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Development Of Novel Nanomaterials For Lithium Sulfur Batteries, Xia Li 2016 The University of Western

Development Of Novel Nanomaterials For Lithium Sulfur Batteries, Xia Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lithium-sulfur batteries are considered as the most promising next generation high-energy batteries. Compared with other kinds of battery, Li-S batteries have ultra-high theoretical energy density, which is a good candidate for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles in future. However, there are still many challenges to be addressed in Li-S batteries. Design of electrodes, selection of electrolytes, and battery assemble have direct effects on the safety, cost and electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries. Therefore, it is greatly important to develop novel electrodes to achieve high-energy for Li-S batteries. This thesis mainly focuses on the design of sulfur cathode of Li-S ...


Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Hölzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov 2016 Technical University Vienna, Austria

Bioink Properties Before, During And After 3d Bioprinting, Katja Hölzl, Shengmao Lin, Liesbeth Tytgat, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Linxia Gu, Aleksandr Ovsianikov

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Bioprinting is a process based on additive manufacturing from materials containing living cells. These materials, often referred to as bioink, are based on cytocompatible hydrogel precursor formulations, which gel in a manner compatible with different bioprinting approaches. The bioink properties before, during and after gelation are essential for its printability, comprising such features as achievable structural resolution, shape fidelity and cell survival. However, it is the final properties of the matured bioprinted tissue construct that are crucial for the end application. During tissue formation these properties are influenced by the amount of cells present in the construct, their proliferation, migration ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Near-Infrared (1047 Nm) Photoacoustic-Nephelometer Spectrometer For Detection And Optical Characterization Of Black Carbon Aerosol, Yang Yu 2016 Washington University in St Louis

Development And Evaluation Of A Near-Infrared (1047 Nm) Photoacoustic-Nephelometer Spectrometer For Detection And Optical Characterization Of Black Carbon Aerosol, Yang Yu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Black carbon (BC) aerosol are aggregates of small carbon spherules of <10 nm to approximately 50 nm in diameter. They are characterized by their strong visible light absorption property with a mass absorption cross-section (MAC) value above 5 m2 g −1 at a wavelength λ = 550 nm, which increases inversely with wavelengths from near-infrared (≈1 µm) to ultraviolet with a power law of one. The absorbing nature of BC aerosol has been implicated in regional atmospheric warming, changing of monsoon patterns, and accelerated melting of the glaciers. The BC radiative effects over earth is currently estimated within a factor of four, resulting in one of the largest uncertainties in climate modeling. This uncertainty results from our inadequate knowledge about regional BC emission rates, and associated aerosol microphysical ...


Interplay Of Quantum Size Effect, Anisotropy And Surface Stress Shapes The Instability Of Thin Metal Films, Mikhail Khenner 2016 Western Kentucky University

Interplay Of Quantum Size Effect, Anisotropy And Surface Stress Shapes The Instability Of Thin Metal Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

Morphological instability of a planar surface ([111], [011], or [001]) of an ultra-thin metal film is studied in a parameter space formed by three major effects (the quantum size effect, the surface energy anisotropy and the surface stress) that influence a film dewetting. The analysis is based on the extended Mullins equation, where the effects are cast as functions of the film thickness. The formulation of the quantum size effect (Z. Zhang et al., PRL 80, 5381 (1998)) includes the oscillation of the surface energy with thickness caused by electrons confinement. By systematically comparing the effects, their contributions into the ...


Polymer Composites Reinforced With Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, V. Trachevskiy, Bo Wang 2016 national aviation university

Polymer Composites Reinforced With Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, V. Trachevskiy, Bo Wang

Kevin Lee

The structural and physico-chemical characteristics of thermoplastic polymers filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) such as polyethylene (PE), polyamide 6 (PA 6) and layered fiberglass with PA 6 are investigated. The influence of their concentrations and homogeneity degree of nanotubes distribution is studied. The properties of new composites are compared with the
and polypropylene (PP)–CNTs systems. It is shown that an addition of CNTs into thermoplastic polymeric materials leads to the significant changes in structural characteristics, growth of strength, electrical, thermal properties. It is coursed by the formation of CNTs continuous network in the original matrix, the crystallinity degree ...


A Review On Microbial Cells Force Spectroscopy By Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Livia Angeloni, Daniele Passeri 2016 University of Roma "La Sapienza"

A Review On Microbial Cells Force Spectroscopy By Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Livia Angeloni, Daniele Passeri

Kevin Lee

Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are important phenomena which can produce both detrimental and beneficial effects in several fields. Research is thus focused on the modulation of the properties of material surfaces in order to design and develop substrates able to control bacterial adhesion process, which is the first trigger event of biofilm formation. Several theoretical predictions and experimental procedures have been developed to investigate the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms regulating the attachment of bacteria to solid substrates. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding has not been achieved yet, limiting the capability of individuating effective technological strategies to achieve the desired ...


Generalizing The Quantum Dot Lab Towards Arbitrary Shapes And Compositions, Matthew A. Bliss, Prasad Sarangapani, James Fonseca, Gerhard Klimeck 2016 Purdue University

Generalizing The Quantum Dot Lab Towards Arbitrary Shapes And Compositions, Matthew A. Bliss, Prasad Sarangapani, James Fonseca, Gerhard Klimeck

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

As applications in nanotechnology reach the scale of countable atoms, computer simulation has become a necessity in the understanding of new devices, such as quantum dots. To understand the various optoelectronic properties of these nanoparticles, the Quantum Dot Lab (QDL) has been created and powered by NEMO5 to simulate on multi-scale, multi-physics bases. QDL is easy to use by offering choices of different QD geometries such as shapes and sizes to the users from a predefined menu. The simplicity of use, however, limits the simulation of general QD shapes and compositions. A method to import generic strained crystalline and amorphous ...


Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross VerHeul, David H. Thompson 2016 Purdue University

Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross Verheul, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of novel and efficient mixing methods is important for optimizing the efficiency of many biological and chemical processes. Tuning the physical and performance properties of nucleic acid-based nanoparticles is one such example known to be strongly affected by mixing efficiency. The characteristics of DNA nanoparticles (such as size, polydispersity, ζ-potential, and gel shift) are important to ensure their therapeutic potency, and new methods to optimize these characteristics are of significant importance to achieve the highest efficacy. In the present study, a simple segmented flow microfluidics system has been developed to augment mixing of pDNA/bPEI nanoparticles. This DNA ...


Modeling Of A Roll-To-Roll Plasma Cvd System For Graphene, Yudong Chen, Majed A. Alrefae, Anurag Kumar, Timothy S. Fisher 2016 Purdue University

Modeling Of A Roll-To-Roll Plasma Cvd System For Graphene, Yudong Chen, Majed A. Alrefae, Anurag Kumar, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene is a 2D carbon material that has extraordinary physical properties relevant to many industrial applications such as electronics, oxidation barrier and biosensors. Roll-to-roll plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed to manufacture graphene at large scale. In a plasma CVD chamber, graphene is grown on a copper foil as it passes through a high-temperature plasma region. The temperatures of the gas and the copper foil play important roles in the growth of graphene. Consequently, there is a need to understand the temperature and gas velocity distributions in the system. The heat generated in the plasma creates a thermal ...


Dislocation Engineering In Novel Nanowire Structures, Christopher Y. Chow, Samuel T. Reeve, Alejandro Strachan 2016 Purdue University

Dislocation Engineering In Novel Nanowire Structures, Christopher Y. Chow, Samuel T. Reeve, Alejandro Strachan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Leveraging defects is a cornerstone of materials science, and has become increasingly important from bulk to nanostructured materials. We use molecular dynamics simulations to explore the limits of defect engineering by harnessing individual dislocations in nanoscale metallic specimens and utilizing their intrinsic behavior for application in mechanical dampening. We study arrow-shaped, single crystal copper nanowires designed to trap and control the dynamics of dislocations under uniaxial loading. We characterize how nanowire cross-section and stacking-fault energy of the material affects the ability to trap partial or full dislocations. Cyclic loading simulations show that the periodic motion of the dislocations leads to ...


Temperature Dependent Surface Modification Of Tungsten Exposed To High-Flux Low-Energy Helium Ion Irradiation, Antony Q. Damico, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Gennady Miloshevsky, Ahmed Hassanein 2016 Purdue University

Temperature Dependent Surface Modification Of Tungsten Exposed To High-Flux Low-Energy Helium Ion Irradiation, Antony Q. Damico, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Gennady Miloshevsky, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is a great potential energy source that can provide a relatively safe and clean limitless supply of energy using hydrogen isotopes as fuel material. ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) is the world first fusion reactor currently being built in France. Tungsten (W) is a prime candidate material as plasma facing component (PFC) due to its excellent mechanical properties, high melting point, and low erosion rate. However, W undergoes a severe surface morphology change when exposed to helium ion (He+) bombardment under fusion conditions. It forms nanoscopic fiber-form structures, i.e., fuzz on the surface. Fuzz is brittle and ...


Fluence Dependent Surface Modification On Tungsten Coatings Using Low Energy Helium Ion Irradiation At Elevated Temperatures, Cheng Ji, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Valeryi Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein 2016 Purdue University

Fluence Dependent Surface Modification On Tungsten Coatings Using Low Energy Helium Ion Irradiation At Elevated Temperatures, Cheng Ji, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Theodore J. Novakowski, Valeryi Sizyuk, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nuclear fusion is the most promising renewable energy source for the near future. It can provide a large amount of energy using a very small amount of fuel, as compared with that of the coal, oil, or nuclear fission. The chain reaction in nuclear fusion produces the energy and fuel, from hydrogen isotopes available in see water. Tungsten (W) is a leading candidate material for the plasma-facing component (PFC) in nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), because of its high melting point, high yield strength, low erosion and low hydrogen isotope retention. Recent studies showed deeply ...


Quantum Dot Lab : Incorporation Of Alloys In The Capping Layer Of Multi-Layer Quantum Dot, Unmesha U. Kale, Prasad Sarangapani, Jim Fonseca, Gerhard Klimeck 2016 Purdue University

Quantum Dot Lab : Incorporation Of Alloys In The Capping Layer Of Multi-Layer Quantum Dot, Unmesha U. Kale, Prasad Sarangapani, Jim Fonseca, Gerhard Klimeck

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Quantum dots have enhanced the performance of several optoelectronic devices. Designing and obtaining optimal quantum dot structures requires intensive simulation. Quantum Dot Lab on nanoHUB provides such a simulation platform. The simulation is fully parallelized and depending on the structure, the tool decides the computational resource which is to be used for the simulation. To obtain accurate predictions of quantum dot structures it is essential to provide a variety of simulation parameters to the user. In this research, a user interface was created where the user can simulate alloys by Random distribution and by Virtual Crystal Approximation(VCA) type distribution ...


Effect Of Particle Concentration And Ac Electric Field Strength On Particle Trapping In Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (Rep), Sixuan Li, Avanish Mishra, Steve Wereley 2016 Purdue University

Effect Of Particle Concentration And Ac Electric Field Strength On Particle Trapping In Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (Rep), Sixuan Li, Avanish Mishra, Steve Wereley

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (REP) is an optoelectric technique for trapping and translating micro- and nanoparticles non-invasively. It uses a combination of laser-induced AC electrothermal flow and particle-electrode interactions in the presence of a uniform AC electric field. The trapping is governed by laser power, electric field strength, AC frequency and dielectric properties of the particle and the medium. A REP trap has an AC frequency, termed critical frequency, above which particles cannot be trapped. It is expected to be dependent on dielectric properties of the particle and the medium. However, we propose that the particle concentration and AC field strength ...


Development Of Micro-/Nano-Architectures For Intracellular Sensing Platform, Ryan M. Preston, Dae Seung Wie, Chi Hwan Lee 2016 Purdue University

Development Of Micro-/Nano-Architectures For Intracellular Sensing Platform, Ryan M. Preston, Dae Seung Wie, Chi Hwan Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently available nanotechnologies are capable of creating various nanostructures in controlled dimensions such as particles (0D), wires (1D), membranes (2D), and cubes (3D) by exploiting “top-down” or “bottom-up” methods. However, there exist limitations to systematically construct hierarchical nanostructures with geometric complexities. This study is focused on developing a novel nanofabrication strategy that can rationally produce a set of hierarchical nanostructures configured with precisely engineered facets, tip shapes, and tectonic motifs. We aim to identify a collection of optimal materials, array layouts, basic components, and nanofabrication techniques for the production of hierarchical nanostructures by exploiting device-grade semiconducting silicon materials. To accomplish ...


Performance Of Tf-Vls Grown Inp Photovoltaic Cells, Junyan Shi, Yubo Sun, Peter Bermel 2016 Purdue University

Performance Of Tf-Vls Grown Inp Photovoltaic Cells, Junyan Shi, Yubo Sun, Peter Bermel

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A grand challenge of photovoltaics (PV) is to find materials offering a promising combination of low costs and high efficiencies. While III-V material-based PV cells have set many world records, often their cost is much greater than other commercial cells. To help address this gap, thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) grown Indium Phosphide (InP) PV cells have recently been developed, which both eliminate a key source of high costs and offer a direct bandgap of 1.34eV with potential to approach maximum theoretical efficiencies. However, the unanticipated phenomenon of open circuit voltage (Voc) degradation has prevented TF-VLS grown InP PV cells ...


Energy Transfer In Cdse Nanoplatelet Superlattices, Kelly Wang, Jordan Snaider, Libai Huang 2016 Purdue University

Energy Transfer In Cdse Nanoplatelet Superlattices, Kelly Wang, Jordan Snaider, Libai Huang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Two-dimension CdSe semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibit unique, highly desirable optical and electronic properties, such as large absorption crossection and bright emission. Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NPLs is responsible for the utility of these NPLs in fields such as lasing, lighting, solar energy, and sensing. Here we study energy transfer processes in NPL superlattices using photoluminescence (PL) and time resolved PL (TRPL) spectroscopic methods. Information on the effect of thickness of NPL is obtained through correlating PL and TRPL spectra of CdSe superlattices with AFM measurements. PL spectrum showed narrow fluorescence and absorption peaks at room temperature corresponding to ...


Studies On Nanocomposite Coating Produced By Laser-Assisted Process To Prevent Silicone Hydrogels From Bio-Fouling, Vishnuvardhana Wuppaladhodi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Studies On Nanocomposite Coating Produced By Laser-Assisted Process To Prevent Silicone Hydrogels From Bio-Fouling, Vishnuvardhana Wuppaladhodi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, silver nanoparticles incorporated into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were deposited on silicone hydrogel to improve the hydrophilicity of the silicone hydrogel and prevent the growth of bacteria. Two different processes were employed to produce Ag nanoparticles: (1) Process-A is a photochemical reduction; (2) Process-B is laser ablation in liquid. Following that, MAPLE process was employed to deposit the Ag-PVP nanocomposites on the surface of silicone hydrogel. A solid-state pulsed laser (Nd:YAG) with a wavelength of 532 nm at a fluence of 50.4 mJ/cm2 was used in the MAPLE system to deposit Ag-PVP nanocomposite coating. Our ...


Directed Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymer, No1, Hiromichi Yamamoto 2016 Singh Center

Directed Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymer, No1, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

The PS-rich and neutral PS-b-PMMA block copolymer (BCP) films were spin coated on the neutral random copolymer hydroxyl-terminated PS-r-PMMA layers grafted on the native oxide and 50 nm thick PECVD amorphous silicon oxide layers. Relationship between the grafting density of BCP and surface density of hydroxyl moiety on silicon oxide is discussed. Furthermore, optimization of annealing BCP films is reported, and wetted and de-wetted BCP films are shown in optical microscope images. In addition, finger print and nanopore structures of BCP films are also indicated in SEM images.


Lignin-Based Li-Ion Anode Materials Synthesized From Low-Cost Renewable Resources, Nicholas William McNutt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lignin-Based Li-Ion Anode Materials Synthesized From Low-Cost Renewable Resources, Nicholas William Mcnutt

Doctoral Dissertations

In today’s world, the demand for novel methods of energy storage is increasing rapidly, particularly with the rise of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and the personal consumption and storage of solar energy. While other technologies have arguably improved at a rate that is exponential in accordance with Moore’s law, battery technology has lagged behind largely due to the difficulty in devising new electric storage systems that are simultaneously high performing, inexpensive, and safe.

In order to tackle these challenges, novel Li-ion battery anodes have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are made from lignin, a ...


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