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Direct Synthesis Of Radioactive Nanoparticles Involving Neutrons, Carlos Henry Castano Giraldo, Maria Camila Garcia Toro, Brian Michael Mills 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Direct Synthesis Of Radioactive Nanoparticles Involving Neutrons, Carlos Henry Castano Giraldo, Maria Camila Garcia Toro, Brian Michael Mills

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A method to synthesize radioactive nanoparticles includes the production of metallic and multimetallic nanoparticles in a single step by providing an aqueous solution of the metal precursor, and irradiating the aqueous solution thereby producing nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles include one or more radioactive isotopes of gold, such as 198Au and 199Au as well as radioisotopes of silver when the obtained nanoparticles are bimetallic. The aqueous solution is irradiated in a radiation field that includes neutrons and gamma rays. The radiation field may be provided by a nuclear reactor. The aqueous solution may include silver, and bimetallic nanoparticles may be produced ...


Spin Alignment Generated In Inelastic Nuclear Reactions, Daniel Hoff 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Spin Alignment Generated In Inelastic Nuclear Reactions, Daniel Hoff

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The spin alignment of inelastically excited 7Li projectiles, when the target remains in its ground state, was determined through angular-correlation measurements between the breakup fragments of 7Li_ (_ + t). It was found that 7Li_ is largely aligned along the beam axis (longitudinal) in this type of inelastic reaction, regardless of the target. This longitudinal alignment is well described by DWBA calculations, which can be explained by an angular-momentum-excitation-energy mismatch condition. These calculations also explain the longitudinal spin alignment of excited nuclei in several other systems, showing the phenomenon is more general. The experiment involving 7Li was performed at the Texas ...


Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner 2018 Purdue University

Incorporating Collisions And Resistance Into The Transition From Field Emission To The Space Charge Regime, Samuel D. Dynako, Adam M. Darr, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advancements in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microplasmas, particularly with respect to applications in combustion and biotechnology, motivate studies into microscale gas breakdown to enable safe system design and implementation. Breakdown at microscale deviates from that predicted by Paschen’s law due to field emission—the stripping of electrons from the cathode in the presence of strong surface field—and follows the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) law. As injected current increases at this length scale, electrons accumulate in the gap and FN electron emission becomes space charge limited, leading to the Child-Langmuir (CL) law at vacuum and the Mott-Gurney (MG) law at high ...


A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean 2018 Purdue University

A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Increases in the spread of nuclear technology and the rise of non-state terrorism in the modern era has proved the need for effective security approaches to new nuclear facilities. Many documents about security approaches for nuclear plants are non-public material, however, making it difficult to teach others about the basics of security design. To alleviate this issue, we used available texts in the security realm to design a security approach for the Generation IV International Forum’s Example Sodium Fast Reactor. Our approach utilized infrared, microwave, fiber optic, and other advanced technologies to provide security for the special nuclear material ...


Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio 2018 University of New Mexico

Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a Generation IV advanced reactor design that has potential to produce efficient, low carbon, and safe energy. But, there are significant engineering challenges that need to be addressed before the deployment of this reactor. One of the key challenges is tritium release mitigation and sequestration. Because the FHR utilizes a eutectic LiF-BeF2 (flibe) salt as a coolant, the coolant is a significant source of tritium.

High-power ultrasonics have been used in many industrial process streams such as food processing, metal production, chemical production, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Techniques and concepts from these ...


Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam 2018 University of Ibn Tofail

Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute (SNRI) data book was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2013. The hypothetical facility data book describes the hypothetical site, which is divided into two areas: the low-security area, known as the administrative area, and the very high-security area, known as the protected area. The book contains detailed descriptions of each area’s safety and security measures, along with figures of multiple buildings in both areas, and also includes information about the site’s computer networks.

This paper aims to identify security weaknesses related to the institute’s location, the Administrative Area ...


Actinium-225 Production Via Different Irradiation Beams Of Thorium-232, Naser Burahmah 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Actinium-225 Production Via Different Irradiation Beams Of Thorium-232, Naser Burahmah

Nuclear Engineering Reports

No abstract provided.


Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination Of Nuclear Power Plant Cable For Aging Management Programs, S. W. Glass, L. S. Fifield, Nicola Bowler, Aishwarya Sriraman, W. C. Palmer 2018 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination Of Nuclear Power Plant Cable For Aging Management Programs, S. W. Glass, L. S. Fifield, Nicola Bowler, Aishwarya Sriraman, W. C. Palmer

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of non-destructive test methods focusing on local cable insulation and jacket testing using an interdigital capacitance (IDC) approach. Earlier studies have assessed a number of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods for bulk, distributed, and local cable tests. A typical test strategy is to perform bulk assessments of the cable response using dielectric spectroscopy, Tan , or partial discharge followed by distributed tests like time domain reflectometry or frequency domain reflectometry to identify the most likely defect location followed by a local test that can include visual inspection, indenter ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Hydrogen Diffusion And Retention Behavior Near Sub-Surface Defects In Tungsten: Towards Predicting Tritium Retention In The Iter Divertor, Emily Nicole Hutchins 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Hydrogen Diffusion And Retention Behavior Near Sub-Surface Defects In Tungsten: Towards Predicting Tritium Retention In The Iter Divertor, Emily Nicole Hutchins

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of hydrogen diffusion and retention behavior near subsurface defects in tungsten: Towards predicting tritium retention in the ITER divertor

Plasma-facing components within fusion reactors will be exposed to massive particle and thermal loads, which will pose serious material challenges. The plasma-facing component of interest in this project is the divertor, a device that allows for the online removal of the helium reaction product from the deuterium – tritium plasma. The ITER divertor will be constructed from tungsten, which is also a prime candidate for use in future demonstration fusion reactors, because of its superior mechanical properties and low ...


X-Means Clustering Implementing The Gap Statistic For Multiple Positron Emission Particle Tracking, Matthew Herald 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

X-Means Clustering Implementing The Gap Statistic For Multiple Positron Emission Particle Tracking, Matthew Herald

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The most efficient and accurate method for clustering Coincidence Lines (CL) for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is undetermined. A number of methods have been created to perform this task. A novel clustering method featuring x-means is presented using an automated k-value estimator for k-means clustering. Gap statistic is used to select the best k-value. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission is used to simulate particles of 50 µCi and the detection and electronic chain associated with the Siemens Inveon Pre-Clinical Scanner. The simulation produces an array of coincident lines (CL) in a format consistent with scanner output. The CL are ...


Irradiation Experiment For Living Insect-Based Radiological Dispersal Device, Braden Goddard, Walid Metwally, Ahmad Ababneh 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Irradiation Experiment For Living Insect-Based Radiological Dispersal Device, Braden Goddard, Walid Metwally, Ahmad Ababneh

International Journal of Nuclear Security

People generally associate fear with “nuclear”, “radioactive” and “insects”. It is speculated that a release of radioactive living insects would instill more fear into the general public than a “traditional” style radiological dispersion device (RDD). This paper evaluates the potential threat of an insect-based RDD using experimental data. The results of this project found that insect-based RDDs are an insignificant threat due to the challenges in making insects radioactive enough to pose any danger to humans without killing the insects.


Scintillator-Based Uav, Austin Mullen, Chris Haseler, Sarah Davis, Brooke McMurrer, Tanner Jefferies, Peyton Lara 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Scintillator-Based Uav, Austin Mullen, Chris Haseler, Sarah Davis, Brooke Mcmurrer, Tanner Jefferies, Peyton Lara

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez 2018 Doctoral Student, Nuclear Engineering

Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

This work describes the development of radiation detection systems to identify and image special nuclear material (SNM) using low energy gamma rays. The imaging of these materials is crucial for timely, in the field responses to potential threats to national security. Using a spectroscopy system, the sources can be identified while images can be produced concurrently for the sources which are present. Two systems were designed and characterized in this study, a collimated imager which used collimation in front of a small CdTe detector, and a pixelated pinhole imager, using a pinhole mask in front of a pixelated CZT detector ...


Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo 2018 Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear energy’s distinctive characteristics give rise to special educational requirements. These requirements are necessary to not only address the danger of nuclear proliferation, but also to build capacity for a secure nuclear fuel circle. In this paper, I assess the status of educational capacity in nuclear security both in response to, and in support of, Kenya’s nuclear power program. I highlight the nuclear security educational infrastructure’s key features in the context of nuclear power, noting the low capacity at Kenyan universities. I identify the steps required to ensure that the country’s dynamic nuclear regulatory infrastructural framework ...


An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano de Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter 2018 The University of New Mexico, Sandia National Laboratories

An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Modern ultraviolet (UV) cameras, when combined with UV-transmitting lenses/filter arrangements, can be used to detect radiation dose in air. Ionizing radiation excites nitrogen molecules in ambient air, the resulting decay includes weak emission of ultraviolet photons. Previous work has proven this phenomenon is detectable using highly-sensitive electronically cooled cameras traditionally used in astronomy for low-background imaging. While the ability to detect the presence of radiation (i.e. qualitative measurement) has been demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories, there are several challenges in correlating images to known dose-fields (quantitative measurement). These challenges include: a low signal to background ratio, interferences due ...


Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Due to an increase in regulatory scrutiny and medical facility accreditation requirements to monitor patient radiation dose from diagnostic imaging procedures, there is a growing necessity to determine and record accurate patient radiation dose from diagnostic medical imaging procedures. Current methods of patient dosimetry in diagnostic imaging are both extremely difficult and time consuming, require large computing resources (such as Monte Carlo computations), or lack accuracy due to using data based on homogeneous materials and “standard-man sized” anthropomorphic models.

This dissertation provides an algorithm that calculates a more accurate dose using patient-specific projection radiographic images. The algorithm includes measurements acquired ...


Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere 2018 University of New Mexico

Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Traditional nuclear material accountancy (NMA) faces several challenges when applied to pyroprocessing facilities. To address these challenges, alternative methods of safeguarding nuclear material are being developed. One method is process monitoring (PM). PM involves taking operational process data and applying it to safeguards using an advanced framework. Signature Based Safeguards (SBS), a proposed PM framework, involves the identification of anomalous scenarios and the subsequent identification and detection of their respective PM signatures from a system of measurements. SBS has previously focused on failure modes that result in transfer of mass to unexpected places in the mass flowsheet. This work developed ...


The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska 2018 NEREC Research Fellow

The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska

International Journal of Nuclear Security

There is no doubt that the NPT regime is far from being equal for all states involved. As the predominant hegemonic power since WWII, the United States plays a major role in deciding the fates of non-great power proliferators. This article tries to find the logical explanation of the phenomenon whereby some nuclear proliferators are absolved regardless of their active accumulation of nuclear arsenals while others are labeled as “rogue states” and ordered to disarm. The article suggests that a particular proliferator’s political regime could affect the way in which its state is approached by the U.S., known ...


A Cfd Assisted Closed-Loop Control System Design For The 37-Element Canadian Scwr Under Full Load Condition, Huirui Han 2018 The University of Western Ontario

A Cfd Assisted Closed-Loop Control System Design For The 37-Element Canadian Scwr Under Full Load Condition, Huirui Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A method to design the closed-loop control system for the 37-element vertical Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) fuel bundle has been proposed in this study. The dynamic models used in the controller design are obtained based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the supercritical water in the SCWR fuel bundle. The Reynolds Stress Model is used in the CFD simulations. Comparisons of the supercritical water flow behaviors and heat transfer phenomenon in the single- rod channel and multi-rod channel are also carried out. The results show that there are secondary flows ...


Experimental Evaluation Of Uranyl Transport Into Mesoporous Silica Gel Using Fluorescence, Brandon M. Dodd 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Experimental Evaluation Of Uranyl Transport Into Mesoporous Silica Gel Using Fluorescence, Brandon M. Dodd

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated parameters that can affect the use of nanoporous silica gel as a media for accumulating a detectable amount of uranium. The unique fluorescence of the Uranyl (UO22+) ion was used to evaluate the transport kinetics and accumulation within silica gel in a static fluid and under pressure driven flow. The addition of fluid flow decreased the time constant from on the order of an hour to approximately 2s with a very low fluid velocity of 0.36cm/s. The 0.36cm/s fluid velocity was found to be the critical velocity above which there was ...


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