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Active Sensing For Dynamic, Non-Holonomic, Robust Visual Servoing, Avik De, Karl S. Bayer, Daniel E. Koditschek 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Active Sensing For Dynamic, Non-Holonomic, Robust Visual Servoing, Avik De, Karl S. Bayer, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We consider the problem of visually servoing a legged vehicle with unicycle-like nonholonomic constraints subject to second-order fore-aft dynamics in its horizontal plane. We target applications to rugged environments characterized by complex terrain likely to perturb significantly the robot’s nominal dynamics. At the same time, it is crucial that the camera avoid “obstacle” poses where absolute localization would be compromised by even partial loss of landmark visibility. Hence, we seek a controller whose robustness against disturbances and obstacle avoidance capabilities can be assured by a strict global Lyapunov function. Since the nonholonomic constraints preclude smooth point stabilizability we introduce ...


Model-Iq: Uncertainty Propagation From Sensing To Modeling And Control In Buildings., Madhur Behl, Truong Nghiem, Rahul Mangharam 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Model-Iq: Uncertainty Propagation From Sensing To Modeling And Control In Buildings., Madhur Behl, Truong Nghiem, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

A fundamental problem in the design of closed-loop Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is in accurately capturing the dynamics of the underlying physical system. To provide optimal control for such closed-loop systems, model-based controls require accurate physical plant models. It is hard to analytically establish (a) how data quality from sensors affects model accuracy, and consequently, (b) the effect of model accuracy on the operational cost of model-based controllers. We present the Model-IQ toolbox which, given a plant model and real input data, automatically evaluates the effect of this uncertainty propagation from sensor data to model accuracy to controller performance. We apply ...


A Memory-Efficient Implementation Of Multi-Period Two- And Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming Models, Bruno Abreu Calfa 2014 Carnegie Mellon University

A Memory-Efficient Implementation Of Multi-Period Two- And Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming Models, Bruno Abreu Calfa

Department of Chemical Engineering

The objective of this paper is to describe a method of implementing multi-period two- and multi-stage Stochastic Programming (SP) models with exogenous uncertainty that is modeling-platform and programming-language independent. The proposed implementation approach generates an implicit extensive form of the SP model in contrast to an explicit formulation, which explicitly accounts for the sequence of decisions, thus introducing redundant variables and constraints in the model. The efficiency of the proposed implementation approach with respect to memory usage, thus problem size, is achieved with the introduction of three sets of auxiliary parameters in the mathematical formulation of the deterministic equivalent stochastic ...


The Segmentation Of Innovation: How Digital Design, Rapid Prototyping, And A Sharing Culture Are Changing The Npd Landscape, Sebastian K. Fixson, Tucker J. Marion 2014 Babson College

The Segmentation Of Innovation: How Digital Design, Rapid Prototyping, And A Sharing Culture Are Changing The Npd Landscape, Sebastian K. Fixson, Tucker J. Marion

Technology, Operations & Information Management Working Papers

A ‘perfect storm’ of digital design, rapid prototyping, and social networking is fundamentally reshaping the new product development (NPD) landscape. Beyond design iteration speed and efficiency, this paradigm shift is affecting the locus of expertise and the form of ownership, which in turn enables achieving new levels of product performance and low cost as well as new forms of collaboration and transactions.

We identify four separate regions in this new NPD landscape, and label them traditional, entrepreneurial, community, and guild. Each NPD region is characterized by its own set of stakeholders and interaction dynamics. To help practicing R&D managers ...


Citations Of Articles Authored By Wojciech M. Budzianowski, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2014 SelectedWorks

Citations Of Articles Authored By Wojciech M. Budzianowski, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Adaptive Real-Time Seaport Security (Dynaportsec) - Integrated Portsec, Game Theory And Adaptive Adversary, Michael D. Orosz, Milind Tambe, Heather Rosoff 2014 CREATE

Adaptive Real-Time Seaport Security (Dynaportsec) - Integrated Portsec, Game Theory And Adaptive Adversary, Michael D. Orosz, Milind Tambe, Heather Rosoff

Current Research Project Synopses

The protection of seaports and other key physical infrastructures requires access to information and analytics to process that information into actionable intelligence. Considerable resources have been committed over the past several years to the collection and presentation of information as it relates to security and protecting the physical infrastructure from both man-made and natural calamities (e.g., “Virtual Port” at the Port of Long Beach). Although these systems greatly enhance the situational awareness capabilities of the human decision-maker, they lack the necessary analytics required to help decision-makers make sense of the collected information and determine how best to protect the ...


Economic Consequences Of Terrorism (3 Integrated Proposals), Adam Z. Rose 2014 CREATE

Economic Consequences Of Terrorism (3 Integrated Proposals), Adam Z. Rose

Current Research Project Synopses

This project will continue to enhance, broaden and transition the CREATE Economic Consequence Analysis Framework. I will continue to coordinate and perform research on integrating behavioral considerations and resilience into economic models of an economy impacted by a terrorist attack, and to maintain and upgrade CREATE’s suite of economic consequence analysis models. I will place a greater emphasis on transforming CREATE’s sophisticated/high performance computing CGE models to “reduced form” regression equations that can readily be used in- house by DHS staff. Also, I will begin a major thrust area on Enterprise Risk Management.


Synthesizing Instruction And Inoculation In Tailored Crisis Communication Messages Of Self-Efficacy, Tim Sellnow 2014 CREATE

Synthesizing Instruction And Inoculation In Tailored Crisis Communication Messages Of Self-Efficacy, Tim Sellnow

Current Research Project Synopses

For too long, government agencies presumed that a single warning shared through standard media channels was sufficient for reaching all stakeholders during a crisis. This linear view fails to account for the diverse informational needs and cultural constraints within the broad audiences that are confronted by crises (Sellnow, Ulmer, Seeger, & Littlefield). As a means of addressing variance of audience needs, more recent scholarship has bridged instructional research with risk communication. The objective of this blended approach is to enhance an organization or agency’s capacity to generate messages that attend to the varying learning styles inherent in their audiences. Moreover, this line of research seeks to account for varying cultural preferences in crisis messages. Through ongoing message testing procedures, current research seeks to engage diverse audiences in a dialogue of message preferences prior to a crisis situation. One promising line of such instructional or informative communication focuses on inoculating or two-sided persuasion messages. These messages, delivered before a crisis and at the onset of a crisis recovery period, have the potential for diminishing loss of confidence in government agencies or in expediting the recovery of confidence for these agencies.

This project provides a framework for establishing communication strategies that, when implemented routinely prior to a crisis can reduce recovery time and enhance public resilience. Current research provides a detailed summary of effective crisis communication. Existing research, however has only recently begun to evaluate the effectiveness of communication strategies used prior to an acute crisis event. This project focuses on two highly relevant communication aspects in maintaining or rebuilding public confidence—accepting uncertainty and self-protection (Seeger, 2006; Sellnow, Ulmer, Seeger, & Littlefield, 2009). We selected these two aspects because of their salience in current literature and because of our presumption that they have relevance to post-crisis recovery. This project will build on previous research that has (a) successfully identified the importance of instructional messages in raising the perceived ...


Using Risk Analysis To Assess The Value Of Improved Biosurveillance, Henry H. Willis 2014 CREATE

Using Risk Analysis To Assess The Value Of Improved Biosurveillance, Henry H. Willis

Current Research Project Synopses

The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Health Affairs (DHS-OHA) manages the National Biosurveillance Integration Center (NBIC) to enable early warning and shared situational awareness of bioterrorism and pandemic disease events. NBIC’s goal is to improve public response to these incidents by disseminating warning and recommended actions to the appropriate interagency partners in a timely fashion. Strategic Goal 2 of the NBIC Strategic Plan (DHS 2012) establishes a directive for DHS to:

Enhance federal government ability to rapidly identify, characterize, localize, and track a biological event of national concern by integrating and analyzing information relating to human health, animal ...


Modeling Attacker-Defender Games With Risk Preference, Jun Zhuang 2014 CREATE

Modeling Attacker-Defender Games With Risk Preference, Jun Zhuang

Current Research Project Synopses

Traditional models of attacker-defender games generally assume that players are risk-neutral; i.e. they choose strategies that maximize their expected payoff or benefit. In practice, decision makers could be either risk seeking or risk averse, which has not been extensively studied in the attacker-defender game literature. For example, terrorists could have risk preferences (Yang et al. 2013); and Phillips (2013) even estimated the coefficient of relative risk-aversion for Al-Qaeda. Government could be risk averse: Standish (2002) argued that Western governments tend to be extremely risk-averse and constantly introduce disruptive risk-averse policies in many areas such as air travel security; Stewart ...


Analyzing Current And Future Catastrophic Risks From Emerging-Threat Technologies, Anthony Michael Barrett 2014 CREATE

Analyzing Current And Future Catastrophic Risks From Emerging-Threat Technologies, Anthony Michael Barrett

Current Research Project Synopses

Events such as terrorist attacks and technological accidents can have a range of possible consequences. Potential events with extremely catastrophic consequences merit at least some risk analyses of greater scope, including longer time horizons, than for less-consequential events. Some rapidly developing technologies, such as in synthetic biology or critical infrastructure control systems, pose much greater risks of catastrophe in the future than they do today. These risks could be significantly reduced with enough foresight and advance warning. However, risk assessments that focus on what is possible in the relatively near term may overlook indicators of developments that would enable more-catastrophic ...


Calibration Of Expert Judgments In Counterterrorism Risk Assessment, Vicki M. Bier 2014 CREATE

Calibration Of Expert Judgments In Counterterrorism Risk Assessment, Vicki M. Bier

Current Research Project Synopses

The purpose of this research is to develop an elicitation process to effectively assess important quantities, such as adversary intent and capabilities, target vulnerabilities, and countermeasure costs, by aggregating probabilistic judgments given by multiple experts. In particular, in the proposed method, a panel of subject-matter experts with differing backgrounds and interests would be asked to give estimates for the uncertain quantities of interest, as well as a set of “seed variables” whose values are verifiable using historical or anticipated near-future data. To adequately reflect the experts’ levels of confidence or uncertainty about each quantity of interest, they would be asked ...


Modeling The Dynamics Of Risk Perception And Fear: Examining Amplifying Mechanisms And Their Consequences, William J. Burns 2014 CREATE

Modeling The Dynamics Of Risk Perception And Fear: Examining Amplifying Mechanisms And Their Consequences, William J. Burns

Current Research Project Synopses

The purpose of this research is to improve our understanding of how perceived risk and negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger, sadness) might spread throughout a community and ripple to other parts of the nation following events differing in their risk signal. It specifically seeks to understand the public’s comparative response to a wide array of hazards. It also seeks to examine how the effects of risk communication messaging spread throughout a population offering protection from counterproductive attitudes and behaviors. This work significantly extends the system dynamics modeling done by Burns and Slovic, decision modeling by Rosoff et al ...


Individuals’ Responses To Near-Miss Events Over Time, Robin Dillon-Merrill 2014 CREATE

Individuals’ Responses To Near-Miss Events Over Time, Robin Dillon-Merrill

Current Research Project Synopses

This research team has been studying near-miss events and individuals’ reactions to near-miss events for several years as part of the CREATE effort. We have also been closely collaborating for several years with CREATE researchers: William Burns, Richard John, and Heather Rosoff. While this is a proposal submitted by Georgetown University, the work will be collaborative with our USC-CREATE colleagues, and we will be focused on developing insights and recommendations that can support the economic modeling efforts of CREATE. After most catastrophes, prior near-misses are identified. Near-misses occur when a negative event could have happened (for example, because of hazardous ...


Economy-Wide Modeling For Analysis Of Major Disruptive Events: Terrorism, Natural Disasters And Accidents, Peter B. Dixon 2014 CREATE

Economy-Wide Modeling For Analysis Of Major Disruptive Events: Terrorism, Natural Disasters And Accidents, Peter B. Dixon

Current Research Project Synopses

The Centre of Policy Studies (CoPS) at Monash University has developed several versions of the USAGE model of the United States and applied them in collaboration with Adam Rose and other colleagues at CREATE in analyses of various terrorism/security-related events including port closures, disease epidemics and localized infrastructure damage. In 2011, CoPS created a bottom-up regional version of USAGE, called USAGE-R. This is the first bottom-up CGE model of the U.S. USAGE-R identifies the 50 states of the U.S. as 50 separate economies closely linked by interstate trade and interstate movement of people and capital. The initial ...


Systematic Exploration Of Public Response To Experimentally Manipulated Disaster Events (Terror And Non-Terror) Using Video-Based Scenario Simulation, Richard John, Heather Rosoff 2014 CREATE

Systematic Exploration Of Public Response To Experimentally Manipulated Disaster Events (Terror And Non-Terror) Using Video-Based Scenario Simulation, Richard John, Heather Rosoff

Current Research Project Synopses

The objective of this research is to formulate a better understanding of how the public perceives the risk associated with disaster events (terrorist attacks and natural disasters) and the influence this has on behavioral decision making. More specifically, we propose to systematically explore perceived risk and avoidance behavior in response to the role of near-misses and false alarms, gain-loss framing, social media, and event attribution (could be a person – e.g., terrorist caused, or pilot saving the damaged plane, a system – e.g. security system, and so forth) both in the immediate and in the long-term. In the event of ...


Enhancing Post-Disaster Economic Recovery: How Improved Flood Insurance Mechanisms Can Help, Howard Kunreuther, Erwann Michel-Kerjan 2014 CREATE

Enhancing Post-Disaster Economic Recovery: How Improved Flood Insurance Mechanisms Can Help, Howard Kunreuther, Erwann Michel-Kerjan

Current Research Project Synopses

Floods have historically been the most devastating natural hazards in America. Still, millions of Americans continue to move to coastal areas every year, exposing themselves to flood and storm risk. As of December 2012, there were a staggering $15 trillion of insured assets in coastal states from Texas to Maine.

Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall in the highly populated New York-New Jersey region in October 2012, is the latest reminder of our vulnerability to natural disasters, causing an estimated $80 billion in damage, most of which was flood-related (storm surge directly on the coast and heavy precipitation inland). Given the ...


Support For Dhs Risk Executive Steering Committee – Comprehensive Survey Of Analytic Guidelines, And Their Potential Applicability To Dhs Problems: General Scientific Analysis, Isaac Maya 2014 CREATE

Support For Dhs Risk Executive Steering Committee – Comprehensive Survey Of Analytic Guidelines, And Their Potential Applicability To Dhs Problems: General Scientific Analysis, Isaac Maya

Current Research Project Synopses

DHS plans to further develop guidance for standardizing analyses practices to facilitate high quality, data fidelity, utility of results, and appropriate consistency for the analyses performed by DHS Components and Offices. As a starting point for developing this guidance, DHS requires a survey and review of similar guidance used across the US government, as well as other sources (e.g., the National Academies and various professional societies).


Working Together For A Safer Tomorrow, Lloyd W. Mitchell III 2014 CREATE

Working Together For A Safer Tomorrow, Lloyd W. Mitchell Iii

Current Research Project Synopses

Working Together for A Safer Tomorrow attempts to reduce the economic impact of terror and disaster events in Tribally Inclusive Geographic Areas (TIGA). Introduced in Year 6, TIGA include both tribal communities and neighboring non-tribal communities and governments. Specifically, Working Together for A Safer Tomorrow, through a variety of inter-jurisdictional approaches, provides risk reduction educational and outreach opportunities for American Indian tribes, tribal corporations, tribal colleges, tribal gaming enterprises, Alaska Native villages, Alaska Native corporations, and adjacent governments and neighboring non-tribal communities. WTST activities work within TIGA by providing opportunities to work together as collaborators to identify risks, analyze data ...


Mechanika Płynów Lab., Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2014 SelectedWorks

Mechanika Płynów Lab., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


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