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In Search Of Standards For The Operation Of Small Satellites, Jeremy Straub 2015 SelectedWorks

In Search Of Standards For The Operation Of Small Satellites, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

This paper considers the need for standards for the operations of small spacecraft. First, it considers a definition for what a small spacecraft is and discusses the elusiveness of this definition. Then, the paper turns to the ‘large space’ community and it examines their fears about small spacecraft as well as the operating paradigms that they are used to and how these drive their expectations for the operations of small spacecraft. Next, a prospective composition for a preliminary set of operating standards is discussed. Finally, a discussion of the benefits of standardization and what the different communities could expect to ...


Openorbiter Mechanical Design: A New Approach To The Design Of A 1-U Cubesat, Benjamin Kading, Jeremy Straub, Ronald Marsh 2015 SelectedWorks

Openorbiter Mechanical Design: A New Approach To The Design Of A 1-U Cubesat, Benjamin Kading, Jeremy Straub, Ronald Marsh

Jeremy Straub

The OpenOrbiter Small Spacecraft Development Initiative is working to create a set of designs and implementation instructions for a 1-U CubeSat, called the Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats. These designs target a total parts cost of below USD $5,000. This design will be made publically available to facilitate its use by others, with or without modification. A ‘side slotted’ CubeSat design (where main circuit boards are placed in slots between the rails on the outside) has been developed for OpenOrbiter. This paper discusses the design choices that were made during the mechanical structure development of the OpenOrbiter CubeSat design ...


Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm For Coordinating Between Cluster Spacecraft In A Communications-Denied Environment, Jeremy Straub 2015 SelectedWorks

Intelligent Water Drops Algorithm For Coordinating Between Cluster Spacecraft In A Communications-Denied Environment, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

This paper presents a modification of Shah-Hosseini’s Intelligent Water Drops (IWD) technique that can be utilized for collaborative control of multiple spacecraft in environments where communications are limited, intermittent or denied. It presents Shah- Hosseini’s base IWD algorithm as well as refinements thereof, which simplify it, making it more suitable for more computationally constrained environments (such as small spacecraft and UAVs). A framework for testing the proposed approach as well as several implementation impediments are discussed.


Wind And Thermal Effects On Ground Mounted Photovoltaic (Pv) Panels, Chowdhury Mohammad Jubayer 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Wind And Thermal Effects On Ground Mounted Photovoltaic (Pv) Panels, Chowdhury Mohammad Jubayer

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of wind on the aerodynamic loading and heat transfer of a ground mounted stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) panel with tilt angle of 25o in open country atmospheric boundary layer. Several azimuthal wind directions are considered: Southern 0o, Southwest 45o, Northwest 135o and Northern 180o. Three dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approaches with an unsteady solver using Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence closure are employed for the CFD simulations, whereas Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Hot Wire Anemometry ...


Heat Transfer Enhancement And Applications Of Femtosecond Laser Processed Metallic Surfaces, Corey M. Kruse 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heat Transfer Enhancement And Applications Of Femtosecond Laser Processed Metallic Surfaces, Corey M. Kruse

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In the present work, functionalized 304 stainless steel metallic surfaces were created with the use of a Femtosecond Laser Surface Processing (FLSP) technique. The laser processing technique produces self-organized micro/nanostructures on the surface. The heat transfer performance of various FLSP functionalized surfaces were characterized through pool boiling and Leidenfrost experiments. Enhancement in both the nucleate and film boiling heat transfer were observed through an increase of the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient as well as shifts in the Leidenfrost temperature respectively. For both experiments, a polished reference sample was used as a baseline line to compare against ...


The Critical Role Of Cubesat Spacecraft In A Multi-Tier Mission For Mars Exploration, Jeremy Straub 2014 SelectedWorks

The Critical Role Of Cubesat Spacecraft In A Multi-Tier Mission For Mars Exploration, Jeremy Straub

Jeremy Straub

A multi-tier architecture is under development (with similar craft heterogeneity to Fink's work on ‘tier scalable’ missions) which will facilitate autonomous local control of multiple heterogeneous craft. This mission architecture has been developed with a Mars mission in mind and has included CubeSats in a variety of critical mission roles.

Two concepts will be presented: the addition of CubeSats to a larger-scale multi-tier mission, where the CubeSats serve a supporting role and a mission driven by CubeSat orbital capabilities. In the first, CubeSats are utilized to augment the area of spatial coverage that can be obtained and the temporal ...


Achieving Global Range In Future Subsonic And Supersonic Airplanes, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D. 2014 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Achieving Global Range In Future Subsonic And Supersonic Airplanes, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

No commercial airplane in service today is able to fly half great-circle distances over the globe and achieve the non-stop or the global range to any antipodal location on Earth. A subsonic jetliner has the optimum cruising speed at Mach numbers approaching the drag divergence Mach number while still preserving relatively high aerodynamic efficiency. Various fuel-flow laws were used to investigate the cruise performance of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The effect of wind and aircraft weight and how it affects the optimal cruising airspeed was investigated. Of all different operational cruising techniques, the cruise-climb at high Mach numbers is the ...


The History Of Space Debris, Loretta Hall 2014 Author

The History Of Space Debris, Loretta Hall

Space Traffic Management Conference

This paper examines what space debris consists of and where it came from. In 1958, astronomer Clyde Tombaugh published the results of his research into the existence of natural debris near the Earth, concluding that no such debris existed. During the ensuing fifty-five years, man-made debris has been accumulating to the point that it threatens launches, active satellites, and the International Space Station. NASA reported that as of 2013, more than 21,000 pieces the size of a softball or larger were being tracked, as were about 500,000 pieces at least the size of a marble and “many millions ...


An Integrated Approach To Orbital Debris Research And Management, Marshall H. Kaplan 2014 Center for Orbital Debris Education and Research (CODER)

An Integrated Approach To Orbital Debris Research And Management, Marshall H. Kaplan

Space Traffic Management Conference

A viable space traffic management program faces a great barrier caused by the ever-increasing number and variety of orbiting objects ranging in size from a few microns to several meters. Although several international agreements to limit the growth rate of orbital debris are in place, the risk of damage and destruction to active satellites is continually rising. The urgency of this situation was highlighted by the 2007 Chinese ASAT test and the collision of Iridium and Cosmos satellites in 2009. Although many debris removal techniques have been posited none have been implemented. Unless a space debris reduction program is undertaken ...


Where Is Space? And Why Does That Matter?, Bhavya Lal, Emily Nightingale 2014 Science and Technology Policy Institute

Where Is Space? And Why Does That Matter?, Bhavya Lal, Emily Nightingale

Space Traffic Management Conference

Despite decades of debate on the topic, there is no consensus on what, precisely, constitutes the boundary between airspace and outer space. The topic is mired in legal and political conundrums, and the easy solution to-date has been to not agree on a definition of space. Lack of a definition, some experts claim, has not limited space-based activities, and therefore is not a hurdle that must be overcome. There are increasing calls however in light of increasing (and expectations of increasing) space traffic, both orbital and sub-orbital. This paper summarizes the proposed delimitation of space, the current debate on whether ...


Aerodynamic Optimization Of Box Wing – A Case Study, Adeel Khalid, Parth Kumar 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide

Aerodynamic Optimization Of Box Wing – A Case Study, Adeel Khalid, Parth Kumar

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The optimization of a possible medium range box wing commercial airliner is presented in three stages. Preliminary research is used to determine various parameters for a potential box wing model, and a baseline model is designed in Autodesk Inventor, based upon the cantilever Airbus A330-200, an aircraft of a similar role. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software used in this project is Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks, which is validated through comparing the NACA 0009 airfoil lift and drag polars with published results. The first stage of optimization is performed on the airfoil shape, with 8 different designs being tested against the ...


Improving Airplane Touchdown Control By Utilizing The Adverse Elevator Effect, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D. 2014 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Improving Airplane Touchdown Control By Utilizing The Adverse Elevator Effect, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The main objective of this original research article is to understand the short-term dynamic behavior of the transport-category airplane during landing flare elevator control application. Increasing the pitch angle to arrest the sink rate, the elevator will have to produce negative lift to rotate the airplane’s nose upward. This has an immediate adverse effect of initially accelerating airplane downward. A mathematical model of landing flare based on the flat-Earth longitudinal dynamics of rigid airplane was developed which is realistic only on very short time-scales as pitch stiffness and damping were neglected. Pilot control scenarios using impulse and step elevator ...


Rocket Flight Path, Jamie L. Waters 2014 University of South Florida

Rocket Flight Path, Jamie L. Waters

Jamie L Waters

This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this project, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, apogee. Once complete this can be compared to what the actual values were to see if the method is a plausible way of estimation. The rocket used in this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.


Passive Phase Separation Of Microgravity Bubbly Flows Using Conduit Geometry, Ryan M. Jenson, Andrew Paul Wollman, Mark M. Weislogel, Lauren Sharp, Robert Green, Peter J. Canfield, Jörg Klatte, Michael E. Dreyer 2014 IRPI

Passive Phase Separation Of Microgravity Bubbly Flows Using Conduit Geometry, Ryan M. Jenson, Andrew Paul Wollman, Mark M. Weislogel, Lauren Sharp, Robert Green, Peter J. Canfield, Jörg Klatte, Michael E. Dreyer

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The ability to separate liquid and gas phases in the absence of a gravitational acceleration has proven a challenge to engineers since the inception of space exploration. Due to our singular experience with terrestrial systems, artificial body forces are often imparted in multiphase fluid systems aboard spacecraft to reproduce the buoyancy effect. This approach tends to be inefficient, adding complexity, resources, and failure modes. Ever present in multiphase phenomena, the forces of surface tension can be exploited to aid passive phase separations where performance characteristics are determined solely by geometric design and system wettability. Said systems may be readily designed ...


Investigation Of Conjugate Heat Transfer In Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling Using Openfoam, Andrew Brown 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Investigation Of Conjugate Heat Transfer In Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling Using Openfoam, Andrew Brown

Aerospace Engineering

No abstract provided.


Control Of A Spacecraft Using Mixed Momentum Exchange Devices, Blake J. Currie 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Control Of A Spacecraft Using Mixed Momentum Exchange Devices, Blake J. Currie

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hardware configurations, a control law, and a steering law are developed for a mixed hardware spacecraft that uses both control moment gyros and reaction wheels. Replacing one or more gyros in a spacecraft with a reaction wheel has potential for cost savings while still achieving much greater performance than using reaction wheels alone. Several simulated tests are run to compare the performance to a traditional all reaction wheel or all control moment gyro spacecraft, including analysis of failure modes and singular configurations. The mixed system performed similarly to all gyro systems, responding within 6% of the gyro system’s time ...


Structural Response Analyses Of Piezoelectric Composites Using Nurbs, Vijairaj Raj 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Structural Response Analyses Of Piezoelectric Composites Using Nurbs, Vijairaj Raj

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Variational method deduced on the basis of the minimum potential energy is an efficient method to find solutions for complex engineering problems. In structural mechanics, the potential energy comprises strain energy, kinetic energy and the work done by external actions. To obtain these, the displacement are required as a priori. This research is concerned with the development of a numerical method based on variational principles to analyze piezoelectric composite plates and solids. A Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) function is used for describing both the geometry and electromechanical displacement fields. Two dimensional plate models are formulated according to the first order ...


Increasing Participation In The Pilot Weather Reporting (Pirep) System Through User Interface Design, Stephen M. Casner 2014 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Increasing Participation In The Pilot Weather Reporting (Pirep) System Through User Interface Design, Stephen M. Casner

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Although pilots regard pilot weather reports (PIREPs) as valuable flight planning resources, the number of PIREPs that pilots submit is relatively small. In a previous survey, pilots indicated that submitting PIREPs sometimes requires too much effort, and that they are often unable to recall the information fields required to complete a report. Pilots also indicated that the idea of submitting a PIREP often does not occur to them, and that they feel that other pilots are mainly interested in receiving reports about severe weather. In this study the authors attempt to address obstacles to submitting PIREPs by proposing two alternative ...


Validation Of New Technology Using Legacy Metrics: Examination Of Surf-Ia Alerting For Runway Incursion Incidents, Robert Joslin 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Validation Of New Technology Using Legacy Metrics: Examination Of Surf-Ia Alerting For Runway Incursion Incidents, Robert Joslin

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

This study demonstrated an innovative method of utilizing expert raters and actual high-risk incidents to identify shortcomings of using legacy metrics to measure the effectiveness of new technology designed to mitigate hazardous incidents. Expert raters were used to validate the Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF-IA) model for providing alerts to pilots to reduce the occurrence of pilot deviation type runway incursion incidents categorized as serious (Category A or B) by the legacy FAA/ICAO Runway Incursion Severity Classification (RISC) model. The study concluded that the SURF-IA model did not yield an outcome ...


Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in the capabilities of robotic planetary exploration missions have increased the wealth of scientific data they produce, presenting challenges for mission science and operations imposed by the limits of interplanetary radio communications. These data budget pressures can be relieved by increased robotic autonomy, both for onboard operations tasks and for decision- making in response to science data.

This thesis presents new techniques in automated image interpretation for natural scenes of relevance to planetary science and exploration, and elaborates autonomy scenarios under which they could be used to extend the reach and performance of exploration missions on planetary surfaces.

Two ...


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