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Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D. 2014 Purdue University

Doube-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Of Multi-Element Sample Containing Low- And High-Z Analytes, Patrick J. Skrodzki, Jason R. Becker, Prasoon K. Diwakar Ph. D., Sivanandan S. Harilal Ph. D., Ahmed Hassanein Ph. D.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a portable, remote, non-invasive analytical technique which effectively distinguishes neutral and ionic species for a range of low- to high-Z elements in a multi-element target. Subsequently, LIBS holds potential in special nuclear material (SNM) sensing and nuclear forensics requiring minimal sample preparation and detecting isotopic shifts which allows for differentiation in SNM (namely U) enrichment levels. Feasible applications include not only nonproliferation and homeland security but also nuclear fuel prospecting and industrial safeguard endorsement. Elements of higher mass with complex atomic structures, such as U, however, result in crowded emission spectra with LIBS, and characteristic ...


Double-Pulse Nd:Yag-Co2 Libs Excitation For Bulk And Trace Analytes, Jason R. Becker, Patrick Skrodzki, Prasoon Diwakar, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein 2014 Purdue University

Double-Pulse Nd:Yag-Co2 Libs Excitation For Bulk And Trace Analytes, Jason R. Becker, Patrick Skrodzki, Prasoon Diwakar, Sivanandan Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy [LIBS] is a commonly used technique for multi-element analyses for various applications such as space exploration, nuclear forensics, environmental analysis, process monitoring. The advantages of the LIBS technique include robustness, ease of use, field portability, and real-time, non-invasive multi-element analyses. However, in comparison to other lab based analytical techniques, it suffers from low precision and low sensitivity. In order to overcome these drawbacks, various approaches have been used, including double-pulse LIBS [DPLIBS]. Typically, various wavelength combinations of two Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet [YAG] lasers have been used for DPLIBS. However, the use of long wavelength (CO2 ...


Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat 2014 Purdue University

Optimizing Neutron Yield For Active Interrogation, Amanda M. Loveless, Allen L. Garner, Robert D. Bean, Nader Satvat

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Neutrons are commonly used for many applications, including active interrogation and cancer therapy. One critical aspect for active interrogation efficiency is neutron yield, which is more important for successful resolution than the energy spectrum. The typical approach for improving neutron yield entails producing more neutrons, which has motivated multiple studies using the interaction of increasingly more powerful tabletop lasers with plastic targets to generate protons or deuterons that are absorbed by another target to create neutrons [1]. Alternatively, one may use lenses to focus the neutrons to increase yield rather than simply generating more neutrons with more powerful lasers [2 ...


Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan 2014 Purdue University

Comparison Of Thermal And Γ-Photon Induced Degradation In Polylactic Acid For Potential As A Solid-State Radiation Detector, Nathan M. Boyle, Alex Bakken, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Degradation of the biopolymer Polylactic Acid, both thermally and through irradiation will cause physical changes in the material. These changes can be used in applications such as adhesives and sealants or in medical applications, but the primary focus of this study is for use as a solid-state radiation detector. A literature review shows that current research has been focused on thermal and γ-photon degradation in PLA but the physical characteristics such as melting temperature, latent heat of fusion, and composition of molecular bonds have not been compared in the same study. This study focuses on how thermal properties of PLA ...


He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein 2014 Purdue University

He+ Ion Irradiation On Tungsten Surface In Extreme Conditions, George I. Joseph, Jitendra Tripathi, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Higher melting point (3695K), lower sputtering yield and most importantly, lower in-bulk, and co-deposit retention at elevated temperature makes tungsten (W) as a potential candidate for plasma-facing component (PFC) in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-divertor. Helium ion (He+) bombardment on W can cause wide variety of microstructural evolution, such as dislocation loops, helium holes/bubbles and fibre-form nanostructures (Fuzz) etc. In this work, 100 eV He+ ion irradiation, at temperature ranges from 500°C to 1000°C, will be performed on mechanically polished mirror like W surfaces. The surface modification and compositional analysis, due to ion irradiation, will ...


Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner 2014 Purdue University

Energy Deposition In A Graphene Field Effect Transistor Based Radiation Detector, Nickolas Upole, Robert Bean, Allen Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of high-performance radiation detectors is essential for commercial, scientific, and security applications [1]. Due to the unique electronic properties of graphene (high-speed, low-noise), recent radiation detectors utilize graphene field effect transistors to sense charge carriers produced by radiation interactions in a gated semiconductor [2]. A study of the energy deposition due to the transport of gamma rays and electrons/positrons through typical elemental and compound semiconductors (Si, Ge, GaAs, and CdTe) will allow for a material optimization of these detectors. Geant4, a Monte Carlo based program that simulates the passage of particles through matter, was used to simulate ...


Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani 2014 Purdue University

Investigation Of The Performance Of Different Types Of Zirconium Microstructures Under Extreme Irradiation Conditions, Eric M. Acosta, Osman J. El-Atwani

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The safe and continued operation of the US nuclear power plants requires improvement of the radiation resistant properties of materials used in nuclear reactors. Zirconium is a material of particular interest due to its use in fuel cladding. Studies performed on other materials have shown that grain boundaries can play a significant role on the radiation resistant properties of a material. Thus, the focus of our research is to investigate the performance of different zirconium microstructures under irradiation conditions similar to those in commercial nuclear reactors. Analysis of the surface morphology of zirconium both pre- and post-irradiation was conducted with ...


Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken

communication +1

This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and 'critical' technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of
"hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering ...


Thick Target Yield Of Th-229 Via Low Energy Proton Bombardment Of Th-232, Justin Reed Griswold 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Thick Target Yield Of Th-229 Via Low Energy Proton Bombardment Of Th-232, Justin Reed Griswold

Masters Theses

Actinium-225 is one of the more effective radioisotopes used in alpha radioimmunotherapy. Due to its ten-day half-life, it is more efficient to create its precursor, 229Th [Thorium-229] (t1/2[half-life] = 7932 ± 55 years). In this work, 229Th was produced via 40 MeV [Mega electron Volts] proton bombardment of a thick 232Th [Thorium-232] target. The irradiation took place at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The target, consisting of 23 stacked natural thorium foils (137 mg/cm2 [milligrams per square centimeter] each), was irradiated with 50 nA [nanoamps] of ...


Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) For Positron Emission Particle Tracking (Pept) And Turbulence Modeling Validation, Sarah Ridley Rupert 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) For Positron Emission Particle Tracking (Pept) And Turbulence Modeling Validation, Sarah Ridley Rupert

Masters Theses

A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment is designed and data collected with intention to validate Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) methods. The PIV data are collected in a narrow rectangular channel for flow Reynolds number near 20,000. The narrow channel and attendant pump, header tanks and flow instrumentation are portable and designed to allow identical tests in a Concord Microsystems MicroPET P4 pre-clinical PET scanner at the pre-clinical Imaging Suite at the UT Hospital. The PIV data are instantaneous velocity field data, allowing statistics on the flow turbulence to be collected in the Eulerian frame. The PEPT method measures ...


Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz

Masters Theses

Boron carbide thin films were grown on the (100) plane of n-type silicon in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system from the thermal decomposition of boron trichloride and methane reactant gases with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Boron trichloride to methane molar ratio was 5, while the boron trichloride to hydrogen molar ratio was 3.5. Thin film deposition was carried out at 900 degrees Celsius at 25 Torr. The thin films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and current-voltage characteristics. The crystallography ...


Time Correlated Measurements Using Plastic Scintillators With Neutron-Photon Pulse Shape Discrimination, Norman Edison Richardson 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Time Correlated Measurements Using Plastic Scintillators With Neutron-Photon Pulse Shape Discrimination, Norman Edison Richardson

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Since the beginning of the nuclear age, there has been a strong demand for the development of efficient technologies for the detection of ionizing radiation. According to the United States' Department of Energy, the accurate assessment of fissile materials is essential in achieving the nonproliferation goals of enhancing safety and security of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy facilities [1]. Nuclear materials can be characterized by the measurement of prompt and delayed neutrons and gamma rays emitted in spontaneous or induced fission reactions [2] and neutrons emitted in fission reactions are the distinctive signatures of nuclear materials. Today, the most ...


Verification Of The Shift Monte Carlo Code Using The C5g7 And Casl Benchmark Problems, Nicholas Cameron Sly 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Verification Of The Shift Monte Carlo Code Using The C5g7 And Casl Benchmark Problems, Nicholas Cameron Sly

Masters Theses

While Monte Carlo simulation has been recognized as a powerful numerical method for use in radiation transport, it has required a mixture of methods development and hardware advancement to meet these expectations in practical applications. In an effort to continue this advancement for uses of Monte Carlo simulation in ever larger capacities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing the Shift hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo code to be massively-parallel for use on parallel computing systems of all sizes. As part of this development, verification of the Monte Carlo parts of the code is needed to confirm that the current version of ...


Development Of A Fluka-Based Lookup Tool For Rapid Analysis Of Radiation Exposures In Space Environments, John Macdougall Brittingham 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of A Fluka-Based Lookup Tool For Rapid Analysis Of Radiation Exposures In Space Environments, John Macdougall Brittingham

Doctoral Dissertations

Monte Carlo transport codes such as FLUKA provide an accurate and effective method to model the transport of space radiation. However, their use in time-sensitive applications is limited because they do not generate results as quickly as other methods, such as deterministic transport codes. The development of a pre-calculated lookup tool for use in complex space radiation environments allows the calculation of space radiation quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, and fluence using Monte Carlo results with minimal loss of accuracy. In this work, a lookup tool suitable for rapidly estimating radiation exposures is developed using the FLUKA Monte Carlo ...


Particle Modeling Of Fuel Plate Melting During Coolant Flow Blockage In Hfir, Hiraku Nakamura 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Particle Modeling Of Fuel Plate Melting During Coolant Flow Blockage In Hfir, Hiraku Nakamura

Doctoral Dissertations

Cooling channel inlet flow blockage has damaged fuel in plate fueled reactors and contributes significantly to the probability of fuel damage based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model for fuel melt from inlet flow blockage for the High Flux Isotope Reactor is created. The model is coded for high throughput graphics processing unit (GPU) calculations. This modeling approach allows movement toward quantification of the uncertainty in fuel coolant flow blockage consequence assessment. The SPH modeling approach is convenient for following movement of fuel and coolant during melt progression and provides a tool for capturing the interactions ...


Multi-Cycle Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization, Keith Everette Ottinger 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Cycle Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization, Keith Everette Ottinger

Doctoral Dissertations

A multi-cycle nuclear fuel cycle optimization code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor OPTimization), has been developed. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the coupled out-of-core and in-core optimization problems. There are two depletion methods used for the in-core optimization: the Haling depletion and a Control Rod Pattern (CRP) search. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant ...


Development Of A Method For Incorporating Fault Codes In Prognostic Analysis, Eric Allen Strong 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of A Method For Incorporating Fault Codes In Prognostic Analysis, Eric Allen Strong

Doctoral Dissertations

Information from fault codes associated with a component may be used as an indicator of its health. A fault code is defined as a timestamp at which a component is not operating according to recommended guidelines. The type of fault codes which are relevant for this analysis represent mild or moderate deviations from normal behavior, rather than those requiring immediate repair. Potentially, fault codes may be used to determine the Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of a component by predicting its failure time, which will improve safety and reduce maintenance costs associated with the component. In this dissertation, methods have been ...


Multidimensional Cfd Modeling Of A Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Heat Transfer Loop, Richard B. Cunningham 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multidimensional Cfd Modeling Of A Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Heat Transfer Loop, Richard B. Cunningham

Masters Theses

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a next generation reactor design proposed by the University of California at Berkeley. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Liquid Salt Test Loop (LSTL) is designed to simulate AHTR operating conditions for component testing. In this study, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to model the LSTL. Full 3D modeling of the LSTL is computationally expensive. However, COMSOL allows users to combine 1D, 2D, and 3D fluid flow physics in order to design models that are both representative and efficient. 1D pipe flow calculations are used for the piping sections. COMSOL’s porous media ...


The Effects Of Shielding On Non-Destructive Analysis (Nda) And The Use Of Small-Angle Compton Scattering To Overcome Those Effects, Cory Jake Hudson 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Shielding On Non-Destructive Analysis (Nda) And The Use Of Small-Angle Compton Scattering To Overcome Those Effects, Cory Jake Hudson

Masters Theses

The use of passive Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) equipment and techniques are very beneficial tools in the nuclear industry that have a plethora of applications and advantages over destructive or more invasive measurement methods. Of course, NDA techniques also have many limitations including dealing with many unknown parameters, overcoming the effects of gamma ray shielding, and the reliance on making many gross assumptions in the analysis of non-destructively acquired data. These limitations can lead to biased results or extremely difficult analysis which often introduces inaccurate conclusions and/or high levels of uncertainty.

This thesis paper will focus on specific NDA equipment ...


Production Of Nuclear Debris Surrogates For Forensic Methods Development, Joshua James Molgaard 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Production Of Nuclear Debris Surrogates For Forensic Methods Development, Joshua James Molgaard

Masters Theses

A novel method for producing synthetic debris similar to the melt glass produced by nuclear surface testing is demonstrated. Melt glass from the first nuclear weapon test (commonly referred to as trinitite) is used as the benchmark for this study. These surrogates can be used to simulate a variety of scenarios and will serve as a tool for developing and validating forensic analysis methods.

The ultimate goal is to provide the nuclear forensics community with a robust method to supply realistic yet non-sensitive surrogate materials simulating a variety of detonation scenarios. This work will also allow for the development of ...


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