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Impact Of Chain Architecture On The Thickness Dependence Of Physical Aging Rate Of Thin Polystyrene Films, Gregory Brown, Elizabeth Lewis, Bryan D. Vogt 2020 University of Akron

Impact Of Chain Architecture On The Thickness Dependence Of Physical Aging Rate Of Thin Polystyrene Films, Gregory Brown, Elizabeth Lewis, Bryan D. Vogt

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The dynamics of polymer thin films have been demonstrated to be significantly altered from the bulk, but the origins of such differences are not well defined. In this work, we seek to understand the differences in the structural dynamics (or physical aging) of polystyrene (PS) through branching and other well defined architectures (comb and centipede). The aging dynamics of ultrathin films (< 30 nm) differ from relatively thick films (100-150nm) with linear PS thin films aging more rapidly than the relatively “bulk-like” thick films. Ellipsometric measurements are used to characterize the physical aging rate of the films. The change in film thickness and refractive index as the films are held below the glass transition temperature (Tg) provides a simple measure of the physical aging. In this study, four different architectures (linear, comb, 4 arm star, and centipede) will be investigated. For each PS architecture, the aging rate will be determined for film thickness ranging ...


Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi 2019 University of Maine

Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paper coating layers are subject to various stresses and deformations in many converting processes such as calendering, printing, slitting, and folding of the paper. In some cases, products may crack during folding to generate a defect called cracking at the fold (CAF). The parameters that influence these defects are not well understood. The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand the CAF behavior as related to material properties of the coating layer.

A method was developed to produce free-standing pigmented coating layers thick enough to be tested in bending as well as tension. The mechanical properties of these ...


The Effect Of Flinak Molten Salt Corrosion On The Hardness Of Hastelloy N, David Kok 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effect Of Flinak Molten Salt Corrosion On The Hardness Of Hastelloy N, David Kok

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been identified as a promising candidate to replace aging nuclear reactors around the world. However, a suitable combination of molten salt and container material needs to be found in order to reduce the potential for corrosion in the MSR before it can be considered commercially viable. FLiNaK molten salt and the nickel-based alloy Hastelloy N have been identified as prime candidates for this function, but the severity of FLiNaK corrosion in Hastelloy N requires additional study before this combination can be used in the operation of a MSR. In this study, Hastelloy N samples ...


Concentration Flow Cells For Efficient Salinity Energy Recovery With Carbonized Peat Moss And Molybdenum Disulfide Electrodes, Haihui Zhu 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Concentration Flow Cells For Efficient Salinity Energy Recovery With Carbonized Peat Moss And Molybdenum Disulfide Electrodes, Haihui Zhu

LSU Master's Theses

The globally extractable salinity gradient (SG) energy from the mixing of seawater and river water is estimated to be 3% of worldwide electricity consumption. Here we applied carbonized peat moss (CPM) electrodes and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) electrodes to a concentration flow cell that is capable of harvesting SG energy based on the electrode (pseudo-)capacitance together with the Donnan potential. The CPM electrodes were made from the visually inexhaustible peat moss by a facile pyrolysis process. With two identical CPM electrodes and a cation-exchange membrane, the cell produced a peak power density of 5.33 W m-2 and ...


Application Of Computational Tools To Spaghetti-Based Truss Bridge Design, Jin Xu, Jiliang Li, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai 2019 Purdue University Northwest

Application Of Computational Tools To Spaghetti-Based Truss Bridge Design, Jin Xu, Jiliang Li, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

Application of Computational Tools to Spaghetti-Based Truss Design

Statics and Strength of Materials are two foundational courses for Mechanical/Civil Engineering. In order to assist students in better understanding and applying concepts to a meaningful design task, SolidWorks and theoretical calculation were used for a spaghetti-bridge design contest with the constraints of given maximum weight and allowable support-material weight. As the first step of this iterative designing process, both extrude feature and structural member were introduced to model planar bridge trusses. Then SolidWorks’ Statics module was used to run FEA analysis of the structural performance in efforts to optimize the ...


Design Of A Carburizing Treatment Of Steel Base Gear In The Materials Science Course, Jiliang Li, Jin Xu, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai 2019 Purdue University Northwest

Design Of A Carburizing Treatment Of Steel Base Gear In The Materials Science Course, Jiliang Li, Jin Xu, Nuri Zeytinoglu, Jinyuan Zhai

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

Diffusion PDE Application to Carburizing Treatment of Steel Base Gear

An introductory materials-science course is required in the mechanical engineering curriculum of many universities. This article describes an example effort to incorporate programming, diffusion transfer, heat treatment process and mechanical-property determination as an integral part of the materials-science course instruction. This effort was undertaken in order to give students additional experience in Fick’s 1st and 2nd laws and in-depth understanding of physics and mathematics involved in diffusion analysis. We chose to focus on Fick’s second law because its applications are not restricted to the materials-science field ...


Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

To assess the energetics of Cu intercalation on defective graphite, the chemical potentials and binding energies for Cu at graphite step edges are calculated for three main configurations: an isolated atom, a chain, and an atom attached to a chain. As expected, for Cu interacting directly with a graphite step edge, the strength of interaction depends on the stability of the step, with Cu binding more strongly at a less-stable step. However, the relationship is reversed when considering binding of a Cu atom attached to a chain. Taken together, these trends mean that if the graphite step is less stable ...


Influence Of Linear Reciprocating And Multi-Directional Sliding On Peek Wear Performance And Transfer Film Formation, Kevin A. Laux, Christian J. Schwartz 2019 Texas A&M University

Influence Of Linear Reciprocating And Multi-Directional Sliding On Peek Wear Performance And Transfer Film Formation, Kevin A. Laux, Christian J. Schwartz

Christian Schwartz

Because of their light weight, chemical resistance, and self-lubricating properties, polymers are used in applications ranging from biomedical to aerospace. Some polymers exhibit significant differences in wear resistancebased on whether they are in unidirectional or multidirectional sliding. Shear induced polymer chain orientation is believed to be responsible for this behavior. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has excellent wear resistance, but its multidirectional sliding behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. A factorial multidirectional pin-on-plate wear study of PEEK was conducted with a focus on molecular weight and sliding path directionality. These factors were studied for their correlation to over all wear performance. Additionally ...


Effects Of Contact Pressure, Molecular Weight, And Supplier On The Wear Behavior And Transfer Film Of Polyetheretherketone (Peek), Kevin A. Laux, Christian J. Schwartz 2019 Texas A&M University

Effects Of Contact Pressure, Molecular Weight, And Supplier On The Wear Behavior And Transfer Film Of Polyetheretherketone (Peek), Kevin A. Laux, Christian J. Schwartz

Christian Schwartz

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a designation given to materials of the polyaryletherketone family having a characteristic distribution of ether and ketone groups in the polymer backbone. PEEK materials have high strength and chemical resistance as well as very high melting points and glass transition temperatures. Because of this combination of properties, PEEK materials find use for wear application in extreme environments where they provide a light-weight and corrosion resistant bearing material that often does not require lubrication. This study focused on determining the effects of supplier and molecular weight on the wear of particular PEEK materials, in addition to the effect ...


Surface Layer Plastic Deformation As A Mechanism For Uhmwpe Wear, And Its Role In Debris Size., Kevin G. Plumlee, Christian J. Schwartz 2019 Oklahoma Christian University

Surface Layer Plastic Deformation As A Mechanism For Uhmwpe Wear, And Its Role In Debris Size., Kevin G. Plumlee, Christian J. Schwartz

Christian Schwartz

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remains the primary bearing material for use in artificial joints, but the longevity of these implants is still hindered by an osteolytic immune system response initiated by sub-micron sized wear debris released from the UHMWPE bulk component. Studies have shown that the severity of the immune system response is linked to particle size. Current treatments for reducing this effect focus on reducing the total volume of wear, but do not directly address particle size due to a limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing such small debris. Directly observing these mechanisms is inherently challenging ...


Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

James W. Evans

To assess the energetics of Cu intercalation on defective graphite, the chemical potentials and binding energies for Cu at graphite step edges are calculated for three main configurations: an isolated atom, a chain, and an atom attached to a chain. As expected, for Cu interacting directly with a graphite step edge, the strength of interaction depends on the stability of the step, with Cu binding more strongly at a less-stable step. However, the relationship is reversed when considering binding of a Cu atom attached to a chain. Taken together, these trends mean that if the graphite step is less stable ...


Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Energetics Of Cu Adsorption And Intercalation At Graphite Step Edges, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Patricia A. Thiel

To assess the energetics of Cu intercalation on defective graphite, the chemical potentials and binding energies for Cu at graphite step edges are calculated for three main configurations: an isolated atom, a chain, and an atom attached to a chain. As expected, for Cu interacting directly with a graphite step edge, the strength of interaction depends on the stability of the step, with Cu binding more strongly at a less-stable step. However, the relationship is reversed when considering binding of a Cu atom attached to a chain. Taken together, these trends mean that if the graphite step is less stable ...


Reprapable Recyclebot: Open Source 3-D Printable Extruder For Converting Plastic To 3-D Printing Filament, Aubrey Woern, Joseph McCaslin, Adam Pringle, Joshua M. Pearce 2019 Michigan Technological University

Reprapable Recyclebot: Open Source 3-D Printable Extruder For Converting Plastic To 3-D Printing Filament, Aubrey Woern, Joseph Mccaslin, Adam Pringle, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

In order to assist researchers explore the full potential of distributed recycling of post-consumer polymer waste, this article describes a recyclebot, which is a waste plastic extruder capable of making commercial quality 3-D printing filament. The device design takes advantage of both the open source hardware methodology and the paradigm developed by the open source self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printer community. Specifically, this paper describes the design, fabrication and operation of a RepRapable Recyclebot, which refers to the Recyclebot’s ability to provide the filament needed to largely replicate the parts for the Recyclebot on any type of RepRap ...


Open Source Low-Cost Power Monitoring System, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce 2019 Michigan Technological University

Open Source Low-Cost Power Monitoring System, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

This study presents an entirely open-source, low-cost power monitoring system capable of many types of measurements including both loads and supplies such as solar photovoltaic systems. In addition, the system can be fabricated using only open source software and hardware. The design revolves around the Digital Universal Energy Logger (DUEL) Node, which is responsible for reading and properly scaling the voltage and current of a particular load, and then serializing it via an on-board ATTiny85 chip. The configuration of the DUEL node allows for custom sensitivity ranges, and can handle up to 50 A and 300 V. Up to 127 ...


A National Pragmatic Safety Limit For Nuclear Weapon Quantities, Joshua M. Pearce, David C. Denkenberger 2019 Michigan Technological University

A National Pragmatic Safety Limit For Nuclear Weapon Quantities, Joshua M. Pearce, David C. Denkenberger

Joshua M. Pearce

This study determines the nuclear pragmatic limit where the direct physical negative consequences of nuclear weapons use are counter to national interests, by assuming all unknowns are conservatively optimistic. The only effect considered is nuclear winter (“nuclear autumn” in the low weapons limits) and the resultant effects on the aggressor nation. First, the ability of low nuclear weapon limits is probed for maintaining deterrence in the worst-case scenario of attacking the most-populous nation. Second, the ability of aggressor nations to feed themselves is assessed without trade and industry resultant from a nuclear attack causing “nuclear autumn” (10% global agricultural shortfall ...


Microwave Self-Healing Technology As Airfield Porous Asphalt Friction Course Repair And Maintenance System, Amir Tabakovic, Declan O'Prey, Drew McKenna, David Woodward 2019 Technological University Dublin

Microwave Self-Healing Technology As Airfield Porous Asphalt Friction Course Repair And Maintenance System, Amir Tabakovic, Declan O'Prey, Drew Mckenna, David Woodward

Articles

A problem increasingly faced by airport authorities is the maintenance of runways. Due to their large aircraft loadings associated with take-off and landing operations, runways experience surface deterioration. Poor quality runway surfaces cannot be tolerated in such an environment. Maintenance issues must be carried out to maximise safety and minimise the risk of aircraft damage. A recent development has been the introduction of self-healing technologies such as rejuvenator encapsulation, induction and microwave heating to address these issues. This paper summarises a laboratory investigation to determine the effectiveness of microwave self-healing for crack repair of Porous Friction Course (PFC) used for ...


Progress Report I: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma, Unnati Joshi, Vishal Venkatesh, Hiromichi Yamamoto 2019 Quattrone Nanofabrication Facility

Progress Report I: Fabrication Of Nanopores In Silicon Nitride Membranes Using Self-Assembly Of Ps-B-Pmma, Unnati Joshi, Vishal Venkatesh, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

This progress report describes fabrication of silicon nitride membranes from Si wafers using cleanroom techniques, and of nanopore preparation via a self-assembled PS-b-PMMA film. A 36.9 nm thick membrane is successfully prepared by KOH wet etching. The membrane is a layered structure of 36.8 µm thick Si and 116 nm thick silicon nitride. It is also exhibited that in the 47 nm thick PS-b-PMMA film, the nanopore structure is observed in the vicinity of a dust particle, but most of the area indicates lamellar domain structure. The thickness of PS-b-PMMA film will ...


Reactive Ion Etching Selectivity Of Si/Sio2: Comparing Of Two fluorocarbon Gases Chf3 And Cf4, Meiyue Zhang, Pat Watson 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Reactive Ion Etching Selectivity Of Si/Sio2: Comparing Of Two fluorocarbon Gases Chf3 And Cf4, Meiyue Zhang, Pat Watson

Protocols and Reports

Two reactive ion etching (RIE) processes were studied to show the relative etch selectivity between SiO2 and Si using two fluorocarbon gases, CF4 and CHF3. Results show that CHF3 gives better selectivity (16:1) over CF4 (1.2 :1). On the other hand, the etch rate of SiO2 of CF4 is approximately 52.8 nm/min, faster than CHF3 (32.4 nm/min).


Nickel Based Rtd Fabricated Via Additive Screen Printing Process For Flexible Electronics, Vikram S. Turkani, Dinesh Maddipatla, Binu B. Narakathu, Bilge N. Altay, Paul D. Fleming, Bradley J. Bazuin, Massood Atashbar 2019 Western Michigan University

Nickel Based Rtd Fabricated Via Additive Screen Printing Process For Flexible Electronics, Vikram S. Turkani, Dinesh Maddipatla, Binu B. Narakathu, Bilge N. Altay, Paul D. Fleming, Bradley J. Bazuin, Massood Atashbar

Bilge Nazli Altay

A novel nickel (Ni) based resistance temperature detector (RTD) was successfully developed for temperature monitoring applications. The RTD was fabricated by depositing Ni ink on a flexible polyimide substrate using the screen printing process. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to study the thermal behavior of the Ni ink and it was observed that the Ni ink can withstand up to 200°C before decomposition of the binder in the ink system. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry were used to analyze the surface morphology of the printed Ni. X-ray diffractometry was used to obtain structural information, phase and crystallite size ...


Method Of Increasing Mass Transfer Rate Of Acid Gas Scrubbing Solvents, Joseph E. Remias, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu 2019 University of Kentucky

Method Of Increasing Mass Transfer Rate Of Acid Gas Scrubbing Solvents, Joseph E. Remias, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Patents

A method of increasing the overall mass transfer rate of acid gas scrubbing solids is disclosed. Various catalyst compounds for that purpose are also disclosed.


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