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Perspectives For Low-Carbon Electricity Production Until 2030: Lessons Learned From The Comparison Of Local Contexts In Poland And Portugal, Wojciech Budzianowski, Joao Gomes 2015 Wroclaw University of Technology

Perspectives For Low-Carbon Electricity Production Until 2030: Lessons Learned From The Comparison Of Local Contexts In Poland And Portugal, Wojciech Budzianowski, Joao Gomes

Wojciech Budzianowski

This paper compares perspectives for low-carbon electricity production in two EU member states - Poland and Portugal until 2030. Electricity production capacities, carbon emissions of electricity production, and production cost of electricity (COE) of Poland and Portugal are analyzed. The dilemmas of investments into low-carbon electricity production technologies relying on: (i) renewable energy sources (RES), (ii) nuclear fuel, and (iii) fossil fuels integrated with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are discussed. Roadmap 2050 recommends about 40% decarbonization of electricity generation by 2030 and 100% by 2050. Based on electricity production mix forecast for 2030 carbon emissions of electricity are estimated at ...


Ion Irradiation Characterization Studies Of Max Phase Ceramics, Daniel William Clark 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ion Irradiation Characterization Studies Of Max Phase Ceramics, Daniel William Clark

Masters Theses

The family of layered carbides and nitrides known as MAX phase ceramics combine many attractive properties of both ceramics and metals due to their nanolaminate crystal structure and are promising potential candidates for application in future nuclear reactors. This thesis reports on the background, design, and analysis of an experiment focused on determining the effects of energetic heavy ion irradiations on polycrystalline samples of titanium silicon carbide 312, titanium aluminum carbide 312, and titanium aluminum carbide 211. The irradiation conditions consisted of ion doses between 10 and 30 displacements per atom at temperatures of 400 and 700 degrees Celsius, conditions ...


Kinetic And Thermodynamic Modeling Of Long Term Phase Stability In Alloy 800h Subjected To Lwr Core Conditions, Wayne Ethan Pratt 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kinetic And Thermodynamic Modeling Of Long Term Phase Stability In Alloy 800h Subjected To Lwr Core Conditions, Wayne Ethan Pratt

Masters Theses

An in depth literature review of Incoloy Alloy 800H was conducted and presented to summarize the current understanding of microstructural evolution under irradiation and secondary phase precipitate stability. Due to a lack of radiation induced segregation (RIS) data for Alloy 800H, Isopleth sections varying Cr, Ni, Ti, and Si were generated from a computational thermodynamics approach using ThermoCalc and analyzed to compensate for knowledge related to radiation induced precipitates (RIP’s). These isopleths were analyzed for a composition range based off previous knowledge of RIS tendencies in austenitic stainless steels. Analysis of four major binary phase diagrams and complex phase ...


Quantification Of Fast-Neutron Sources With Coded Aperture Imaging, Timothy Donald Jackson 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Quantification Of Fast-Neutron Sources With Coded Aperture Imaging, Timothy Donald Jackson

Doctoral Dissertations

Quantification of the mass of plutonium in facilities that process plutonium is important for both nuclear safeguards concerns and safety concerns, and multiple methods to nondestructively quantify plutonium sample characteristics have been proposed, particularly when the sample is located directly adjacent to or within the measurement device. In prior work, coded-aperture fast neutron imaging has been developed to demonstrate the imaging of neutron emitting radiation sources in a qualitative fashion, where the sources may be located meters to tens of meters away. Building upon prior work, this work develops the use of a Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) reconstruction technique ...


Ion Irradiation-Induced Microstructural Change In Sic, Chien-Hung Chen 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ion Irradiation-Induced Microstructural Change In Sic, Chien-Hung Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The high temperature radiation resistance of nuclear materials has become a key issue in developing future nuclear reactors. Because of its mechanical stability under high-energy neutron irradiation and high temperature, silicon carbide (SiC) has great potential as a structural material in advanced nuclear energy systems.

A newly developed nano-engineered (NE) 3C SiC with a nano-layered stacking fault (SFs) structure has been recently considered as a prospective choice due to enhanced point defect annihilation between layer-type structures, leading to outstanding radiation durability.

The objective of this project was to advance the understanding of gas bubble formation mechanisms under irradiation conditions in ...


Methodology For Generating Simplified Cross Section Data Sets For Neutron Transport Calculations, Thomas Jay Harrison 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Methodology For Generating Simplified Cross Section Data Sets For Neutron Transport Calculations, Thomas Jay Harrison

Doctoral Dissertations

Neutron shielding problems involve radiation transport calculations over a wide range of energies. Fission neutrons have initial energy on the order of MeV, fusion neutrons have initial energy on the order of 10s of MeV, and space-origin neutrons have initial energy on the order of 100s of MeV or higher. Shielding calculations must track the neutrons from their initial energies until they are no longer of interest; for deep-penetration neutrons, this final energy can be on the order of eV before the neutron is no longer tracked. Thus, for deep-penetration space radiation shielding problems, the calculation may require tracking the ...


Rapid Dissolution For Destructive Assay Of Nuclear Melt Glass, Jonathan Allen Gill 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Rapid Dissolution For Destructive Assay Of Nuclear Melt Glass, Jonathan Allen Gill

Masters Theses

This study evaluates four methods for dissolving complex glassy debris resulting from nuclear detonations. The samples of interest simulate the glassy debris generated from a nuclear detonation’s fireball coming in contact with solid masses. Each method attempts to achieve dissolution through different approaches involving either acid digestion, alkaline digestion, or molten salt fusion. Two of the four methods were modified to retain all elements of the debris or surrogate debris. This retention is critical to the proportional relationships used in identifying fuel types and designs of nuclear weapons. Analysis is conducted with an inductively coupled time of flight mass ...


Modeling And Simulation Of A Prototypical Advanced Reactor, Xiaotong Liu 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Modeling And Simulation Of A Prototypical Advanced Reactor, Xiaotong Liu

Masters Theses

Current online risk monitors provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, environmental conditions). However, these risk monitors do not account for plant- specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. The lack of operating experience with proposed advanced reactor designs limits our ability to estimate the probability of failure (POF) of key components. Incorporation of unit-specific estimates of POF into dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has the potential to enable real-time decisions about stress relief and to support effective maintenance planning while ensuring investment protection ...


Study Of Secondary Particles Produced From Heavy-Ion Interactions, Pi-En Tsai 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Study Of Secondary Particles Produced From Heavy-Ion Interactions, Pi-En Tsai

Doctoral Dissertations

The study of secondary particles produced from heavy-ion interactions is important in heavy ion radiotherapy, space radiation protection, and shielding at accelerator facilities. This dissertation focuses on the study of secondary neutron production as they are of special concern among all secondary particles.

The first part of this dissertation is the measurement of secondary neutrons created from 4He [helium] stopped in various target materials together with the model calculations accomplished by PHITS, FLUKA, and MCNP transport codes. The comparison results show that the physics models need improvements particularly in the predictions of 1) neutrons created from the 4He ...


Development And Characterization Of A Directional Radiation Detection System Using A Fuzzy Logic Algorithm, Michael Joseph Willis 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Development And Characterization Of A Directional Radiation Detection System Using A Fuzzy Logic Algorithm, Michael Joseph Willis

Doctoral Dissertations

Traditional radiation detection equipment consists of various types of devices that are capable of determining the presence of radioactive sources in the vicinity of the detection unit. Use of these systems typically consists of survey and search methods that employ broad area sweeps to narrow down the location of a radioactive source. Although these methods are effective, they are typically inefficient and lack the ability to produce a directional bearing of the source relative to the measurement location. More efficient methods that provide relative direction information for detected sources would facilitate a more timely response to a potential radiological threat ...


Effect Of Nano-Oxide Particle Size On Radiation Resistance Of Ironechromium Alloys, Weizong Xu, Lulu Li, James A. Valdez, Mostafa Saber, Yuntian Zhu, Carl C. Koch, Ronald O. Scattergood 2015 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Effect Of Nano-Oxide Particle Size On Radiation Resistance Of Ironechromium Alloys, Weizong Xu, Lulu Li, James A. Valdez, Mostafa Saber, Yuntian Zhu, Carl C. Koch, Ronald O. Scattergood

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Radiation resistance of Fe-14Cr alloys under 200 keV He irradiation at 500 ­*C was systematically investigated with varying sizes of nano oxide Zr, Hf and Cr particles. It is found that these nano oxide particles acted as effective sites for He bubble formation. By statistically analyzing 700-1500 He bubbles at the depth of about 150-700 nm from a series of HRTEM images for each sample, we established the variation of average He bubble size, He bubble density, and swelling percentage along the depth, and found them to be consistent with the He concentration profile calculated from the SIRM program. Oxide ...


Thermal Kinetics Of Ion Irradiation Hardening In Selected Alloys For The Canadian Gen. Iv Nuclear Reactor Concept, Heygaan Rajakumar 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Thermal Kinetics Of Ion Irradiation Hardening In Selected Alloys For The Canadian Gen. Iv Nuclear Reactor Concept, Heygaan Rajakumar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canada is designing supercritical water fission reactors (SCWR) to increase the thermal efficiency of nuclear power generation from ~34% to ~48%. The temperature and pressure of a supercritical water reactor core is very high compared to a CANDU reactor. This thesis examines irradiation hardening and thermal recovery of two candidate alloys, AISI 310 and Inconel 800H, for the Canadian SCWR.

Samples of both alloys are mechanically ground and polished, then irradiated using 8.0 MeV Fe ions. The use of ion irradiation safely and quickly simulates neutron damage. The change in the hardness of the samples is then studied during ...


Quantum Modeling Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Warm Dense Aluminum, Nicholas Termini, Gennady Miloshesky, Ahmed Hassanein 2015 Purdue University

Quantum Modeling Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Warm Dense Aluminum, Nicholas Termini, Gennady Miloshesky, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Warm dense matter is attracting a lot of attention in the scientific community, due to its formation during intense laser-matter interaction and inertial confinement fusion. However, there is no accurate solution to mapping out the thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter. Experimental data are also incredibly scarce making computational models an incredibly useful tool. This paper provides equation of state (EOS) data for aluminum at specific densities within the warm dense matter regime. The EOS data were calculated using quantum molecular dynamics, which was performed by the computational package QuatumEspresso. EOS were determined by collecting and recording pressure after achieving ...


Effect Of Carbon Impurity On Molybdenum Nanostructure Evolution Under Helium Ion Irradiation In Extreme Conditions, Nikhil A. Bharadwaj, Jitendra Tripathi, Ahmed Hassanein, Sean Gonderman 2015 Purdue University

Effect Of Carbon Impurity On Molybdenum Nanostructure Evolution Under Helium Ion Irradiation In Extreme Conditions, Nikhil A. Bharadwaj, Jitendra Tripathi, Ahmed Hassanein, Sean Gonderman

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The performance of plasma facing components (PFC) is of great important for the realization of prototype nuclear fusion. Tungsten has been considered as the leading high-Z PFC material for these reactors and tokamaks due to its superior thermophysical properties, high melting point, low sputtering yield, and low tritium inventory. However, its surface deteriorates significantly under helium ion irradiation in extreme (fusion) conditions and forms nanoscopic fiber like structures (fuzz) Recent studies show that the formation of fuzz nanostructure on tungsten can be suppressed by the presence of plasma impurities such as carbon and beryllium. In the present study, the effects ...


Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield II, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner 2015 Purdue University

Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield Ii, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is a growing need for economical, effective, and safe methods of sterilizing fresh produce. The most common method is a chlorine wash, which is expensive and may introduce carcinogens. High voltage cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising solution that has demonstrated a germicidal effect; however, the responsible chemical mechanisms and reaction pathways are not fully understood. To elucidate this chemistry, we used optical emission spectroscopy to measure the species produced in the plasma generated by a 60 Hz pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in a plastic box containing various fill gases (He, N2, CO2, dry air, or ...


Graphene Field Effect Transistor For Radiation Detection On A Micron To Millimeter Scale, Peter C. Lamm, Robert Speer Bean, Zachary Shollar 2015 Purdue University

Graphene Field Effect Transistor For Radiation Detection On A Micron To Millimeter Scale, Peter C. Lamm, Robert Speer Bean, Zachary Shollar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Novel technology in radiation detection is critical to advancing radiation detectors for their many applications. Graphene has shown to be able to change its conductivity in the presence of an electric field; this makes it an excellent candidate to be used as a radiation detector for the detection of the charges generated during radiation interactions. Research has been done on making micron scale graphene field effect transistors (GFET) with graphene on a Si/SiO2 wafer, but it is critical that we try to increase the scale. Unknowns persist in scaling graphene to millimeter sizes. This study plans to elucidate ...


Exploring The Effect Of Sample Properties On Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Michael J. Marino, Payson Dieffenbach, Liesl A. Krause, Prasoon Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein 2015 Purdue University

Exploring The Effect Of Sample Properties On Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Michael J. Marino, Payson Dieffenbach, Liesl A. Krause, Prasoon Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Optical emission spectroscopy techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) provide portable and robust methods for elemental detection in real-time. Laser-produced emissions are then used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of a sample material with applications in explosives detection. For both techniques, the main obstacles have always been signal intensity, accuracy, and sensitivity of detection. The main advantage of the SIBS method is more safe operation, while still maintaining the portability of the technique. In this study, detailed characterization of spark induced plasma, analyte emission intensity, plasma temperature, electron density, and plasma persistence has been ...


Effect Of Helium Ions Energy On Molybdenum Surfaces Under Extreme Conditions, Joseph Fiala, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sean Gonderman, Ahmed Hassanein 2015 Purdue University

Effect Of Helium Ions Energy On Molybdenum Surfaces Under Extreme Conditions, Joseph Fiala, Jitendra K. Tripathi, Sean Gonderman, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Plasma facing components (PFCs) in fusion devices must be able to withstand high temperatures and erosion due to incident energetic ion radiations. Tungsten has become the material of choice for PFCs due to its high strength, thermal conductivity, and low erosion rate. However, its surface deteriorates significantly under helium ion irradiation in fusion-like conditions and forms nanoscopic fiber-like structures, or fuzz. Fuzz is brittle in nature and has relatively lower thermal conductivity than that of the bulk material. Small amounts of fuzz may lead to excessive contamination of the plasma, preventing the fusion reaction from taking place. Despite recent efforts ...


Temperature Dependence Of Electrical Performance Of Tritium Sourced Betavoltaic Cells, Darrell S. Cheu, Tom Adams, Shripad Revankar 2015 Purdue University

Temperature Dependence Of Electrical Performance Of Tritium Sourced Betavoltaic Cells, Darrell S. Cheu, Tom Adams, Shripad Revankar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is an increasing need for devices that can be powered for extended periods of time where it is impossible for maintenance or replacement, such as pacemakers, long term space flight or undisturbed sensors for military use. Since 1971, most devices run off a Lithium-Iodide battery, which gives a high amount of power but could only last approximately 2 to 5 years, requiring frequent replacement. However, replacement is unnecessary for betavoltaic cells as they can last at least 20 years. Commercially available tritium betavoltaic cells provided by City Labs Inc. were tested at a temperature range of -50°C to ...


Cold Atmospheric Plasma: An Inside Look Through Optical Diagnostics For Biomedical Applications, Liesl Krause, Ahmed Hassanein, Prasoon Diwakar 2015 Villanova University

Cold Atmospheric Plasma: An Inside Look Through Optical Diagnostics For Biomedical Applications, Liesl Krause, Ahmed Hassanein, Prasoon Diwakar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

An emerging technology for medical applications is cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). CAP is generated using various gasses in a “pen” to create room temperature plasma and then carry the effluents and species. Success has been shown when cold atmospheric plasma is applied to oncology treatments, accelerated wound healing, pathogen disinfection, and various material-changing effects. However, the mechanisms behind these effects are still speculative. This study uses multiple diagnostic techniques including fast photography, two wavelength emission spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy to characterize the plasma properties and eventually further test the plasma’s interaction with biological samples. The plume dynamics are ...


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