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Structural And Catalytic Differences In The Effect Of Co And Mo As Promoters For Pt-Based Aqueous Phase Reforming Catalysts, Paul J. Dietrich, Fred G. Sollberger, M. Cem Akatay, Eric A. Stach, W.Nicholas Delgass, Jeffrey T. Miller, Fabio H. Ribeiro 2014 Purdue University

Structural And Catalytic Differences In The Effect Of Co And Mo As Promoters For Pt-Based Aqueous Phase Reforming Catalysts, Paul J. Dietrich, Fred G. Sollberger, M. Cem Akatay, Eric A. Stach, W.Nicholas Delgass, Jeffrey T. Miller, Fabio H. Ribeiro

Birck and NCN Publications

Reaction rates (site time yields, normalized to CO chemisorption sites) and product selectivity were determined for PtCo, PtMo, and Pt supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for aqueous phase reforming of glycerol. The bimetallic PtCo and PtMo catalysts had 4.6x and 5.4x higher glycerol consumption rates than Pt, and 3.9x and 0.6x rates in H-2 formation compared to Pt. Hydrogen generation selectivity was similar on Pt and PtCo, but PtMo had an increase in selectivity to C-O cleavage products, which reduced H-2 yield at conversions over 60% (85-90% hydrogen yield for Pt and PtCo, 65% for PtMo ...


Au@Tio2 Nanocomposites For The Catalytic Degradation Of Methyl Orange And Methylene Blue: An Electron Relay Effect, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, J. Lee, M. H. Cho 2014 SelectedWorks

Au@Tio2 Nanocomposites For The Catalytic Degradation Of Methyl Orange And Methylene Blue: An Electron Relay Effect, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, J. Lee, M. H. Cho

Dr. Mohammad Mansoob Khan

Au@TiO2 nanocomposites were used for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue by NaBH4. A detail pathway for step by step reduction, oxidation and complete mineralization of intermediates into the respective end-products was established by UV-vis spectroscopy, chemical oxygen demand, ion chromatography and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV studies confirmed that the dyes were reduced and oxidized to the end-products by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@TiO2 nanocomposites and O2•, •OH and HO2• radicals generated in-situ. Results suggest that Au@TiO2 nanocomposites not only assist in the decolorization of dyes, but also promote their complete mineralization into ...


Highly Visible Light Active Ag@Zno Nanocomposites Synthesized By Gel-Combustion Route, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, S. A. Ansari, J. Lee, M. H. Cho 2014 SelectedWorks

Highly Visible Light Active Ag@Zno Nanocomposites Synthesized By Gel-Combustion Route, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, S. A. Ansari, J. Lee, M. H. Cho

Dr. Mohammad Mansoob Khan

Highly visible light active 1% and 3% Ag@ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized via a gel combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. The formation of the nanocomposites with enhanced properties was confirmed using a range of characterization techniques, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical studies. Compared to the pristine ZnO nanoparticles, the Ag@ZnO nanocomposites exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue and photoelectrochemical response. A mechanism was proposed to account for the photocatalytic activities of the Ag@ZnO nanocomposite that showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag is an effective way of enhancing the visible ...


Opto-Electronic Devices With Nanoparticles And Their Assemblies, Chieu Van Nguyen 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Opto-Electronic Devices With Nanoparticles And Their Assemblies, Chieu Van Nguyen

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Nanotechnology is a fast growing field; engineering matters at the nano-meter scale. A key nanomaterial is nanoparticles (NPs). These sub-wavelength (< 100nm) particles provide tremendous possibilities due to their unique electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Plethora of NPs with various chemical composition, size and shape has been synthesized. Clever designs of sub-wavelength structures enable observation of unusual properties of materials, and have led to new areas of research such as metamaterials. This dissertation describes two self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles, leading to an ultra-soft thin film and multi-functional single electron device at room temperature. First, the layer-by-layer self-assembly of 10nm Au nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes is shown to behave like a cellular-foam with modulus below 100 kPa. As a result, the composite thin film (~ 100nm) is 5 orders of magnitude softer than an equally thin typical polymer film. The thin film can be compressed reversibly to 60% strain. The extraordinarily low modulus and high compressibility are advantageous in pressure sensing applications. The unique mechanical properties of the composite film lead to development of an ultra-sensitive tactile imaging device capable of screening for breast cancer. On par with human finger sensitivity, the tactile device can detect a 5mm imbedded object up to 20mm below the surface with low background noise. The second device is based on a one-dimensional (1-D) self-directed self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by dielectric materials. Depending on the coverage density of the Au NPs assembly deposited on the device, electronic emission was observed at ultra-low bias of 40V, leading to low-power plasma generation in air at atmospheric pressure. Light emitted from the plasma is apparent to the naked eyes. Similarly, 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by iron oxide was fabricated and exhibits ferro-magnetic behavior. The multi-functional 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs has great potential in modern electronics such as solid state lighting, plasma-based nanoelectronics, and memory devices.

Adviser: Ravi F. Saraf


In-Situ Fluorescent Immunomagnetic Multiplex Detection Of Foodborne Pathogens In Very Low Numbers, Il-Hoon Cho, Lisa Mauer, Joseph Irudayaraj 2014 Purdue University

In-Situ Fluorescent Immunomagnetic Multiplex Detection Of Foodborne Pathogens In Very Low Numbers, Il-Hoon Cho, Lisa Mauer, Joseph Irudayaraj

Birck and NCN Publications

Consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic bacteria is a major public health concern. Foods contain microorganisms, the overwhelming majority of which are nonpathogenic, some are responsible for food spoilage, and some cause serious illness leading to death or a variety of diseases in humans. The key challenge in food safety is to rapidly screen foods to determine the presence of pathogens so that appropriate intervention protocols can be pursued. A simple fluorometric immunological method in combination with a magnetic concentration step was developed for rapid detection of target bacteria with high sensitivity and specificity in less than 2 h without ...


Surface Topography And Chemistry Shape Cellular Behavior On Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors, Lauren E. Bain, Ramon Collazo, Shu-han Hsu, Nicole Pfiester Latham, Michael J. Manfra, Albena Ivanisevic 2014 Purdue University

Surface Topography And Chemistry Shape Cellular Behavior On Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors, Lauren E. Bain, Ramon Collazo, Shu-Han Hsu, Nicole Pfiester Latham, Michael J. Manfra, Albena Ivanisevic

Birck and NCN Publications

The chemical stability and electrical properties of gallium nitride make it a promising material for the development of biocompatible electronics, a range of devices including biosensors as well as interfaces for probing and controlling cellular growth and signaling. To improve the interface formed between the probe material and the cell or biosystem, surface topography and chemistry can be applied to modify the ways in which the device interacts with its environment. PC12 cells are cultured on as-grown planar, unidirectionally polished, etched nanoporous and nanowire GaN surfaces with and without a physi-sorbed peptide sequence that promotes cell adhesion. While cells demonstrate ...


Technique For Quantitative Mapping Of Three-Dimensional Liquid-Gas Phase Boundaries In Microchannel Flows, Ravi S. Patel, Suresh V. Garimella 2014 Purdue University

Technique For Quantitative Mapping Of Three-Dimensional Liquid-Gas Phase Boundaries In Microchannel Flows, Ravi S. Patel, Suresh V. Garimella

Birck and NCN Publications

A diagnostic technique capable of characterizing interfaces between transparent, immiscible fluids is developed and demonstrated by investigating the morphology of liquid-gas interfaces in an adiabatic two-phase flow through a microchannel of 500 mu m x 500 mu m square cross section. Water seeded with 0.5 mu m-diameter fluorescent polystyrene particles is pumped through the channel, and the desired adiabatic two-phase flow regime is achieved through controlled air injection. The diagnostic technique relies on obtaining particle position data through epifluorescent imaging of the flow at excitation and emission wavelengths of 532 nm and 620 nm, respectively. The particle position data ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Spin Blockade And Exchange In Coulomb-Confined Silicon Double Quantum Dots, Bent Weber, Y.H. Matthias Tan, Suddhasatta Mahapatra, Thomas F. Watson, Hoon Ryu, Rajib Rahman, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg, Gerhard Klimeck, Michelle Y. Simmons 2014 Purdue University

Spin Blockade And Exchange In Coulomb-Confined Silicon Double Quantum Dots, Bent Weber, Y.H. Matthias Tan, Suddhasatta Mahapatra, Thomas F. Watson, Hoon Ryu, Rajib Rahman, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg, Gerhard Klimeck, Michelle Y. Simmons

Birck and NCN Publications

Electron spins confined to phosphorus donors in silicon are promising candidates as qubits(1) because of their long coherence times, exceeding seconds in isotopically purified bulk silicon(2). With the recent demonstrations of initialization, readout(3) and coherent manipulation(4) of individual donor electron spins, the next challenge towards the realization of a Si:P donor-based quantum computer is the demonstration of exchange coupling(1,5,6) in two tunnel-coupled phosphorus donors. Spin-to-charge conversion(3,7) via Pauli spin blockade(8,9), an essential ingredient for reading out individual spin states, is challenging in donor-based systems due to the inherently ...


A Single-Input, Single-Output Electromagnetically-Transduced Microresonator Array, Andrew B. Sabater, A. G. Hunkler, Jeff F. Rhoads 2014 Purdue University

A Single-Input, Single-Output Electromagnetically-Transduced Microresonator Array, Andrew B. Sabater, A. G. Hunkler, Jeff F. Rhoads

Birck and NCN Publications

Resonant microsystems have found broad applicability in environmental and inertial sensing, signal filtering and timing applications. Despite this breadth in utility, a common constraint on these devices is throughput, or the total amount of information that they can process. In recent years, elastically-coupled arrays of microresonators have been used to increase the throughput in sensing contexts, but these arrays are often more complicated to design than their isolated counterparts, due to the potential for collective behaviors (such as vibration localization) to arise. An alternative solution to the throughput constraint is to use arrays of electromagnetically-transduced microresonators. These arrays can be ...


Epitaxial Superlattices With Titanium Nitride As A Plasmonic Component For Optical Hyperbolic Metamaterials, Gururaj V. Naik, Bivas Saha, Jing Liu, Sammy M. Saber, Eric A. Stach, Joseph Irudayaraj, Timothy D. Sands, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva 2014 Purdue University

Epitaxial Superlattices With Titanium Nitride As A Plasmonic Component For Optical Hyperbolic Metamaterials, Gururaj V. Naik, Bivas Saha, Jing Liu, Sammy M. Saber, Eric A. Stach, Joseph Irudayaraj, Timothy D. Sands, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva

Birck and NCN Publications

Titanium nitride (TiN) is a plasmonic material having optical properties resembling gold. Unlike gold, however, TiN is complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible, mechanically strong, and thermally stable at higher temperatures. Additionally, TiN exhibits low-index surfaces with surface energies that are lower than those of the noble metals which facilitates the growth of smooth, ultrathin crystalline films. Such films are crucial in constructing low-loss, high-performance plasmonic and metamaterial devices including hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). HMMs have been shown to exhibit exotic optical properties, including extremely high broad-band photonic densities of states (PDOS), which are useful in quantum plasmonic applications. However, the extent to ...


Ultraviolet Laser Crystallized Zno:Al Films On Sapphire With High Hall Mobility For Simultaneous Enhancement Of Conductivity And Transparency, Qiong Nian, Martin Y. Zhang, Bradley D. Schwartz, Gary J. Cheng 2014 Purdue University

Ultraviolet Laser Crystallized Zno:Al Films On Sapphire With High Hall Mobility For Simultaneous Enhancement Of Conductivity And Transparency, Qiong Nian, Martin Y. Zhang, Bradley D. Schwartz, Gary J. Cheng

Birck and NCN Publications

One of the most challenging issues in transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) is to improve their conductivity without compromising transparency. High conductivity in TCO films often comes from a high carrier concentration, which is detrimental to transparency due to free carrier absorption. Here we show that UV laser crystallization (UVLC) of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire results in much higher Hall mobility, allowing relaxation of the constraints of the conductivity/transparency trade-off. X-ray diffraction patterns and morphological characterizations show grain growth and crystallinity enhancement during UVLC, resulting in less film internal imperfections. Optoelectronic measurements show ...


Experimental Demonstration Of Titanium Nitride Plasmonic Interconnects, Nathaniel Kinsey, Marcello Ferrera, Gururaj V. Naik, V. E. Babicheva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva 2014 Purdue University

Experimental Demonstration Of Titanium Nitride Plasmonic Interconnects, Nathaniel Kinsey, Marcello Ferrera, Gururaj V. Naik, V. E. Babicheva, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva

Birck and NCN Publications

An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mu m. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 mu m on sapphire, which agree well with theoretical predictions. A theoretical analysis of a solid-state structure using Si3N4 superstrates and ultra-thin metal strips shows that propagation losses less than 0.3 dB/mm with a mode size of 9 mu m are attainable. This work illustrates the potential of TiN as a realistic plasmonic ...


Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Of Coupled Electronic Lattice Motion In Quasi-Two-Dimensional Crystals, Vladimir U. Nazarov, Fhhad Alharbi, Timothy Fisher, Sabre Kais 2014 Purdue University

Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Of Coupled Electronic Lattice Motion In Quasi-Two-Dimensional Crystals, Vladimir U. Nazarov, Fhhad Alharbi, Timothy Fisher, Sabre Kais

Birck and NCN Publications

Electron-holes, phonons, and plasmons come in close proximity to each other in the low-energy range of the excitation spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, breaking the validity of the weakly interacting-quasiparticles picture. By including the lattice oscillations into the scheme of time-dependent density-functional theory, we open a pathway to the ab initio treatment of the coupled low-energy excitations in 2D crystals. With the use of graphene as an important test system, we find the strong coupling of the elementary excitations, giving rise to new hybrid collective modes. The total (including both the electronic and ionic response) dielectric function epsilon(tot)(omega ...


Theoretical Study On The Oxidation Mechanism And Dynamics Of The Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon Edge By Oxygen And Ozone, Kun Xu, Peide D. Ye 2014 Purdue University

Theoretical Study On The Oxidation Mechanism And Dynamics Of The Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon Edge By Oxygen And Ozone, Kun Xu, Peide D. Ye

Birck and NCN Publications

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), as an emerging class of material, hold great potential for the future high speed and low power electronic and spintronic devices. The fabrication of GNRs is of the utmost interest in terms of graphene based device research. Chemical narrowing of GNRs by oxidation is a promising technique in producing nanoribbons of desired widths. In this article, we hope to elucidate the etching mechanism of zigzag GNR (ZGNR) edge by oxidation through theoretical investigations. The oxidation mechanisms and dynamics of the ZGNR edge by O-2 and O-3 are fully revealed by density functional theory and statistical theory. The ...


Nanocarbon-Scanning Probe Microscopy Synergy: Fundamental Aspects To Nanoscale Devices, Narendra Kurra, Ronald G. Reifenberger, Giridhar U. Kulkarni 2014 Purdue University

Nanocarbon-Scanning Probe Microscopy Synergy: Fundamental Aspects To Nanoscale Devices, Narendra Kurra, Ronald G. Reifenberger, Giridhar U. Kulkarni

Birck and NCN Publications

Scanning probe techniques scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have emerged as unique local probes for imaging, manipulation, and modification of surfaces at the nanoscale. Exercising the fabrication of atomic and nansocale devices with desired properties have demanded rapid development of scanning probe based nanolithographies. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) and local anodic oxidation (LAO) have been widely employed for fabricating functional patterns and prototype devices at nanoscale. This review discusses the progress in AFM bias lithography with focus on nanocarbon species on which many functional quantum device structures have been realized using local electrochemical and electrostatic processes ...


Understanding The Mechanical Properties Of Dna Origami Tiles And Controlling The Kinetics Of Their Folding And Unfolding Reconfiguration, Haorong Chen, Te-Wei Wang, Molly M. Riccitelli, Yi Cui, Joseph Irudayaraj, Jong Hyun Choi 2014 Purdue University

Understanding The Mechanical Properties Of Dna Origami Tiles And Controlling The Kinetics Of Their Folding And Unfolding Reconfiguration, Haorong Chen, Te-Wei Wang, Molly M. Riccitelli, Yi Cui, Joseph Irudayaraj, Jong Hyun Choi

Birck and NCN Publications

DNA origami represents a class of highly programmable macromolecules that can go through conformational changes in response to external signals. Here we show that a two-dimensional origami rectangle can be effectively folded into a short, cylindrical tube by connecting the two opposite edges through the hybridization of linker strands and that this process can be efficiently reversed via toehold-mediated strand displacement. The reconfiguration kinetics was experimentally studied as a function of incubation temperature, initial origami concentration, missing staples, and origami geometry. A kinetic model was developed by introducing the j factor to describe the reaction rates in the cyclization process ...


Quantum And Classical Magnetoresistance In Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors With Gate-Tunable Bulk And Surface Conduction, Jifa Tian, Cuizu Chang, Helin Cao, Ke He, Xucun Ma, Qikun Xue, Yong P. Chen 2014 Purdue University

Quantum And Classical Magnetoresistance In Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors With Gate-Tunable Bulk And Surface Conduction, Jifa Tian, Cuizu Chang, Helin Cao, Ke He, Xucun Ma, Qikun Xue, Yong P. Chen

Birck and NCN Publications

Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)(2)Te-3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching ...


In-Situ Tem Observation Of The Response Of Ultrafine- And Nanocrystalline-Grained Tungsten To Extreme Irradiation Environments, Osman El-Atwani, J. A. Hinks, G. Greaves, Sean Gonderman, T. Qiu, M. Efe, Jean P. Allain 2014 Purdue University

In-Situ Tem Observation Of The Response Of Ultrafine- And Nanocrystalline-Grained Tungsten To Extreme Irradiation Environments, Osman El-Atwani, J. A. Hinks, G. Greaves, Sean Gonderman, T. Qiu, M. Efe, Jean P. Allain

Birck and NCN Publications

The accumulation of defects, and in particular He bubbles, can have significant implications for the performance of materials exposed to the plasma in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors. Some of the most promising candidates for deployment into such environments are nanocrystalline materials as the engineering of grain boundary density offers the possibility of tailoring their radiation resistance properties. In order to investigate the microstructural evolution of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten under conditions similar to those in a reactor, a transmission electron microscopy study with in situ 2 keV He+ ion irradiation at 950 degrees C has been completed. A dynamic and ...


Full Control Of Quadruple Quantum Dot Circuit Charge States In The Single Electron Regime, M. R. Delbecq, T. Nakajima, T. Otsuka, S. Amaha, J. D. Watson, Michael J. Manfra, S. Tarucha 2014 Purdue University

Full Control Of Quadruple Quantum Dot Circuit Charge States In The Single Electron Regime, M. R. Delbecq, T. Nakajima, T. Otsuka, S. Amaha, J. D. Watson, Michael J. Manfra, S. Tarucha

Birck and NCN Publications

We report the realization of an array of four tunnel coupled quantum dots in the single electron regime, which is the first required step toward a scalable solid state spin qubit architecture. We achieve an efficient tunability of the system but also find out that the conditions to realize spin blockade readout are not as straightforwardly obtained as for double and triple quantum dot circuits. We use a simple capacitive model of the series quadruple quantum dots circuit to investigate its complex charge state diagrams and are able to find the most suitable configurations for future Pauli spin blockade measurements ...


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