Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Materials Science and Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10,530 Full-Text Articles 15,363 Authors 2,175,838 Downloads 118 Institutions

All Articles in Materials Science and Engineering

Faceted Search

10,530 full-text articles. Page 1 of 281.

Electrically-Conductive Asphalt Mastic: Temperature Dependence And Heating Efficiency, Ali Arabzadeh, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Alireza Sassani, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Mani Mina 2018 Iowa State University

Electrically-Conductive Asphalt Mastic: Temperature Dependence And Heating Efficiency, Ali Arabzadeh, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Alireza Sassani, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Mani Mina

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Asphalt mastic, a pitch-matrix composite, consists of bitumen and mineral fillers (very fine aggregates), that fills the voids created by coarser aggregates in asphalt concrete. In this study, asphalt mastic was modified with carbon fiber (CF) and graphite powder (GP) to produce single-phase (containing only CF) and two-phase (containing both CF and GP) electrically-conductive asphalt mastic (ECAM) for anti-icing and deicing applications. Volume resistivities of ECAMs were measured at two different temperatures and the influence of temperature on electrical conductivity was evaluated, revealing that reduction in temperature enhances the ECAM's electrical conductivity. After analyzing the volume resistivity data for ...


Corrosion-Resistant Glasses For Steel Enamels -- Patent 8,679,389b2, Richard K. Brow, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Michael L. Koenigstein, Genda Chen 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Corrosion-Resistant Glasses For Steel Enamels -- Patent 8,679,389b2, Richard K. Brow, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Michael L. Koenigstein, Genda Chen

Genda Chen

A cementitious composite material wherein glass-coated steel rods are positioned in a cementitious matrix. The glass composition for coating the steel reinforcing rods includes between about 33-45 weight percent SiO2, 13.5-19.5 weight percent B2O3, 3.5-4.6 weight percent Al2O3, 4.0-13.5 weight percent K2O, 5.5-15.5 weight percent ZrO2, 8.6-15.9 weight percent Na2O, 4.6-5.1 weight percent CaO, 0.6-0.7 weight percent MnO2, 1.0-1.0 weight percent NiO, and 1.0-1.1 weight percent CoO. The glass ...


Corrosion-Resistant Glasses For Steel Enamels -- Patent 7,901,769b2, Richard K. Brow, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Michael L. Koenigstein, Genda Chen 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Corrosion-Resistant Glasses For Steel Enamels -- Patent 7,901,769b2, Richard K. Brow, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Michael L. Koenigstein, Genda Chen

Genda Chen

A cementitious composite material wherein glass-coated steel rods are positioned in a cementitious matrix. The glass composition for coating the steel reinforcing rods includes between about 33-45 weight percent SiO2, 13.5-19.5 weight percent B2O3, 3.5-4.6 weight percent Al2O3, 4.0-13.5 weight percent K2O, 5.5-15.5 weight percent ZrO2, 8.6-15.9 weight percent Na2O, 4.6-5.1 weight percent CaO, 0.6-0.7 weight percent MnO2, 1.0-1.0 weight percent NiO, and 1.0-1.1 weight percent CoO. The glass ...


Coated Steel Rebar For Enhanced Concrete-Steel Bond Strength And Corrosion Resistance, Genda Chen, Jeffery S. Volz, Richard K. Brow, Dongming Yan, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Chenglin Bob Wu, Fujian Tang, Charles R. Werner, Xing Tao 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Coated Steel Rebar For Enhanced Concrete-Steel Bond Strength And Corrosion Resistance, Genda Chen, Jeffery S. Volz, Richard K. Brow, Dongming Yan, Signo Tadeu Dos Reis, Chenglin Bob Wu, Fujian Tang, Charles R. Werner, Xing Tao

Genda Chen

This report summarizes the findings and recommendations on the use of enamel coating in reinforced concrete structures both for bond strength and corrosion resistance of steel rebar. Extensive laboratory tests were conducted to characterize the properties of one- and two-layer enamel coatings. Pseudostatic tests were performed with pullout, beam and column specimens to characterize mechanical properties and develop design equations for the development length of steel rebar in lap splice and anchorage areas. The splice length equation was validated with the testing of large-scale columns under cyclic loading. For corrosion properties, ponding, salt spray, accelerated corrosion, potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance ...


Microstructure Design Using Graphs, Pengfei Du, Adrian Zebrowski, Jaroslaw Zola, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Olga Wodo 2018 Iowa State University

Microstructure Design Using Graphs, Pengfei Du, Adrian Zebrowski, Jaroslaw Zola, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Olga Wodo

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Thin films with tailored microstructures are an emerging class of materials with applications such as battery electrodes, organic electronics, and biosensors. Such thin film devices typically exhibit a multi-phase microstructure that is confined, and show large anisotropy. Current approaches to microstructure design focus on optimizing bulk properties, by tuning features that are statistically averaged over a representative volume. Here, we report a tool for morphogenesis posed as a graph-based optimization problem that evolves microstructures recognizing confinement and anisotropy constraints. We illustrate the approach by designing optimized morphologies for photovoltaic applications, and evolve an initial morphology into an optimized morphology exhibiting ...


Inverting Thermal Degradation (Itd) Of Paper Using Chemi- And Physi-Sorbed Modifiers For Templated Material Synthesis, Paul R. Gregory, Andrew Martin, Boyce S. Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Jean-Francis Bloch, Martin M. Thuo 2018 Iowa State University

Inverting Thermal Degradation (Itd) Of Paper Using Chemi- And Physi-Sorbed Modifiers For Templated Material Synthesis, Paul R. Gregory, Andrew Martin, Boyce S. Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Jean-Francis Bloch, Martin M. Thuo

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Fibrous cellulosic materials have been used as templates for material synthesis or organization via thermal degradation of the cellulose. Most of these methods, however, fail to exploit fiber organization, in part due to loss of structure with processing. Herein, we demonstrate that chemi- and physi-sorbed modifiers of cellulose alters the thermal degradation mechanism allowing for controlled deposition of oxide and carbon (incomplete combustion) along the original paper fiber network. We demonstrate that the degradation of the cellulose fibers depends on the amount of physisorbed material due, in part, to effect on the propagation of the ignition event. From the distribution ...


Economic Advantages Of Dry-Etched Black Silicon In Passivated Emitter Rear Cell (Perc) Photovoltaic Manufacturing, Chiara Modanese, Hannu S. Laine, Toni P. Pasanen, Hele Savin, Joshua M. Pearce 2018 Aalto University

Economic Advantages Of Dry-Etched Black Silicon In Passivated Emitter Rear Cell (Perc) Photovoltaic Manufacturing, Chiara Modanese, Hannu S. Laine, Toni P. Pasanen, Hele Savin, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Industrial Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) photovoltaic (PV) efficiencies have routinely reached >20% with the passivated emitter rear cell (PERC) design. Nanostructuring silicon (black-Si) by dry-etching decreases surface reflectance, allows diamond saw wafering, enhances metal gettering, and may prevent power conversion efficiency degradation under light exposure. Black-Si allows a potential for >20% PERC cells using cheaper multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) materials, although dry-etching is widely considered too expensive for industrial application. This study analyzes this economic potential by comparing costs of standard texturized Cz-Si and black mc-Si PERC cells. Manufacturing sequences are divided into steps, and costs per unit power are individually calculated ...


Belt-Driven Open Source Circuit Mill Using Low-Cost 3-D Printer Components, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce 2018 Michigan Technological University

Belt-Driven Open Source Circuit Mill Using Low-Cost 3-D Printer Components, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Barriers to inventing electronic devices involve challenges of iterating electronic designs due to long lead times for professional circuit board milling or high costs of commercial milling machines. To overcome these barriers, this study provides open source (OS) designs for a low-cost circuit milling machine. First, design modifications for mechanical and electrical subsystems of the OS Distributed 3-D (D3D) Robotics prototyping system are provided. Next, Copper Carve, an OS custom graphical user interface, is developed to enable circuit board milling by implementing backlash and substrate distortion compensation. The performance of the OS D3D circuit mill is then quantified and validated ...


Microinjection Molding Of Carbon Filled Polymer Composites, Shengtai Zhou 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Microinjection Molding Of Carbon Filled Polymer Composites, Shengtai Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There has been increasing demand for microparts in the areas of electronics, automotive, biomedical and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Microinjection molding (μIM) is becoming an important technology to fabricate miniature products or components to satisfy the ever-increasing needs of the above industries. Polymers and polymeric composites are ubiquitously adopted as molding materials due to their weight advantage, good processability and excellent resistance to corrosion.

Earlier studies have been primarily focused on the μIM of unfilled thermoplastics; however, microparts with multi-functionalities, such as electrical, thermal and mechanical properties are always accommodated by using multi-functional filler loaded polymer composites. Recently, μIM of carbon nanotubes ...


Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Characteristics Of Four Novel Borate-Based Bioactive Glasses, Megan Ottomeyer, Ali Mohammadkah, D. E. Day, David J. Westenberg 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Characteristics Of Four Novel Borate-Based Bioactive Glasses, Megan Ottomeyer, Ali Mohammadkah, D. E. Day, David J. Westenberg

David J. Westenberg

Bioactive glasses have been developed for medical applications in the body for bone and tissue repair and regeneration. We have developed a borate-containing bioactive glass (13-93B3, referred to as B3), which is undergoing clinical trials to assess its wound-healing properties. To complement the healing properties of B3, metal ion dopants have been added to enhance its antimicrobial properties. Bioactive glasses doped with silver, gallium or iodine ions were found to have broad spectrum antimicrobial effects on clinically relevant bacteria including MRSA. While the B3 glass alone was sufficient to produce antibacterial effects on select bacteria, adding dopants enhanced the broad-spectrum ...


Antibody Targeting Facilitates Effective Intratumoral Sirna Nanoparticle Delivery To Her2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells, Maria C. Palanca-Wessels, Garrett Booth, Anthony J. Convertine, Brittany B. Lundy, Geoffrey Y. Berguig, Michael F. Press, Patrick S. Stayton, Oliver W. Press 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Antibody Targeting Facilitates Effective Intratumoral Sirna Nanoparticle Delivery To Her2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells, Maria C. Palanca-Wessels, Garrett Booth, Anthony J. Convertine, Brittany B. Lundy, Geoffrey Y. Berguig, Michael F. Press, Patrick S. Stayton, Oliver W. Press

Anthony J. Convertine

The therapeutic potential of RNA interference (RNAi) has been limited by inefficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). Tumor-specific recognition can be effectively achieved by antibodies directed against highly expressed cancer cell surface receptors. We investigated the utility of linking an internalizing streptavidinconjugated HER2 antibody to an endosome-disruptive biotinylated polymeric nanocarrier to improve the functional cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA in breast and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenograft model in vivo, yielding an 80% reduction of target mRNA and protein levels with sustained repression for at least 96 hours. RNAi-mediated site specific cleavage of ...


Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren 2018 University of Miami

Gnygrens18.Pdf, Garrett Nygren

Garrett Nygren

The finite element method was used to evaluate microstructural strengthening and toughening effects in nanoparticulate reinforced polymer composites (nanocomposites) and in short aligned discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer composites. Nanoparticulate reinforcement is a well-known method of polymer toughening which can greatly expand the range of engineering applications for polymers. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticulate toughening, as well as complementary sub-micron fracture processes, are not well understood. Short, aligned, discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics show promise as a versatile, inexpensive material system with favorable manufacturability, but failure of the associated morphologies is also not yet well explored.
In nanocomposites, two microstructural effects ...


Thermal Properties Of Spinel Based Solid Solutions, Kelley R. Wilkerson 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Thermal Properties Of Spinel Based Solid Solutions, Kelley R. Wilkerson

Kelley R. Wilkerson

"Solid solution formation in spinel based systems proved to be a viable approach to decreasing thermal conductivity. Samples with systematically varied additions of MgGa₂O₄ to MgAl₂O₄ were prepared and thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser ash technique. Additionally, heat capacity was measured using differential scanning calorimetry and modeled for the MgAl₂O₄-MgGa₂O₄ system. At 200⁰C thermal conductivity decreased 24% with a 5 mol% addition of MgGa₂O₄ to the system. The solid solution continued to decrease the thermal conductivity by 13% up to 1000⁰C with 5 mol% addition. The decrease in thermal conductivity ultimately resulted in a decrease in heat flux ...


Validation Of Wrinkling-To-Delamination Adhesion Measurement Technique, Allison Chau, Hyeyoung Son, Chelsea S. Davis 2018 Purdue University

Validation Of Wrinkling-To-Delamination Adhesion Measurement Technique, Allison Chau, Hyeyoung Son, Chelsea S. Davis

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Polymer thin films have a wide range of applications that span several different industries. Their optical clarity as well as their mechanical rigidness result in their versatile use in applications such as contact lenses, wearable sensors, and flexible electronics. These applications require precise adhesion, so the need for a simple, quantitative adhesion measurement technique is critical. Several methods have already been developed that quantify the adhesion of flexible thin films attached to rigid substrates. However, when the thin films are rigid and the substrates compliant, these methods are insufficient. In the authors’ previous work, an adhesion measurement technique was developed ...


Reliability Of Lead-Free Solder Joints Under Combined Shear And Compressive Loads, Ian Bernander, Travis Dale, Yuvraj Singh, Ganesh Subbarayan 2018 Purdue University

Reliability Of Lead-Free Solder Joints Under Combined Shear And Compressive Loads, Ian Bernander, Travis Dale, Yuvraj Singh, Ganesh Subbarayan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In electronic assemblies, solder joints are used to create electrical connections, remove heat, and mechanically support the components. When an electronic device is powered on, the solder joints and the board they are attached to heat up, expanding at different rates. Due to the difference in expansion, shear stress is imposed on the solder joints. As the device is powered on and off, this shear stress can eventually fracture the solder joint, causing the device to fail. Therefore, to increase the lifespan of electronics, it is important to investigate the mechanical properties of solder alloys. The present study investigates how ...


Computational Catalysis: Creating A User-Friendly Tool For Research And Education, Kevin P. Greenman, Peilin Liao 2018 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Computational Catalysis: Creating A User-Friendly Tool For Research And Education, Kevin P. Greenman, Peilin Liao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Catalysis is used in a significant portion of production processes in the industrialized world, including most processing of chemicals and fuels. This makes maximizing the efficiency of catalysts a high priority. However, the immense number of candidates for new catalysts precludes the possibility of testing all of them by experiments. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to calculate material properties relevant to catalysis and to screen promising candidates for experimental testing, but there currently exists no publicly- available, user-friendly tool for performing these DFT calculations. This work details the development of such a tool for nanoHUB ...


Solid Solution Strengthened Fe Alloys, Sidharth Krishnamoorthi, Ruizhe Su, Yifan Zhang, Xinghang Zhang 2018 Purdue University

Solid Solution Strengthened Fe Alloys, Sidharth Krishnamoorthi, Ruizhe Su, Yifan Zhang, Xinghang Zhang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Iron (Fe)-based alloys (such as steel) are widely used structural materials in industry. Numerous methods have been applied to improve their mechanical properties. In this study, we used a technique know as magnetron sputtering to deposit various Fe-based binary alloy coatings to investigate the influence of solutes on solid solution hardening. Several factors contribute to the solid solution hardening of the alloys, such as composition, atomic radius, modulus, and lattice parameter. After preliminary calculations and analysis, we selected several solutes, including molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), and zirconium (Zr). The compositions of solutes were varied to be 2.5, 5 ...


Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev 2018 Purdue University

Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 110 billion cubic meters of natural gas (primarily methane), a potent greenhouse gas, are flared off for environmental and safety reasons. This process results in enough fuel to provide the combined natural gas consumption of Germany and France. The research team developed a thermophotovoltaic device to convert thermal energy to electricity at a high efficiency using proprietary emitters and combustion system. With the current focus being fuel efficiency and the combustion process, the assembly was simulated using ANSYS Fluent modelling software and the following parameters were optimized: air/fuel ratios, flow rates, and inlet sizes. Simultaneously the heat transfer ...


Spatial Variation Of Surface Residual Stress In Metallic Materials, Chengyang Zhang, David Bahr, Siavash Ghanbari, Raheleh Mohammad Rahimi 2018 Purdue University

Spatial Variation Of Surface Residual Stress In Metallic Materials, Chengyang Zhang, David Bahr, Siavash Ghanbari, Raheleh Mohammad Rahimi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Shot peening is commonly used to reduce fatigue failures in industrial parts by introducing compressive residual stress into the surface of a material. However, it is challenging to assess the performance of the parts without destroying them. Solving this problem requires a combined model that predicts both recrystallization and residual stress using experimental measurements and predictive computational modelling. Experiments were performed to prove that the surface properties of materials after thermal treatments can be accessed, and the spatial variation of residual stress in metallic materials, including the relationship between surface and subsurface behavior can be evaluated. This process involves investigating ...


High Performance Mortar With 100% Recycled Aggregate Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Molly Schrager, Vito Francioso, Arjun Kadakia, Mirian Velay-Lizancos 2018 Purdue University

High Performance Mortar With 100% Recycled Aggregate Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Molly Schrager, Vito Francioso, Arjun Kadakia, Mirian Velay-Lizancos

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Concrete and mortar are materials commonly used in construction. Their main compounds are cement, aggregates (sand and gravel) and water. In an effort to increase the sustainability of these materials, the idea of using recycled aggregates from ground old concrete and using it to make mortar and concrete has gained more interest. It has two advantages: it reduces the need to mine for raw materials and lessens the amount of old and defective concrete that is typically put in landfills. But, the use of recycled concrete aggregate lowers the strength of mortars and concretes because the residual compounds in the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress