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Analysis Of Wingtip Vortex Structure Generated By Bio-Inspired Winglets, D'Zahn A. Smith 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Analysis Of Wingtip Vortex Structure Generated By Bio-Inspired Winglets, D'Zahn A. Smith

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Bio-inspired winglets were studied with the goal of better understanding the structure of the wingtip vortices they generate. Measurements of the tip vortex were previously carried out using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (sPIV). The bio-inspired winglet was tested on a rectangular NACA 0012 wing section at a 5-degree angle of attack and at a chord Reynolds number of 900,000. Velocity field measurements were recorded at 0.7 and 2 chord lengths aft of the wing’s trailing edge. Compared to the wing with no attachment and a traditional blended winglet, the bio-inspired winglet’s vortex exhibited significantly less intense flow field properties. These …


Oxider To Fuel Ratio Shift Compensation Via Vortex Strength Control In Hybrid Rocket Motors, Max W. Francom 2024 Utah State University

Oxider To Fuel Ratio Shift Compensation Via Vortex Strength Control In Hybrid Rocket Motors, Max W. Francom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Hybrid motors have existed as a hypothetical propulsion system for decades in a wide range of upper stage rocket motors due to their simple, robust, non-toxic, and versatile nature. However, inherent to hybrids is Oxidizer to Fuel ratio (O/F) shift over time, which results in performance losses for the majority of the rocket’s lifetime. The purpose of this study is to develop a hybrid rocket motor capable of manipulating O/F at will, resulting in an engine which eliminates the undesirable effects of O/F shift. By developing and refining a numerical simulation, a novel injector system, and an open-loop control scheme, …


Modeling Of Rotor Wake Vortex Dynamics And Interactions In Non-Homogenous Vertiport Environments, Garrison P. Shaw 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Modeling Of Rotor Wake Vortex Dynamics And Interactions In Non-Homogenous Vertiport Environments, Garrison P. Shaw

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The current research serves to analyze and study the effects ground forces can have on the thrust performance of a propeller in multiple different configurations. The current research utilizes an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software known as OpenFOAM to generate calculate and visualize these runs. The model used for this experiment is a hybrid model that employs both a Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and a detached eddy simulation using a hybrid Large Eddy Simulation (LES) via a KomegaSSTDDES model. This model serves to save computational time as well as allow for accurate results. The three cases run are …


Characterization And Analysis Of Supersonic Flow Through De Laval Nozzles At Varied Design Conditions, Sarah Baird 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Characterization And Analysis Of Supersonic Flow Through De Laval Nozzles At Varied Design Conditions, Sarah Baird

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

A combined numerical and experimental investigation of supersonic planar nozzles under different design conditions has been conducted. Supersonic planar nozzles are common geometries observed in supersonic wind tunnels and aircraft or rocket engines. For the important role they play in wind tunnel testing and aircraft propulsion, it is important to conduct a thorough numerical and experimental study to characterize their performance at different operating conditions. In this study, a de Laval nozzle was scanned to extract its contours and subsequently modeled to compare analytical and numerical performance expectations under design and off-design conditions. The nozzle was then installed in a …


Using Convolutional Neural Networks For Autonomous Drone Navigation, Joshua Jowers 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Convolutional Neural Networks For Autonomous Drone Navigation, Joshua Jowers

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), more commonly known as drones, serve various purposes, notably in military applications. Consequently, there arises a need for navigation methods impervious to intercepted signals [1]. Previous research has explored numerous solutions, including machine learning. This paper delves into a specific machine learning approach employing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to discern image locations [2]. It elucidates the conversion of a CNN model between two machine learning libraries and presents results from multiple experiments examining parameters and factors influencing the approach's efficacy. These experiments encompass testing different data sources, image quantities, and processing pipelines to gauge their …


Cosmic Object Space Management Operations System (C.O.S.M.O.S.), Riah Ivy, Tyler Bumpus, Gabriel Soter 2024 Kennesaw State University

Cosmic Object Space Management Operations System (C.O.S.M.O.S.), Riah Ivy, Tyler Bumpus, Gabriel Soter

Senior Design Project For Engineers

In the expansive realm of outer space, humanity has ventured into new territories, yet this progress is accompanied by challenges. Among the most significant challenges confronting space exploration today is the growing amount of space debris within low earth orbit. Satellites, spent rocket stages, and assorted fragments orbiting Earth present a considerable hazard to spacecraft and astronauts, and this issue is steadily worsening. For years, the task of remedying this orbital congestion has remained formidable and unresolved. This design provides a novel and innovative solution to this growing problem.


A Comprehensive Investigation Of The Influence Of Geometric Structure On The Shape Memory Performance Of Nafion, Jade Thomas 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comprehensive Investigation Of The Influence Of Geometric Structure On The Shape Memory Performance Of Nafion, Jade Thomas

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

While perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes have primarily been used in fuel cells due to their chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability, one PFSA, Nafion, boasts two unique characteristics: a broad glass transition (~55 °C to 130 °C) and a temperature-persistent electrostatic network. The combination of these two characteristics endows Nafion with exceptional shape memory properties – the ability of a material to morph and transform into pre-programmed shapes when exposed to an external stimulus – with enhanced permanent shape memorization, and a potentially near-infinite number of temporary shape memorization. This study focused on expanding the base of knowledge surrounding Nafion’s shape …


A Comprehensive Investigation Of The Influence Of Geometric Structure On The Shape Memory Performance Of Nafion, Jade Thomas 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comprehensive Investigation Of The Influence Of Geometric Structure On The Shape Memory Performance Of Nafion, Jade Thomas

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

While perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes have primarily been used in fuel cells due to their chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability, one PFSA, Nafion, boasts two unique characteristics: a broad glass transition (~55 °C to 130 °C) and a temperature-persistent electrostatic network. The combination of these two characteristics endows Nafion with exceptional shape memory properties – the ability of a material to morph and transform into pre-programmed shapes when exposed to an external stimulus – with enhanced permanent shape memorization, and a potentially near-infinite number of temporary shape memorization. This study focused on expanding the base of knowledge surrounding Nafion’s shape …


A Study Of Varying Dielectric Constant And Thickness Of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Devices And Their Subsequent Plasma Actuation, Sharon Kardasz 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Study Of Varying Dielectric Constant And Thickness Of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Devices And Their Subsequent Plasma Actuation, Sharon Kardasz

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The principles of air-breathing ion propulsion are relatively unestablished in the aerodynamic realm as traditional forms of combustion for propulsion systems have remained in use. However, due to increasing environmental, economic, and efficiency concerns of traditional combustion, interests in innovative propulsion methodologies, such as electric propulsion, are emerging. A primary technology of interest for use of ion propulsion is the Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device (DBD). Preliminary research conducted at the University of Arkansas has determined the most favorable DBD geometry. This work will continue the preliminary research to decipher the most favorable DBD configuration by varying dielectric thickness and dielectric …


Numerical Simulations Of Supersonic/ Hypersonic Flows In Compression Corners And A Hypersonic Flow Study Of Atmospheric Entry Of Mars Science Laboratory Capsule, Dexter Allen 2024 Washington University in St. Louis

Numerical Simulations Of Supersonic/ Hypersonic Flows In Compression Corners And A Hypersonic Flow Study Of Atmospheric Entry Of Mars Science Laboratory Capsule, Dexter Allen

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This thesis consists of two related parts. The first part is the study of supersonic/hypersonic flow in compression corners. The compression corners are simple geometries but rich in flow-features that can be challenging for accurate prediction of their flow fields in high-speed compressible flow using the Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. At higher degrees of corner angles, there exists a shock-boundary layer interaction region which includes a significant recirculation zone in the corner. In this thesis, experimentally available test cases for compression corner at Mach 3, 8, and 11 at various corner angles are modeled …


An Investigation Into In-Flight Loss Of Control Accidents Due To Horizontal Stabilizer Changes On The Piper Cherokee, Connor John Geran 2024 Florida Institute of Technology

An Investigation Into In-Flight Loss Of Control Accidents Due To Horizontal Stabilizer Changes On The Piper Cherokee, Connor John Geran

Theses and Dissertations

Loss of Control (LOC) while in-flight in General Aviation (GA) has been the subject of intense research by academic institutions and regulatory agencies in recent years [4] [9] [11] [19] [20] [21]. This interest is primarily due to a disproportionate number of all aircraft accidents occurring within the GA category of flight, with 94% of accidents in 2022 occurring within GA, caused primarily by pilot LOC, with 42% of accidents having LOC as the listed cause. Research into this subject at FIT yielded the results that many common GA aircraft tend to experience a strong pitch up response after undergoing …


High-Fidelity 3d Reconstruction Of Space Bodies Using Machine Learning And Neural Radiance Fields, Timothy Jacob Huber 2024 Florida Institute of Technology

High-Fidelity 3d Reconstruction Of Space Bodies Using Machine Learning And Neural Radiance Fields, Timothy Jacob Huber

Theses and Dissertations

In the era of burgeoning space exploration, the growing population of spacecraft heightens the inevitability of collisions. While traditional imagery remains effective for damage assessment, its lack of 3D representation of the object necessitates more advanced approaches. This research delves into cutting-edge methodologies, with a primary focus on leveraging machine learning and computer vision technologies to enhance the precision and efficiency of damage assessment by taking imagery of a space body and creating a 3D model. The study extensively investigates TransMVSNet, a neural network code employing classical computer vision techniques such as multi-vision stereo (MVS) and depth maps. This approach …


Development, Modeling, Identification, And Control Of Tilt-Rotor Evtol Aircraft, Clayton T. Spencer 2024 Utah State University

Development, Modeling, Identification, And Control Of Tilt-Rotor Evtol Aircraft, Clayton T. Spencer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

This thesis includes the development, modeling, identification, and control of an electric-Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing (eVTOL) aircraft with tiltable rotors. The front two rotors have tilting capability for transition flight from vertical-take-off to forward-level flight. This work details the development of an eVTOL aircraft and the selection of sub components such as electric motors, batteries, and controllers. After the aircraft build, mathematical model is derived to describe the motion of the aircraft. Unknown parameters in the mathematical model are identified using a Least-Squares-regression (LSR) method that can handle parameter constraints. This is done using real flight data collected from the aircraft. Lastly, this …


Development And Testing Of An 8-Bit Digitally Throttled Hybrid Rocket Motor, Trevor W. Coombs 2024 Utah State University

Development And Testing Of An 8-Bit Digitally Throttled Hybrid Rocket Motor, Trevor W. Coombs

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Hybrid rocket motors that use a solid fuel grain and liquid oxidizer are low-cost and safer alternatives to traditional rocket motors. Another benefit of hybrid rocket motors is that during a burn, the amount of oxidizer into the combustion chamber can be changed, this capability is called throttling. To take advantage of the throttling ability of hybrid rocket motors, a throttling valve made up of 8 individually controlled valves is designed, developed, and tested, which is documented in this thesis. The results of the testing campaign show that the 8-bit digital throttling valve technology is an effective throttling technology and …


Rasc-Al Large Scale Lunar Crater Prospector, Austin Arnold, Coleman Alvarez, Mark Suberu 2024 Kennesaw State University

Rasc-Al Large Scale Lunar Crater Prospector, Austin Arnold, Coleman Alvarez, Mark Suberu

Senior Design Project For Engineers

The purpose of this project is to design a conceptual layout of a lunar rover capable of exploring craters at the lunar south pole. The rover should be autonomous and capable of self-sustainment for at least one year in extreme cold and darkness. While determining the location and accessibility of water ice and other volatiles within the crater. This document will contain all information related to the team's conceptual design. Including research, component selection, electrical design, and mechanical design.

Lunar Rascals Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdcjzVMtzaI


Rapid Response Satellite Launcher, Nathan Jones, Joey Cosentino, Jayson Layton, Afek Adar 2024 Kennesaw State University

Rapid Response Satellite Launcher, Nathan Jones, Joey Cosentino, Jayson Layton, Afek Adar

Senior Design Project For Engineers

Air launch to orbit is a new style or spacecraft where rockets are attached to a large aircraft and released at cruising altitude to then ignite and launch into space. Companies such as Virgin Orbit are using it as a cheap and efficient way to move satellite payloads into lower or upper Earth orbit. These styles of launchers can be designed to be much smaller than ground-launched spacecraft, reducing cost and weight of the launcher in comparison. With many private companies coming into the space and satellite industry, the design and manufacturing of these launchers have become a focus within …


Multifidelity Comparison Of Supersonic Wave Drag Prediction Methods Using Axisymmetric Bodies †, Troy Abraham, David Lazzara, Douglas Hunsaker 2024 Utah State University

Multifidelity Comparison Of Supersonic Wave Drag Prediction Methods Using Axisymmetric Bodies †, Troy Abraham, David Lazzara, Douglas Hunsaker

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Student Publications and Presentations

Low-fidelity analytic and computational wave drag prediction methods assume linear aerodynamics and small perturbations to the flow. Hence, these methods are typically accurate for only very slender geometries. The present work assesses the accuracy of these methods relative to high-fidelity Euler, compressible computational-fluid-dynamics solutions for a set of axisymmetric geometries with varying radius-to-length ratios (R/L). Grid-resolution studies are included for all computational results to ensure grid-resolved results. Results show that the low-fidelity analytic and computational methods match the Euler CFD predictions to around a single drag count (~1.0 × 10–4) for geometries with R/L ≤ 0.05 …


Machine Learning-Based Gps Jamming And Spoofing Detection, Alberto Squatrito 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Machine Learning-Based Gps Jamming And Spoofing Detection, Alberto Squatrito

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The increasing reliance on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology across various sectors has exposed vulnerabilities to malicious attacks, particularly GPS jamming and spoofing. This thesis presents an analysis into detection and mitigation strategies for enhancing the resilience of GPS receivers against jamming and spoofing attacks. The research entails the development of a simulated GPS signal and a receiver model to accurately decode and extract information from simulated GPS signals. The study implements the generation of jammed and spoofed signals to emulate potential threats faced by GPS receivers in practical settings. The core innovation lies in the integration of machine learning …


Aerodynamic Design And Analysis Of A Modified 2006 Mazda Miata, William N. Recher 2024 Georgia Southern University

Aerodynamic Design And Analysis Of A Modified 2006 Mazda Miata, William N. Recher

Honors College Theses

Aerodynamic forces developed by automobiles have destabilizing effects at high speed. These forces tend to skew toward a vehicle’s rear which can present safety concerns, especially for rear-wheel-drive automobiles like the Mazda Miata. To address oversteer and high-speed instability, a vehicle’s design can be tailored to bring about aerodynamic balance and improve traction. LiDAR was used to bring the physical automobile into the digital space. Then, a splitter and diffuser were added to reduce the magnitude of the destabilizing forces. Next, the size and shape of the rear-wing required to balance the vehicle was calculated using a combination of parameters …


Martian Atmospheric Rover Simulation (M.A.R.S.), Matt Berard, Shelby Beddard, Alexander Brunette, Emma Conti, Collin Duke, Delaney Novak, Keelin Weaver 2024 Florida Institute of Technology

Martian Atmospheric Rover Simulation (M.A.R.S.), Matt Berard, Shelby Beddard, Alexander Brunette, Emma Conti, Collin Duke, Delaney Novak, Keelin Weaver

Aerospace, Physics, and Space Science Student Publications

While rovers have been used by various agencies to explore Mars, their travel is limited by terrain obstacles, which may prevent mission completion. Creating a vehicle equipped with both driving and flight capabilities would allow greater range of motion on extraterrestrial planets. Integrating the technology for both transportation modes into one rover allows for efficiency and advancements in technological and planetary research.


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