need help in five areas: Business Planning & Feasibility, Financial Assistance, Plant Design, Plant Construction, and ...


Challenging The Necessity Of Organizational Community For Rhetorical Genre Use: Community And Genre In The Work Of Integrated Marketing Communication Agency Writers, Rebecca Joanne Pope-Ruark Jan 2007

Challenging The Necessity Of Organizational Community For Rhetorical Genre Use: Community And Genre In The Work Of Integrated Marketing Communication Agency Writers, Rebecca Joanne Pope-Ruark

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Corpus Study Of Move Functions In Collection Letters, Scott D. Hanel Jan 2007

A Corpus Study Of Move Functions In Collection Letters, Scott D. Hanel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study looks at the collection letter as business correspondence consisting of specific moves that function together to persuade debtors to pay the agreed-upon amount that is legitimately owed to the creditor. In addition to that primary purpose, there is a secondary purpose which is to retain the goodwill and business relationship with the debtor. Based on prior literature and actual observations, the collection letter consists of at least three distinct stages which are referred to in the study as the initial, the intermediate and the demand stages. The study explores the functional and rhetorical approaches that are found at ...


Taste In Appearance: Self, Cultivated Dispositions, And Cultural Capital, Yoo Jin Kwon Jan 2007

Taste In Appearance: Self, Cultivated Dispositions, And Cultural Capital, Yoo Jin Kwon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study is to develop a theory about taste in appearance and to investigate if cultural capital, proposed by Bourdieu (1984), is a relevant concept in explaining appearance-related consumption. Taste has been studied in two disciplines. Philosophers defined taste as an aesthetic aptitude or capacity to discover beauty from works of art. Sociologists conceptualized taste as a cultivated disposition in the guise of an innate disposition in a broad range of cultural products. While philosophers endeavored to conceptualized taste in relation to beauty, sociologists associated taste with social acceptance or attractiveness.;Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 16 ...


The Influence Of Public Relations On News Coverage And Public Perceptions Of Foreign Countries, Hye Hyun Hong Jan 2007

The Influence Of Public Relations On News Coverage And Public Perceptions Of Foreign Countries, Hye Hyun Hong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate (1) how government PR activities influence the image of that country in foreign media and publics; and (2) how the public perception of foreign countries is influenced by news coverage. Based on discussions on public diplomacy and second-level agenda-setting theory, this study hypothesized relationships among international public relations, news coverage of foreign countries, and public perceptions of foreign countries.;Secondary data were analyzed from the Foreign Agency Registration Act (FARA) report, and the results of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (CCFR) survey. Newspaper content analysis was also conducted to reveal the ...


The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr. Jan 2007

The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Beginning in the 1970s, graduate assistants have organized labor unions. Presently, 36 universities have a graduate-student union. However, the effect graduate-student unions have on wages, wage variance, health benefits, and organizational structure is unknown. This study uses data from the Chronicle of Higher Education and government data to estimate the economic effects of unionization. By using a multilevel model is used to control for intra-university correlation of wages, this study concludes graduate unions are effective at raising stipends, but ineffective at lowering fees, providing health-care coverage, and lowering intra-university wage variance.


Operationalizing Mcluhan's Tetrad To Focus On Innovation Effects, John Charles Thomas Jan 2007

Operationalizing Mcluhan's Tetrad To Focus On Innovation Effects, John Charles Thomas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The tetrad, historically limited to media theory, has been around since the mid 20th century. It consists of four basic interrelated questions that, according to Marshall McLuhan are fundamental to media technologies. The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate that the tetrad can be applied to an analysis of other forms of innovation. Generally a product development team has but one concern: the question, what is enhanced? By focusing on an evaluation of an innovation beyond enhancement, its probable future and its effects are generally revealed. Planners are enabled to focus on an innovation's effects, resultant consumer needs ...


Development And Validation Of A Measure Of Postmodernity In Dress, Sunhee Park Jan 2007

Development And Validation Of A Measure Of Postmodernity In Dress, Sunhee Park

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The young adult market segment of Generation Y is likely to have developed different consumer behavior patterns from those of previous generations (Bakewell & Mitchell, 2003). What were the major macro-environment changes that shaped Generation Y's consumer behavior to be different to some extent from the generation of many of their parents, the Baby Boomers? Generation Y grew up during the shift that occurred from the late 20th century to the early 21st century. This time period is often referred to as the postmodern era (Henderson & DeLong, 2000) or the late capitalism period (Kaiser, Nagasawa, & Hutton, 1995).;The purpose of this study was to develop theory-based, validated measures of being postmodern in dress. The findings also enhance understanding of Generation Y's postmodern dress consumption behaviors. The main objectives of the study were (1) to generate belief items about dress from postmodern theories and previous literature; (2) to develop a second instrument that measures preferences for visual stimuli of postmodern styles; and (3) to evaluate construct, criterion, and content validities of the two developed ...


Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue Jan 2006

Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Product quality and product differentiation have become increasingly important to producers and policymakers for explaining consumer choice over food products. Consumers are often willing to pay large price premiums for products with preferred attributes. Heterogeneity in quality increases the diversity of goods for consumers and can improve welfare. However, variation in quality also leads to higher transaction costs for consumers, producers and policymakers because quality attributes are hard to identify precisely and vary when the state of the world changes. The first essay addresses the issue of food-quality attributes driven by protectionist policy that inhibits exchange between two countries. Technical ...


Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris Jan 2006

Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to determine if the graduation rates of students of color and majority students at public, research extensive and intensive institutions could be predicted by institutional resource allocation activities in the context of both the internal and external environments of universities. The independent variables for the internal environment were expenditures in regard to instruction, academic support, student services, institutional grants (scholarships, fellowships), research, public service, institutional support, plant operation and maintenance, and institutional selectivity. The independent variables for the external environment were geographical region and degree of urbanization. The independent variables for the internal environment were calculated in ...


The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin Jan 2006

The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore employee-organization identification in the apparel retail store setting. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the nature of employee-organization identification in apparel retail stores? (2) In what ways, if any, is salesperson appearance related to employee-organization identification in an apparel retail store setting? (3) To what extent are employees' perceptions of store image, person-organization fit, and attractiveness of the organization directly and indirectly related to level of employee-organization identification among salespeople in an apparel retail store? (4) To what extent is level of employee-organization identification related to level ...


Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman Jan 2006

Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate allegations of abuse related to the United States' bankruptcy system. This study used data on bankruptcy and financial problems from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to estimate a model of consumer bankruptcy abuse. The focus of this study was the extent to which consumers were abusing the right to file for bankruptcy protection;Specifically, this study used a cross-sectional, time-series model of bankruptcy and financial problems and assessed the relative importance of different personal and financial variables in predicting bankruptcy. This study sought to investigate (1) if households in this ...


No School Business Official Left Behind: School Business Officials, Superintendents, And Role Theory--Association Of School Business Officials (Asbo) International Professional Standards And Job Proficiency , Jeanette Sue Mcgreevy Jan 2006

No School Business Official Left Behind: School Business Officials, Superintendents, And Role Theory--Association Of School Business Officials (Asbo) International Professional Standards And Job Proficiency , Jeanette Sue Mcgreevy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain more understanding about the perceptions of school business officials' "adequacy of performance" in skill areas and "role consensus" regarding three theoretical role groups: executive, manager, and technician. From a new web-based survey, the perceptual data of 169 superintendents and 182 school business officials employed by Iowa public school districts during the 2005-2006 school year were analyzed using Role Theory as the theoretical framework and the 25 Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International Professional Standards sub-skill set areas as the content framework. The response rate was 55.3% for school business officials ...


Activity-Based Value-Chain Analysis For U.S. College Student Vacation Travelers' Hotel Room Experience , Yuliya M. Antonenko Jan 2006

Activity-Based Value-Chain Analysis For U.S. College Student Vacation Travelers' Hotel Room Experience , Yuliya M. Antonenko

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study developed an activity-based value-chain model for hotel room experience and identified activity-based value-adding room attributes for college student vacation travelers using an online survey (N = 2545). Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Chi-square test of independence, ordinal measures of association, and multinomial logistic regression. Results revealed that the common hotel room activities were overnight sleeping, dressing and taking care of personal hygiene, having a meal and/or snack, taking a nap, relaxing and entertaining, exercising, and, finally, working, studying, and browsing the Internet. Based on student responses, all hotel room attributes were assigned to one of four categories along ...


Unsecured Debt And Early Saving For Retirement By Recent Female College Graduates , Pamela J. Bennett Jan 2006

Unsecured Debt And Early Saving For Retirement By Recent Female College Graduates , Pamela J. Bennett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate unsecured debt and the practice of saving early for retirement by recent female college graduates. An electronic survey was conducted to assess graduates from the calendar years 1994--2004. An over-sampling of Family and Consumer Sciences majors was conducted for comparison. The amount of debt, amount of retirement savings, attitudes toward retirement, and expectations toward retirement were investigated. The study was grounded in the Theory of Reasoned Action and the findings supported the theoretical construct;The study revealed lower than national average amounts of student loan debt and a slightly larger than national ...


What Makes An Effective Press Release: A Coorientation Approach Of Public Relations Practitioners And News Editors In Sport , Joel Robert Janecek Jan 2006

What Makes An Effective Press Release: A Coorientation Approach Of Public Relations Practitioners And News Editors In Sport , Joel Robert Janecek

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores relationships between public relations practitioners in sport and sport news editors. As a viable communications method used by both public relations practitioners and sport news editors, the press release was examined using the communication theory of coorientation. The study used individual press release elements as coorientational objects. Seventy-five public relations practitioners, in this case Sports Information Directors at NCAA Division I institutions, and forty-four sports news editors who cover college athletics participated in an email survey. Research questions were tested on the relationships between agreement and accuracy as it pertained to the various press release elements proposed ...


Online Self Reported Information: Facebook, A Hiring Tool For Businesses , Jason Decker Jan 2006

Online Self Reported Information: Facebook, A Hiring Tool For Businesses , Jason Decker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, the Internet has become a potential tool for employers to use during the hiring process with recruitment and selection. Online personalized resources like: blogs, personal websites, online portfolios, and social networking sites have opened the doors to a whole new medium for gathering information on potential employees.;The purpose of this study is to explore to what extent content from an online self reported profile, Facebook, influences companies hiring decisions. The study attempts to uncover what information on a Facebook profile is meaningful or useful to a company and if this information is used to infer or assess an ...


Guests' Reservation Behavior In Two Online Distribution Channels , Cristian Virgiliu Morosan Jan 2005

Guests' Reservation Behavior In Two Online Distribution Channels , Cristian Virgiliu Morosan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Perceived as a fast-growing business opportunity, the Internet has been adopted by many travel organizations as a new, competitive marketing tool in providing travelers not only with travel-related information but also with online transaction opportunities. Hotels have been making great effort to encourage travelers to reserve rooms directly on their Web sites while intermediaries have been positioned in a very competitive situation to encourage travelers to make reservations through their portals by offering discounted rates, rate comparison tools, and additional information about the property/destination. In this context, it is interesting to investigate why travelers make reservations online and what ...


Understanding Work Behaviors And Turnover Intentions Of Students Employed In University Dining Services , Swathi Ravichandran Jan 2005

Understanding Work Behaviors And Turnover Intentions Of Students Employed In University Dining Services , Swathi Ravichandran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and empowerment are concepts identified as predictors of employee turnover. Employee turnover is a concern within various segments of the hospitality and leisure sector. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence that empowerment and OCB perceptions of students employed in one university dining services, had on their intent to turnover. In addition, this study examined the influence that managers and co-workers behaviors had on the formation of OCBI (OCB towards individuals) and OCBO (OCB towards organization) in student employees. Influence of power distance on the formation of empowerment perceptions also was studied. Results ...


Valuation And Investment Of Generation Assets , Wang Yu Jan 2005

Valuation And Investment Of Generation Assets , Wang Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The re-regulation of electric power industry around the world has raised many new challenges for all stakeholders. This research is to valuate generation assets within re-regulated electricity markets, both in short-term and long-term. The focus is to valuate operation flexibility under market uncertainties from the viewpoint of a Generation Company (GENCO);This research proposes to model the movements of electricity markets with Hidden Markov Model (HMM) driven by underlying market forces. An electricity market is modeled as a dynamic system evolving over time according to Markov processes. At any time interval, the electricity market can be in one state and ...


Do Congressional Academic Earmarks At Public Research Institutions Encourage Research Productivity? , Matthew Lincoln Feldmann Jan 2005

Do Congressional Academic Earmarks At Public Research Institutions Encourage Research Productivity? , Matthew Lincoln Feldmann

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Academic earmarks identified by the U.S. Congress through attachments to funding bills have represented a sizeable and growing revenue stream to institutions of higher education, yet little has been determined about the impacts this funding has on these institutions or the products of these institutions. A study was defined to test the argument that academic earmarks provided support for institutions to build research and development (R&D) infrastructure necessary for competition with peers. The population of interest was all U.S. public research institutions, and the principal research question was whether academic earmarks provided these institutions with increased academic R&D infrastructure as indicated by changes in R&D expenditures between 1993 and 2002. Structural equation path analysis was used to test the relationships among institutional control variables, total academic earmarks received, change in R&D expenditures, and institutional peer rankings over ten years.;The study demonstrated evidence that the practice of congressional academic earmarking at public research institutions did not have an effect on change in R&D expenditures or an effect on peer rankings. Three ...


Antecedents And Consequences Of Satisfaction With A Mass Customized Internet Apparel Shopping Site , Hyun-Hwa Lee Jan 2004

Antecedents And Consequences Of Satisfaction With A Mass Customized Internet Apparel Shopping Site , Hyun-Hwa Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The interactive nature of the Internet is the key to building a relationship with customers. Interactivity is primarily suited for increasing consumers' satisfaction with a business relationship. Mass customization web sites incorporate a high level of interactivity in the site design. This study was conducted due to the lack of research examining mass customization and satisfaction.;The expectancy disconfirmation model of satisfaction was used as the framework to examine consumer satisfaction. Among the interactivity characteristics, the concept of choice was applied to develop Internet mass customization shopping sites.;The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate consumer satisfaction with ...


A Statistical Regression Model To Determine Financial Cash Flow For Wind Energy Based On Tax Structure, Matthew Dae Joong Ritsema Jan 2004

A Statistical Regression Model To Determine Financial Cash Flow For Wind Energy Based On Tax Structure, Matthew Dae Joong Ritsema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A financial cash flow for wind turbines is based on an energy entity's tax structure. Using statistical regression of various wind turbines and wind maps, a theoretical model for energy output was calculated. The turbines were separated by the rated size of the turbine. With the theoretical model, financial output was generated for four different types of tax structures. A total of eight test cases were simulated. Special consideration was given to the impact of Production Tax Credits (PTC) and Renewable Energy Production Incentives (REPI). The object is to determine what type of business and tax structure would have ...


The Taj Mahal Of Sport: The Creation Of The Houston Astrodome, 1957-1967 , Jason Bruce Chrystal Jan 2004

The Taj Mahal Of Sport: The Creation Of The Houston Astrodome, 1957-1967 , Jason Bruce Chrystal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the creation of the Houston Astrodome, the first domed stadium built in the United States, from its earliest history of planning in the late 1950s to its construction and completion in the mid-1960s. It is during the time frame of 1957 to 1967, I argue, that we can see an example of the change in Houston and American society from one of an era of optimism and prosperity to one of pessimism and scarcity. By examining the arguments of stadium supporters and opponents, the alterations in design, the selection of certain technologies, and the changing opinion of ...


Recreation Demand: On-Site Sampling And Responsiveness Of Trip Behavior To Physical Water Quality Measures , Kevin Joseph Egan Jan 2004

Recreation Demand: On-Site Sampling And Responsiveness Of Trip Behavior To Physical Water Quality Measures , Kevin Joseph Egan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Valuing the improvement of water quality in Iowa lakes is the objective of this dissertation. In the first two essays, the focus is combining revealed preference and stated preference data from an intercept survey at a northcentral Iowa lake. In the first essay, the contingent behavior trips which are contingent on the price (i.e. travel cost) of the recreation trip are combined with observed trips. However, since this data set was collected on-site, the primary purpose of the first essay is to consider controlling for on-site sampling with a panel data set. A count data model is employed, specifically ...