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Patient-Specific Bone Implants Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Matthew C. Frank, Ashish Mukund Joshi, Donald D. Anderson, Thaddeus P. Thomas, M. James Rudert, Yuki Tochigi, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown 2017 Iowa State University

Patient-Specific Bone Implants Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Matthew C. Frank, Ashish Mukund Joshi, Donald D. Anderson, Thaddeus P. Thomas, M. James Rudert, Yuki Tochigi, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown

Matthew C. Frank

This research involves the development of rapid manufacturing for patient-specific bone implants using a Subtractive Rapid Prototyping process. The geometry of segmental defects in bone, resulting from traumatic injury or cancerous tumor resection, can be reverse-engineered from medical images (such as CT scans), and then accurate defect fillers can be automatically generated in advanced synthetic or otherwise bioactive/biocompatible materials. This paper presents a general process planning methodology that begins with CT imaging and results in the automatic generation of process plans for a subtractive RP system. This work uniquely enables the rapid manufacturing of implant fillers with several key ...


Creating Implants From Allograft Bone Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Matthew C. Frank, Ashish Mukund Joshi, Shuangyan Lei, Donald D. Anderson, Yuki Tochigi, Thomas D. Brown 2017 Iowa State University

Creating Implants From Allograft Bone Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Matthew C. Frank, Ashish Mukund Joshi, Shuangyan Lei, Donald D. Anderson, Yuki Tochigi, Thomas D. Brown

Matthew C. Frank

This research involves the development of rapid manufacturing for bone implants using human allograft bone in a Subtractive Rapid Prototyping process. Using CT-derived CAD models of missing bone due to high energy trauma or tumor resection, surgical reconstruction could be improved with custom rapid implants made from natural bone. The bone “stock” material is of arbitrary shape and material distribution in the form of frozen donated cadaveric bones. Each is unique in shape and has highly anisotropic material properties; likewise for each final bone implant geometry and its material distribution. This work utilizes a PLY input file, instead of the ...


Additive/Subtractive Rapid Pattern Manufacturing For Casting Patterns And Injection Mold Tooling, Matthew C. Frank, Frank Peters, Rajesh Kumar Karthikeyan 2017 Iowa State University

Additive/Subtractive Rapid Pattern Manufacturing For Casting Patterns And Injection Mold Tooling, Matthew C. Frank, Frank Peters, Rajesh Kumar Karthikeyan

Matthew C. Frank

This paper presents a Rapid Pattern Manufacturing system that involves both additive and subtractive techniques whereby slabs are sequentially bonded and milled using layered toolpaths. Patterns are grown in a bottom-up fashion, both eliminating the need for multi-axis operations and allowing small features in deep cavities. Similar approaches exist in the literature; however, this system is able to provide a larger range of both materials and sizes, from smaller conventional injection mold tooling to very large wood or urethane sand casting patterns. This method introduces a novel sacrificial support structure approach by integrating a flask into the pattern build process ...


Evaluation Of The Display Of Cognitive State Feedback To Drive Adaptive Task Sharing, Michael C. Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D. Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Display Of Cognitive State Feedback To Drive Adaptive Task Sharing, Michael C. Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D. Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. A traditional closed-loop adaptive system includes ...


Rapid Manufacturing In Biomedical Materials: Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping For Bone Replacement, Matthew C. Frank, Christopher V. Hunt, Donald D. Anderson, Todd O. McKinley, Thomas D. Brown 2017 Iowa State University

Rapid Manufacturing In Biomedical Materials: Using Subtractive Rapid Prototyping For Bone Replacement, Matthew C. Frank, Christopher V. Hunt, Donald D. Anderson, Todd O. Mckinley, Thomas D. Brown

Matthew C. Frank

This paper presents methods for the rapid manufacturing of replacement bone fragments using a Subtractive Rapid Prototyping process called CNC-RP. The geometry of segmental defects in bone, resulting from traumatic injury or cancerous tumor resection, can be reverse-engineered working from medical images (such as CT scans), and then accurate defect fillers can be automatically generated in advanced synthetic biomaterials and other bioactive/biocompatible materials. The research provides evidence that suitable bone geometries can be created using subtractive RP from a variety of materials including Trabecular Metal® (porous tantalum), polymers, ceramics, and actual bone allografts. The research has implications in the ...


Advanced Process Planning For Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Joseph Edward Petrzelka, Matthew C. Frank 2017 Iowa State University

Advanced Process Planning For Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, Joseph Edward Petrzelka, Matthew C. Frank

Matthew C. Frank

This paper presents process planning methods for Subtractive Rapid Prototyping, which deals with multiple setup operations and the related issues of stock material management. Subtractive Rapid Prototyping (SRP) borrows from additive rapid prototyping technologies by using 2½D layer based toolpath processing; however, it is limited by tool accessibility. To counter the accessibility problem, SRP systems (such as desktop milling machines) employ a rotary fourth axis to provide more complete surface coverage. However, layer-based removal processing from different rotary positions can be inefficient due to double-coverage of certain volumes. This paper presents a method that employs STL models of the in-process ...


Economics Of Sacrificial Fixturing For Cnc Machining And Rapid Manufacturing, Kevin McBrearty, Richard A. Wysk, Matthew C. Frank 2017 The Pennsylvania State University

Economics Of Sacrificial Fixturing For Cnc Machining And Rapid Manufacturing, Kevin Mcbrearty, Richard A. Wysk, Matthew C. Frank

Matthew C. Frank

This paper presents a fixturing method for sacrificial fixturing machining using CNC equipment. The focus of the paper is not on the method itself, but on the economics of sacrificial fixturing CNC machining, which defines the domain of use for the results described in the paper. The paper presents an economic model of machining, and then analyzes the use of the method as a function of: the number of parts to be produced, the ratio of material removed to final part volume, the number of features on the part, and the basic part geometry. We conclude that sacrificial fixturing is ...


Implementing Rapid Prototyping Using Cnc Machining (Cnc-Rp) Through A Cad/Cam Interface, Matthew C. Frank 2017 Iowa State University

Implementing Rapid Prototyping Using Cnc Machining (Cnc-Rp) Through A Cad/Cam Interface, Matthew C. Frank

Matthew C. Frank

This paper presents the methodology and implementation of a rapid machining system using a CAD/CAM interface. Rapid Prototyping using CNC Machining (CNC-RP) is a method that has been developed which enables automatic generation of process plans for a machined component. The challenge with CNC-RP is not the technical problems of material removal, but with all of the required setup, fixture and toolpath planning, which has previously required a skilled machinist. Through the use of advanced geometric algorithms, we have implemented an interface with a CAD/CAM system that allows true automatic NC code generation directly from a CAD model ...


Automated Fixture Design For A Rapid Machining Process, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Matthew C. Frank 2017 Iowa State University

Automated Fixture Design For A Rapid Machining Process, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Matthew C. Frank

Matthew C. Frank

Rapid prototyping techniques for CNC machining have been developed in an effort to produce functional prototypes in appropriate materials. One of the major challenges for rapid machining is to develop an automatic fixturing system for securing the part during the machining process. The method proposed in this paper is the use of sacrificial fixturing, similar to the support structures in existing rapid processes like Stereolithography. During the machining process, sacrificial supports emerge incrementally and, at the end of the process, are the only entities connecting the part to the stock material. This paper presents methodologies for the design of sacrificial ...


A Computational/Experimental Platform For Investigating Three- Dimensional Puzzle Solving Of Comminuted Articular Fractures, Thaddeus P. Thomas, Donald D. Anderson, Andrew Willis, Pengcheng Liu, Matthew C. Frank, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown 2017 University of Iowa

A Computational/Experimental Platform For Investigating Three- Dimensional Puzzle Solving Of Comminuted Articular Fractures, Thaddeus P. Thomas, Donald D. Anderson, Andrew Willis, Pengcheng Liu, Matthew C. Frank, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown

Matthew C. Frank

Reconstructing highly comminuted articular fractures poses a difficult surgical challenge, akin to solving a complicated three-dimensional (3D) puzzle. Pre-operative planning using CT is critically important, given the desirability of less invasive surgical approaches. The goal of this work is to advance 3D puzzle solving methods toward use as a pre-operative tool for reconstructing these complex fractures. Methodology for generating typical fragmentation/dispersal patterns was developed. Five identical replicas of human distal tibia anatomy, were machined from blocks of high-density polyetherurethane foam (bone fragmentation surrogate), and were fractured using an instrumented drop tower. Pre- and post-fracture geometries were obtained using laser ...


A Method To Represent Heterogeneous Materials For Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach, Shuangyan Lei, Matthew C. Frank, Donald D. Anderson, Thomas D. Brown 2017 Iowa State University

A Method To Represent Heterogeneous Materials For Rapid Prototyping: The Matryoshka Approach, Shuangyan Lei, Matthew C. Frank, Donald D. Anderson, Thomas D. Brown

Matthew C. Frank

Purpose—The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones.

Design/methodology/approach—Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the ...


Effect Of Anthropometric Adjustments On Bmd And Bmc Z-Scores In A Population Of Prader-Willi Syndrome Pediatric Patients, Amanda E. Marker, David F. Short, Talia Eldar-Geva, Harry J. Hirsch, Varda Gross-Tsur, Maayan Tiomkin, Ari Zimran, Thomas N. Hangartner 2017 Wright State University

Effect Of Anthropometric Adjustments On Bmd And Bmc Z-Scores In A Population Of Prader-Willi Syndrome Pediatric Patients, Amanda E. Marker, David F. Short, Talia Eldar-Geva, Harry J. Hirsch, Varda Gross-Tsur, Maayan Tiomkin, Ari Zimran, Thomas N. Hangartner

Thomas N. Hangartner

Two adjustment models were applied to a dataset of bone-mineral density (BMD) and bone-mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). One model used weight, height and % body fat (WHF) in the calculation of Z-scores in addition to race, sex and age already included in the standard model. As percent body fat is not always available, a second model with only weight and height was also examined (WH).


Oculomotor Neurocircuitry, A Structural Connectivity Study Of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome, Nasser H. Kashou, Angelica R. Zampini 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Oculomotor Neurocircuitry, A Structural Connectivity Study Of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome, Nasser H. Kashou, Angelica R. Zampini

Nasser H. Kashou

Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) is one of the leading causes of significant vision loss in children and affects about 1 in 1000 to 6000 births. In the present study, we are the first to investigate the structural pathways of patients and controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Specifically, three female INS patients from the same family were scanned, two sisters and a mother. Six regions of interest (ROIs) were created manually to analyze the number of tracks. Additionally, three ROI masks were analyzed using TBSS (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). The number of fiber tracks was reduced in INS subjects, compared to ...


Lean Energy Analysis: Identifying, Discovering And Tracking Energy Savings Potential, J. Kelly Kissock, John Seryak 2017 University of Dayton

Lean Energy Analysis: Identifying, Discovering And Tracking Energy Savings Potential, J. Kelly Kissock, John Seryak

J. Kelly Kissock

Energy in manufacturing facilities is used for direct production of goods, space conditioning, and general facility support such as lighting. This paper presents a methodology, called lean energy analysis, LEA, for graphically and statistically analyzing plant energy use in terms of these major end uses.

The LEA methodology uses as few as 60 easily obtainable data points. Multivariable change-point models of electricity and natural gas use as functions of outdoor air temperature and production data are developed. The statistical models are used to subdivide plant energy use into facility, space-conditioning and production-related components.

These breakdowns suggest the savings potential from ...


Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency In Automotive Plants: Practical Examples And Implementation, Nasr Alkadi, J. Kelly Kissock 2017 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency In Automotive Plants: Practical Examples And Implementation, Nasr Alkadi, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)-General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler-are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of ...


Measuring Plant-Wide Energy Savings, J. Kelly Kissock, Carl Eger 2017 University of Dayton

Measuring Plant-Wide Energy Savings, J. Kelly Kissock, Carl Eger

J. Kelly Kissock

This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings and demonstrates the method using a case study from an actual industrial energy assessment. The method uses regression models to characterize baseline energy use. It takes into account changes in weather and production, and can use sub-metered data or whole plant utility billing data. In addition to calculating overall savings, the method is also able to disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional insight into the effectiveness of the individual savings measures. Although the method incorporates search techniques and multi-variable least-squares regression, it is easily implemented using data ...


Identifying Key Factors Of Rail Transit Service Quality: An Empirical Analysis For Istanbul, Erkan Isikli, Nezir Aydin, Erkan Celik, Alev Taskin Gumus 2017 Istanbul Technical University

Identifying Key Factors Of Rail Transit Service Quality: An Empirical Analysis For Istanbul, Erkan Isikli, Nezir Aydin, Erkan Celik, Alev Taskin Gumus

Journal of Public Transportation

Providing a high quality of service in public transportation is essential to reduce dissatisfactions stemming from traffic congestion and noise. Public transport providers need to find ways to dilute the effects of immoderate use of private cars in big cities while maintaining a sufficient level of customer satisfaction. This study aimed to identify the key service quality (SQ) factors that drive passenger satisfaction in Istanbul’s rail transit (RT) system using data obtained from an extensive survey conducted by the Istanbul Public Transportation Co. A total of 11,116 passengers who used rail transport from May 15–June 3, 2012 ...


An Improved Convergence Analysis Of Cyclic Block Coordinate Descent-Type Methods For Strongly Convex Minimization, Xingguo Li, Tuo Zhao, Raman Arora, Han Liu, Mingyi Hong 2017 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

An Improved Convergence Analysis Of Cyclic Block Coordinate Descent-Type Methods For Strongly Convex Minimization, Xingguo Li, Tuo Zhao, Raman Arora, Han Liu, Mingyi Hong

Mingyi Hong

The cyclic block coordinate descent-type (CBCD-type) methods have shown remarkable computational performance for solving strongly convex minimization problems. Typical applications include many popular statistical machine learning methods such as elastic-net regression, ridge penalized logistic regression, and sparse additive regression. Existing optimization literature has shown that the CBCD-type methods attain iteration complexity of O(p · log(1/e)), where e is a pre-specified accuracy of the objective value, and p is the number of blocks. However, such iteration complexity explicitly depends on p, and therefore is at least p times worse than those of gradient descent methods. To bridge this theoretical ...


Quantized Consensus Admm For Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization, Shengyu Zhu, Mingyi Hong, Biao Chen 2017 Syracuse University

Quantized Consensus Admm For Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization, Shengyu Zhu, Mingyi Hong, Biao Chen

Mingyi Hong

Abstract: This paper considers multi-agent distributed optimization with quantized communication which is needed when inter-agent communications are subject to finite capacity and other practical constraints. To minimize the global objective formed by a sum of local convex functions, we develop a quantized distributed algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Under certain convexity assumptions, it is shown that the proposed algorithm converges to a consensus within log1+η Ω iterations, where η > 0 depends on the network topology and the local objectives, and O is a polynomial fraction depending on the quantization resolution, the distance between initial ...


Convergence Analysis Of Alternating Direction Method Of Multipliers For A Family Of Nonconvex Problems, Mingyi Hong, Zhi-Quan Luo, Mesiam Razaviyayn 2017 Iowa State University

Convergence Analysis Of Alternating Direction Method Of Multipliers For A Family Of Nonconvex Problems, Mingyi Hong, Zhi-Quan Luo, Mesiam Razaviyayn

Mingyi Hong

The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is widely used to solve large-scale linearly constrained optimization problems, convex or nonconvex, in many engineering fields. However there is a general lack of theoretical understanding of the algorithm when the objective function is nonconvex. In this paper we analyze the convergence of the ADMM for solving certain nonconvex consensus and sharing problems. We show that the classical ADMM converges to the set of stationary solutions, provided that the penalty parameter in the augmented Lagrangian is chosen to be sufficiently large. For the sharing problems, we show that the ADMM is convergent regardless ...


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