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Characterization Of Lithium-6 As A Commercial Helium-3 Alternative For Nuclear Safeguards And Security, Alexander Martin Okowita 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Characterization Of Lithium-6 As A Commercial Helium-3 Alternative For Nuclear Safeguards And Security, Alexander Martin Okowita

Masters Theses

Helium-3 detectors are efficient, reliable neutron detectors, but their high demand has reduced their supply to a very miniscule level, making them very expensive. The goal of this project is to test and evaluate an alternative produced by industry. Current testing is being done with a Lithium Zinc Sulfide (6LiF:ZnS(Ag)) detector from Aspect used in their portal monitors.

There are three basic requirements for neutron detectors used in nuclear safeguards and security: 1) high absolute detection efficiency, 2) maintaining neutron detection efficiency when simultaneously exposed to a high gamma ray exposure rate, and 3) the ability to ...


A Sensor For Oxygen In A Potassium-Sodium Alloy, Michael George Pastis 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Sensor For Oxygen In A Potassium-Sodium Alloy, Michael George Pastis

Masters Theses

This project supports a research project to determine the configuration for heat exchanger welds in a space reactor. The reactor is a sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled reactor for use on future missions on the lunar surface or on Mars. Various types of welds in Type 316L stainless steel have been positioned in a furnace which is part of a NaK test loop. The specimens are bathed in circulating NaK at 600 degrees centigrade.

Since the oxygen concentration in the NaK is a major factor in corrosion of the weld specimens, it must be carefully monitored and controlled. However, few techniques are ...


Modeling Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Using The Method Of Characteristics, Erik Daniel Walker 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Modeling Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Using The Method Of Characteristics, Erik Daniel Walker

Masters Theses

Modern core designs that utilize Westinghouse fuel technology employ the use of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers (IFBA) that consists of very thin coatings of boron absorber material on the fuel pellets. While IFBA has proven to be an effective burnable absorber, it does present a neutronics modeling challenge. The difficulty of modeling IFBA using the Method of Characteristics (MOC) transport method is well known, and arises from the fact that IFBA is a very small, but also very important, region in nuclear fuel. Experience in modeling IFBA at the pin cell and single assembly lattice level requires a decrease in ...


A Study Of Energy Resolution And Non-Proportionality Of Yalo3:Ce And Gd3ga3al2o12:Ce, Samuel Bradley Donnald 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Study Of Energy Resolution And Non-Proportionality Of Yalo3:Ce And Gd3ga3al2o12:Ce, Samuel Bradley Donnald

Doctoral Dissertations

For many radiation detection applications, energy resolution is one of the most important detector characteristics. In well designed scintillation detectors, the energy resolution is primarily driven by two main factors - the light output and light yield non-proportionality. A great deal of research has already focused on understanding and improving the light yield of scintillation detectors; however, light yield non-proportionality is less well understood. Until recently, light yield non-proportionality was thought to be an intrinsic scintillator property with very little sample-to-sample variation. In this work, two materials have been investigated that demonstrate a variable light yield non-proportionality. The first material investigated ...


Automated Doppler Broadening Of Cross Sections For Neutron Transport Applications, Shane William Daniel Hart 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Automated Doppler Broadening Of Cross Sections For Neutron Transport Applications, Shane William Daniel Hart

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation discusses the research and development of new cross section temperature handling techniques for the SCALE computer code, which is developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In particular, methods will be added to the KENO Monte Carlo code.

Areas of interest include: neutron scattering off of heavy isotopes in the epithermal energy range, implementation of Doppler pre-broadening of continuous energy one-dimensional cross-section data, implementation of interpolation on the continuous energy two-dimensional cross sections, and implementation of the direct S(A,B) [S alpha beta] method for thermal neutron scattering and interpolation on that data.

Accurate cross section ...


Thermodynamic Modeling Of Uranium And Oxygen Containing Ternary Systems With Gadolinium, Lanthanum, And Thorium, Jacob Wesley McMurray 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Thermodynamic Modeling Of Uranium And Oxygen Containing Ternary Systems With Gadolinium, Lanthanum, And Thorium, Jacob Wesley Mcmurray

Doctoral Dissertations

The CALPHAD method is used to assess the thermodynamic properties and phase relations in the U-M-O system where M = Gd, La, and Th. A compound energy formalism (CEF) model for fluorite UO2±x [urania] is extended to represent the complex U1-yMyO2±x [urania solid solution] phases. The lattice stabilities for fictive GdO2 [gadolinia] and LaO2 [lanthana] fluorite structure compounds are calculated from density functional theory (DFT) for use in the CEF for U1-yMyO2±x [urania solid solution phase] while U6+ [uranium 6 plus cation] is introduced ...


Developing Professional Skills In Stem Students: Data Information Literacy, Megan R. Sapp Nelson, Lisa Zilinski, Amy S. Van Epps 2014 Purdue University

Developing Professional Skills In Stem Students: Data Information Literacy, Megan R. Sapp Nelson, Lisa Zilinski, Amy S. Van Epps

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Undergraduate STEM students are increasingly expected to have some data use skills upon graduation, whether they pursue post-graduate education or move into industry. This project was an initial foray into the application of data information literacy competencies to training undergraduate students to identify markers of data and information quality. The data consumer training appeared within two courses to help students evaluate data objects, including databases and datasets available on the Internet. The application of the Data Credibility Checklist provides a foundation for developing data reuse competencies. Based upon the initial presentation of the content, it became obvious that students need ...


Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken 2014 Leuphana University Lüneburg

Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken

communication +1

This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and 'critical' technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of
"hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering ...


Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D. 2014 Purdue University

Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a portable, remote, non-invasive analytical technique which effectively distinguishes neutral and ionic species for a range of low- to high-Z elements in a multi-element target. Subsequently, LIBS holds potential in special nuclear material (SNM) sensing and nuclear forensics requiring minimal sample preparation and detecting isotopic shifts which allows for differentiation in SNM (namely U) enrichment levels. Feasible applications include not only nonproliferation and homeland security but also nuclear fuel prospecting and industrial safeguard endorsement. Elements of higher mass with complex atomic structures, such as U, however, result in crowded emission spectra with LIBS, and characteristic ...


Double-Pulse Nd:Yag-Co2 Libs Excitation For Bulk And Trace Analytes, Jason R. Becker, Patrick Skrodzki, Prasoon Diwakar, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein 2014 Purdue University

Double-Pulse Nd:Yag-Co2 Libs Excitation For Bulk And Trace Analytes, Jason R. Becker, Patrick Skrodzki, Prasoon Diwakar, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy [LIBS] is a commonly used technique for multi-element analyses for various applications such as space exploration, nuclear forensics, environmental analysis, process monitoring. The advantages of the LIBS technique include robustness, ease of use, field portability, and real-time, non-invasive multi-element analyses. However, in comparison to other lab based analytical techniques, it suffers from low precision and low sensitivity. In order to overcome these drawbacks, various approaches have been used, including double-pulse LIBS [DPLIBS]. Typically, various wavelength combinations of two Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet [YAG] lasers have been used for DPLIBS. However, the use of long wavelength (CO2 ...


Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat 2014 Purdue University

Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Neutrons are commonly used for many applications, including active interrogation and cancer therapy. One critical aspect for active interrogation efficiency is neutron yield, which is more important for successful resolution than the energy spectrum. The typical approach for improving neutron yield entails producing more neutrons, which has motivated multiple studies using the interaction of increasingly more powerful tabletop lasers with plastic targets to generate protons or deuterons that are absorbed by another target to create neutrons [1]. Alternatively, one may use lenses to focus the neutrons to increase yield rather than simply generating more neutrons with more powerful lasers [2 ...


Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan 2014 Purdue University

Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Degradation of the biopolymer Polylactic Acid, both thermally and through irradiation will cause physical changes in the material. These changes can be used in applications such as adhesives and sealants or in medical applications, but the primary focus of this study is for use as a solid-state radiation detector. A literature review shows that current research has been focused on thermal and γ-photon degradation in PLA but the physical characteristics such as melting temperature, latent heat of fusion, and composition of molecular bonds have not been compared in the same study. This study focuses on how thermal properties of PLA ...


He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein 2014 Purdue University

He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Higher melting point (3695K), lower sputtering yield and most importantly, lower in-bulk, and co-deposit retention at elevated temperature makes tungsten (W) as a potential candidate for plasma-facing component (PFC) in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-divertor. Helium ion (He+) bombardment on W can cause wide variety of microstructural evolution, such as dislocation loops, helium holes/bubbles and fibre-form nanostructures (Fuzz) etc. In this work, 100 eV He+ ion irradiation, at temperature ranges from 500°C to 1000°C, will be performed on mechanically polished mirror like W surfaces. The surface modification and compositional analysis, due to ion irradiation, will ...


Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner 2014 Purdue University

Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of high-performance radiation detectors is essential for commercial, scientific, and security applications [1]. Due to the unique electronic properties of graphene (high-speed, low-noise), recent radiation detectors utilize graphene field effect transistors to sense charge carriers produced by radiation interactions in a gated semiconductor [2]. A study of the energy deposition due to the transport of gamma rays and electrons/positrons through typical elemental and compound semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs, and CdTe) will allow for a material optimization of these detectors. Geant4, a Monte Carlo based program that simulates the passage of particles through matter, was used to simulate ...


Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani 2014 Purdue University

Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The safe and continued operation of the US nuclear power plants requires improvement of the radiation resistant properties of materials used in nuclear reactors. Zirconium is a material of particular interest due to its use in fuel cladding. Studies performed on other materials have shown that grain boundaries can play a significant role on the radiation resistant properties of a material. Thus, the focus of our research is to investigate the performance of different zirconium microstructures under irradiation conditions similar to those in commercial nuclear reactors. Analysis of the surface morphology of zirconium both pre- and post-irradiation was conducted with ...


Thick Target Yield Of Th-229 Via Low Energy Proton Bombardment Of Th-232, Justin Reed Griswold 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Thick Target Yield Of Th-229 Via Low Energy Proton Bombardment Of Th-232, Justin Reed Griswold

Masters Theses

Actinium-225 is one of the more effective radioisotopes used in alpha radioimmunotherapy. Due to its ten-day half-life, it is more efficient to create its precursor, 229Th [Thorium-229] (t1/2[half-life] = 7932 ± 55 years). In this work, 229Th was produced via 40 MeV [Mega electron Volts] proton bombardment of a thick 232Th [Thorium-232] target. The irradiation took place at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The target, consisting of 23 stacked natural thorium foils (137 mg/cm2 [milligrams per square centimeter] each), was irradiated with 50 nA [nanoamps] of ...


Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) For Positron Emission Particle Tracking (Pept) And Turbulence Modeling Validation, Sarah Ridley Rupert 2014 Nuclear Engineering

Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) For Positron Emission Particle Tracking (Pept) And Turbulence Modeling Validation, Sarah Ridley Rupert

Masters Theses

A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment is designed and data collected with intention to validate Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) methods. The PIV data are collected in a narrow rectangular channel for flow Reynolds number near 20,000. The narrow channel and attendant pump, header tanks and flow instrumentation are portable and designed to allow identical tests in a Concord Microsystems MicroPET P4 pre-clinical PET scanner at the pre-clinical Imaging Suite at the UT Hospital. The PIV data are instantaneous velocity field data, allowing statistics on the flow turbulence to be collected in the Eulerian frame. The PEPT method measures ...


Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz

Masters Theses

Boron carbide thin films were grown on the (100) plane of n-type silicon in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system from the thermal decomposition of boron trichloride and methane reactant gases with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Boron trichloride to methane molar ratio was 5, while the boron trichloride to hydrogen molar ratio was 3.5. Thin film deposition was carried out at 900 degrees Celsius at 25 Torr. The thin films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and current-voltage characteristics. The crystallography ...


Verification Of The Shift Monte Carlo Code Using The C5g7 And Casl Benchmark Problems, Nicholas Cameron Sly 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Verification Of The Shift Monte Carlo Code Using The C5g7 And Casl Benchmark Problems, Nicholas Cameron Sly

Masters Theses

While Monte Carlo simulation has been recognized as a powerful numerical method for use in radiation transport, it has required a mixture of methods development and hardware advancement to meet these expectations in practical applications. In an effort to continue this advancement for uses of Monte Carlo simulation in ever larger capacities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing the Shift hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo code to be massively-parallel for use on parallel computing systems of all sizes. As part of this development, verification of the Monte Carlo parts of the code is needed to confirm that the current version of ...


Development Of A Fluka-Based Lookup Tool For Rapid Analysis Of Radiation Exposures In Space Environments, John Macdougall Brittingham 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Development Of A Fluka-Based Lookup Tool For Rapid Analysis Of Radiation Exposures In Space Environments, John Macdougall Brittingham

Doctoral Dissertations

Monte Carlo transport codes such as FLUKA provide an accurate and effective method to model the transport of space radiation. However, their use in time-sensitive applications is limited because they do not generate results as quickly as other methods, such as deterministic transport codes. The development of a pre-calculated lookup tool for use in complex space radiation environments allows the calculation of space radiation quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, and fluence using Monte Carlo results with minimal loss of accuracy. In this work, a lookup tool suitable for rapidly estimating radiation exposures is developed using the FLUKA Monte Carlo ...


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