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Stress Singularity Study Of Functionally Graded Material Based On Coherent Gradient Sensing Method, Jinjun Zhang 2016 Arizona State University

Stress Singularity Study Of Functionally Graded Material Based On Coherent Gradient Sensing Method, Jinjun Zhang

Kevin Lee


Functionally graded material (FGM) has some particular characteristics due to the gradual variation of physical properties. The study on mechanical behavior of FGM is of great research value. In this work, a large scale FGM which filled with small glass spheres has been prepared by gravity assisted casting technique. The elastic material constants in static condition are measured. One optical experimental method, coherent gradient sensing (CGS), is introduced to study the mechanical behavior of FGM which has exponential variation of material property. The governing equations of CGS which is used to represent the optics-mechanics relation of the singular yield near ...


Composite Metallic Nanofoam Structures, David Bahr, Matthew Howard, Mohamad Zbib, Raheleh Rahimi, John Balk 2016 Purdue University

Composite Metallic Nanofoam Structures, David Bahr, Matthew Howard, Mohamad Zbib, Raheleh Rahimi, John Balk

Composites at Lake Louise (CALL 2015)

Metallic nanofoams made of metals such as nickel (Ni) or gold (Au) with ligament sizes on the order of 10’s to 100’s of nm’s exhibit several remarkable properties as a consequence of their low relative density and high specific surface area, such as outstanding strength to weight ratios, enhanced plasmonic behavior and size-effect-enhanced catalytic behavior. However, these metallic nanofoams suffer from macroscopically brittle behavior due to plastic deformation in individual ligaments. With little or no barriers for slip, work-hardening is not possible within ligaments and extremely localized plasticity, once initiated, leads to a few ligaments necking and ...


Characterization And Modeling To Design And Develop Tailored-Property Filled Glass Composites, Kevin Ewsuk 2016 Sandia National Laboratories

Characterization And Modeling To Design And Develop Tailored-Property Filled Glass Composites, Kevin Ewsuk

Composites at Lake Louise (CALL 2015)

Particle-filled-glass composites (FGCs) are being developed as new materials with structure and properties engineered for materials joining (e.g., for solid oxide fuel cells). Relative to conventional sealing glasses used to make hermetic glass-to-metal (GtM) seals, FGCs with tailored properties offer significant potential as more crack resistant hermetic seals with better performance and reliability. Additionally, compared to process sensitive crystallizable glasses, FGCs offer broader processing latitude and robustness, and afford greater control of seal microstructure and properties. FGCs are being developed using a combination of fundamental materials science and materials engineering, employing: 1) experimentally-validated molecular modeling to better understand and ...


Powerful Artificial Muscles For Morphing Composites And Other Applications, Ray Baughman 2016 University of Texas at Dallas

Powerful Artificial Muscles For Morphing Composites And Other Applications, Ray Baughman

Composites at Lake Louise (CALL 2015)

Three successive generations of twist-spun artificial muscles are described and used to make morphing composites and textiles that are electrically, thermally, or chemically powered.1 Our first generation of twist-spun muscles, which are electrochemically powered by volume changes induced by double-layer charge injection, provide torsional rotation speeds of 590 rpm, and torsional strokes of 250° per millimeter of actuator length, which is 1000 times that for earlier artificial muscles. Our second generation muscles, which require no electrolyte and are based on guest-infiltrated carbon nanotube yarns, can torsionally actuate at 11,500 rpm and deliver 85 times higher power density during ...


Deterministic Three-Dimensional Composite Structures For Energy Storage, Paul Brown 2016 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Deterministic Three-Dimensional Composite Structures For Energy Storage, Paul Brown

Composites at Lake Louise (CALL 2015)

Through mesoscale design of a 3D current collector, high power density and high energy density primary and secondary (rechargeable) large format and microbatteries (Figure 1) were fabricated. At the most fundamental level, mesostructuring enables optimization of the trade-off between energy and power density in energy storage systems due to unavoidable ohmic and other losses that occur during charge or discharge. Of course, it is at fast charge and discharge, where these effects are most important. By efficient design of the ion and electron transport pathways, we and others have shown it is possible to significantly improve the power-energy relationship. We ...


Diffusion-Based Deformation In Elevated Temperature Micropillar Compression Of Mg-Nb Multilayers, Keith Thomas, Juri Wehrs, Siddharta Pathak, Johann Michler 2016 EMPA

Diffusion-Based Deformation In Elevated Temperature Micropillar Compression Of Mg-Nb Multilayers, Keith Thomas, Juri Wehrs, Siddharta Pathak, Johann Michler

Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development V

multilayer, elevated-temperature, micropillar compression


Indentation Behavior Of Superelastic Hard Carbon, Olga Chernogorova, Ekaterina Drozdova, Iraida Ushakova, Evgenii Ekimov, Vicente Benavides, Aleksander Soldatov 2016 IMET

Indentation Behavior Of Superelastic Hard Carbon, Olga Chernogorova, Ekaterina Drozdova, Iraida Ushakova, Evgenii Ekimov, Vicente Benavides, Aleksander Soldatov

Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development V

Supererlastic hard carbon particles up to 1 mmin size were produced by fullerene collapse upon high-pressure high-temperature treatment with simultaneous sintering of metal-matrix composite materials (CM) reinforced by such particles. The hardness of carbon particles can be varied in a wide range by changing the parameters of their structure, which consists of curved graphene planes or their packets of different sizes. Such carbon phase was called “nanoclusterd graphene phase” (NGP) [1]. The properties of the carbon particles were controlled by changing treatment pressure (5 and 8 GPa) and temperature (1100-1800 K), composition of parent fullerites (C60 or C60/70), and ...


A Comparative Study Of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques Of Carbon Nanotube Growth On Diamond Films, Betty T. Quinton, Paul N. Barnes, Chakrapani V. Varanasi, Bang-Hung Tsao, Kevin J. Yost, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Comparative Study Of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques Of Carbon Nanotube Growth On Diamond Films, Betty T. Quinton, Paul N. Barnes, Chakrapani V. Varanasi, Bang-Hung Tsao, Kevin J. Yost, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

This paper compares between the methods of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on diamond substrates and evaluates the quality of the CNTs and the interfacial strength. One potential application for these materials is a heat sink/spreader for high-power electronic devices. The CNTs and diamond substrates have a significantly higher specific thermal conductivity than traditional heat sink/spreader materials making them good replacement candidates. Only limited research has been performed on these CNT/diamond structures and their suitability of different growth methods. This study investigates three potential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for growing CNTs on diamond: thermal CVD (T-CVD), microwave ...


Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case Of Trichloroethylene, Kshitij C. Jha, Zhuonan Liu, Hema Vijwani, Mallikarjuna Nadagouda, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay, Mesfin Tsige 2016 Wright State University

Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case Of Trichloroethylene, Kshitij C. Jha, Zhuonan Liu, Hema Vijwani, Mallikarjuna Nadagouda, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay, Mesfin Tsige

Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption ...


Novel Platform Development Using An Assembly Of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold And Immobilized Rna Capture Element Towards Rapid, Selective Sensing Of Bacteria, Elizabeth I. Maurer, Kristen K. Comfort, Saber M. Hussain, John J. Schlager, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Novel Platform Development Using An Assembly Of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold And Immobilized Rna Capture Element Towards Rapid, Selective Sensing Of Bacteria, Elizabeth I. Maurer, Kristen K. Comfort, Saber M. Hussain, John J. Schlager, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

This study examines the creation of a nano-featured biosensor platform designed for the rapid and selective detection of the bacterium Escherichia coli. The foundation of this sensor is carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles that are modified with a specific, surface adherent ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequence element. The multi-step sensor assembly was accomplished by growing carbon nanotubes on a graphite substrate, the direct synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the nanotube surface, and the attachment of thiolated RNA to the bound nanoparticles.

The application of the compounded nanomaterials for sensor development has the distinct advantage of retaining the electrical behavior property ...


Nanometal Containing Nanocomposites And Photolithographic Polyaniline Nanofibers, Frank D. Blum, Sunil K. Pillalamarri, Lalani K. Werake, J. Greg Story, Massimo F. Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Nanometal Containing Nanocomposites And Photolithographic Polyaniline Nanofibers, Frank D. Blum, Sunil K. Pillalamarri, Lalani K. Werake, J. Greg Story, Massimo F. Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro

J. Story

There is considerable interest in the use of nanofibers and nanoparticles in electronic devices. These materials have potential application in sensors, actuators, and memory, to name just a few.i,ii the size of the materials used may improve sensitivity because of their high specific surface areas. The nanoparticles may also have properties that are inherently different from their bulk counterparts. The use of synthetic polymers may result in considerable mass savings over conventional metal-based systems. It is clear that these systems have many potential advantages, however, there is still a great deal to be learned about how to make ...


Ce3+ -Ion-Induced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation And Electrochemical Activity Of Zno/Ceo2 Nanocomposite, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, R. Saravanan 2016 Universiti Brunei Darussalaam

Ce3+ -Ion-Induced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation And Electrochemical Activity Of Zno/Ceo2 Nanocomposite, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, R. Saravanan

Dr. Mohammad Mansoob Khan

In this study, pure ZnO, CeO2 and ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method and subsequently characterized using different standard techniques. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed the oxidation states and presence of Zn2+, Ce4+, Ce3+ and different bonded oxygen species in the nanocomposites. The prepared pure ZnO and CeO2 as well as the ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposites with various proportions of ZnO and CeO2 were tested for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. The optimized and highly efficient ZnO/CeO2 (90:10 ...


Interplay Of Quantum Size Effect, Anisotropy And Surface Stress Shapes The Instability Of Thin Metal Films, Mikhail Khenner 2016 Western Kentucky University

Interplay Of Quantum Size Effect, Anisotropy And Surface Stress Shapes The Instability Of Thin Metal Films, Mikhail Khenner

Mikhail Khenner

Morphological instability of a planar surface ([111], [011], or [001]) of an ultra-thin metal film is studied in a parameter space formed by three major effects (the quantum size effect, the surface energy anisotropy and the surface stress) that influence a film dewetting. The analysis is based on the extended Mullins equation, where the effects are cast as functions of the film thickness. The formulation of the quantum size effect (Z. Zhang et al., PRL 80, 5381 (1998)) includes the oscillation of the surface energy with thickness caused by electrons confinement. By systematically comparing the effects, their contributions into the ...


A Study On Biocompatibility Of Carbon Nanoparticles In Hela Cells Dictated By Synthesis And Sterilization, Elisa Panzarini, Cristian Vergallo, Stefania Mariano 2016 University of Salento

A Study On Biocompatibility Of Carbon Nanoparticles In Hela Cells Dictated By Synthesis And Sterilization, Elisa Panzarini, Cristian Vergallo, Stefania Mariano

Kevin Lee

Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, carbon-based NanoMaterials (C-NMs) are largely exploited in biomedicine, i.e., cell and tissue imaging, drug delivery and tissue engineering scaffold, even if reports regarding their toxicity are still conflicting. In fact, biological effects strictly depend on the dynamic physicochemical characteristics of C-NMs, which in turn are strongly influenced by the procedures of their synthesis, and nanometrological techniques, e.g., Electron Microscopy (EM)-based analysis, are becoming the main tool for researchers to characterize nanoproducts. The aim of the present work is the study of the influence of synthesis and sterilization protocols on ...


Dynamic Mechanical Properties Of fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review, N. Sabaa, M Jawaid, M.T. Paridah 2016 Universiti Putra Malaysia

Dynamic Mechanical Properties Of fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review, N. Sabaa, M Jawaid, M.T. Paridah

Kevin Lee

Dynamicmechanicalanalysis(DMA)isaversatiletechniquethatcomplementstheinformationprovidedbythemoretraditionalthermalanalysistechniquessuchasdifferentialscanningcalorimetry(DSC),ther-mogravimetricanalysis(TGA),andthermalmechanicalanalysis(TMA).Thedynamicparameterssuchasstoragemodulus(E0),lossmodulus(E00),anddampingfactor(Tand)aretemperaturedependentandpro-videinformationaboutinterfacialbondingbetweenthereinforcedfibreandpolymermatrixofcompositematerial.Thedynamicparameterswereominouslyinfluencedbytheincreaseinfibrelengthandloadingbutnotinageometricprogression.Dynamicloadingconditionsarefrequentlystumbleincivilinfrastruc-turesystemsduetosound,winds,earthquakes,oceanwavesandliveloads.Vibrationdampingparam-etersshowsprimeimportanceforstructuralapplicationsinordertoenhancethereliability,performance,buildingscomfortandinthealleviationofbridgeshazards.DMAalsopredictstheeffectsoftimeandtemperatureonpolymersealantsviscoelasticperformanceunderdifferentenvironments.Presentreviewarticledesignedtobeacomprehensivesourceofreportedliteratureinvolvingdynamicmechanicalpropertiesofnaturalfibrereinforcedpolymercomposites,hybridandnanocompositesanditsapplications.Thisreviewarticlewillprovidesaperfectdatatoexploreitsindustrialapplicationprimarilyascheaperconstructionandbuildingmaterialsfordoingfurtherresearchinthistopic.


Polymer Composites Reinforced With Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, V. Trachevskiy, Bo Wang 2016 national aviation university

Polymer Composites Reinforced With Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, V. Trachevskiy, Bo Wang

Kevin Lee

The structural and physico-chemical characteristics of thermoplastic polymers filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) such as polyethylene (PE), polyamide 6 (PA 6) and layered fiberglass with PA 6 are investigated. The influence of their concentrations and homogeneity degree of nanotubes distribution is studied. The properties of new composites are compared with the
and polypropylene (PP)–CNTs systems. It is shown that an addition of CNTs into thermoplastic polymeric materials leads to the significant changes in structural characteristics, growth of strength, electrical, thermal properties. It is coursed by the formation of CNTs continuous network in the original matrix, the crystallinity degree ...


Magnetic And Electronic Properties Of Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, G.T. Woods, J. Martin, M. Beekman, Raphaël P. Hermann, Fernande Grandjean, Veerle Keppens, O. Leupold, Gary J. Long, G.S. Nolas 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Magnetic And Electronic Properties Of Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, G.T. Woods, J. Martin, M. Beekman, Raphaël P. Hermann, Fernande Grandjean, Veerle Keppens, O. Leupold, Gary J. Long, G.S. Nolas

Fernande Grandjean

Magnetization, static and ac magnetic susceptibility, nuclear forward scattering, and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on polycrystalline Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, a type I clathrate that has divalent strontium and europium ions encapsulated within a Ga-Ge framework. These data are compared with those of type I clathrates Eu8Ga16Ge30 and Eu6Sr2Ga16Ge30. The ferromagnetic ordering of these Eu-containing clathrates is substantially altered by the incorporation of strontium, as compared to Eu8Ga16Ge30. Ferromagnetism, accompanied by a relatively large negative magnetoresistance, is ...


Magnetic And Electronic Properties Of Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, G.T. Woods, J. Martin, M. Beekman, Raphaël P. Hermann, Fernande Grandjean, Veerle Keppens, O. Leupold, Gary J. Long, G.S. Nolas 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Magnetic And Electronic Properties Of Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, G.T. Woods, J. Martin, M. Beekman, Raphaël P. Hermann, Fernande Grandjean, Veerle Keppens, O. Leupold, Gary J. Long, G.S. Nolas

Fernande Grandjean

Magnetization, static and ac magnetic susceptibility, nuclear forward scattering, and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on polycrystalline Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30, a type I clathrate that has divalent strontium and europium ions encapsulated within a Ga-Ge framework. These data are compared with those of type I clathrates Eu8Ga16Ge30 and Eu6Sr2Ga16Ge30. The ferromagnetic ordering of these Eu-containing clathrates is substantially altered by the incorporation of strontium, as compared to Eu8Ga16Ge30. Ferromagnetism, accompanied by a relatively large negative magnetoresistance, is observed below 15 and 20 K in Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30 and Eu6Sr2Ga16Ge30, respectively. An effective magnetic moment of 7.83 μB per Eu ion is observed ...


A Review On Microbial Cells Force Spectroscopy By Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Livia Angeloni, Daniele Passeri 2016 University of Roma "La Sapienza"

A Review On Microbial Cells Force Spectroscopy By Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Livia Angeloni, Daniele Passeri

Kevin Lee

Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are important phenomena which can produce both detrimental and beneficial effects in several fields. Research is thus focused on the modulation of the properties of material surfaces in order to design and develop substrates able to control bacterial adhesion process, which is the first trigger event of biofilm formation. Several theoretical predictions and experimental procedures have been developed to investigate the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms regulating the attachment of bacteria to solid substrates. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding has not been achieved yet, limiting the capability of individuating effective technological strategies to achieve the desired ...


Design Maps For Fracture Resistant Functionally Graded Materials, Muhammad Ridwan Murshed 2016 Rowan University

Design Maps For Fracture Resistant Functionally Graded Materials, Muhammad Ridwan Murshed

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to generate design maps to identify functionally graded microstructures with enhanced fracture toughness. Several Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) with an edge crack and membrane loading are considered and the resulting J-integral values are computed numerically using Finite Element Analysis. In order to capture the resulting stress fields accurately, Barsoum elements are used in the vicinity of the crack tip and the simulations are carried out for several crack lengths (a) and material contrasts (κ). The averages of the J-integral values are used to determine the normalized Stress Intensity Factors which are then benchmarked with ...


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