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Applying Probabilistic Methods To The Nato Military Load Classification System For Bridges, Andrew J. MacDonald 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Applying Probabilistic Methods To The Nato Military Load Classification System For Bridges, Andrew J. Macdonald

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Military vehicles frequently use civilian bridges. The loading effects of military vehicles, both wheeled and tracked, are specific and different than those of civilian vehicles in normal traffic. Calibration to determine appropriate load factors for military loading of civilian bridges has not been fully performed and the corresponding levels of safety have not been quantified. This lack of calibration prevents the implementation of limit state design methods for military bridges and the evaluation bridges for military loading. This thesis quantifies probabilistically the single lane traffic load effects on interior girders of simply supported slab-on-girder bridges for three military vehicles in ...


Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken 2014 Leuphana University Lüneburg

Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken

communication +1

This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and 'critical' technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of
"hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson 2014 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Blast Wave Transmission Through A Surrogate Head, Yi Hua, Praveen Akula, Linxia Gu, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

This work is to develop an experiment-validated numerical model to elucidate the wave transmission mechanisms through a surrogate head under blast loading. Repeated shock tube tests were conducted on a surrogate head, i.e., water-filled polycarbonate shell. Surface strain on the skull simulant and pressure inside the brain simulant were recorded at multiple locations. A numerical model was developed to capture the shock wave propagation within the shock tube and the fluid-structure interaction between the shock wave and the surrogate head. The obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements. The experiment-validated numerical model was then used to further ...


Cooperative Construction In Schools In California, John Mauck Donley 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Cooperative Construction In Schools In California, John Mauck Donley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Cooperative Construction in Schools in California

John M. Donley

The construction industry has lost efficiency since 1964, while becoming increasingly more litigious. Schools in California can ill afford the time to allow the construction industry time to fully evolve. It may take years or decades to fully improve the efficiency of, and reduce the conflict within the construction industry.

At the same time, the construction industry has developed new processes to improve efficiency and reduce conflict. These processes are beginning to be broadly embraced by the industry. They all contain cooperative elements. Taken together they represent a new organizing principle ...


Risk A Lot Or Risk Averse? Studies From The Southbank Ppp, Norman Jagger 2014 Bond University

Risk A Lot Or Risk Averse? Studies From The Southbank Ppp, Norman Jagger

Public Infrastructure Bulletin

In the late 1990s the Queensland Government announced its first Public Private Partnership (PPP) contract. No Queensland public sector agency had PPP experience and the search for a suitable project that would test the new Queensland PPP policy evoked disparate expectations within government and within the private sector. The subsequent debate was long, arduous and highly charged on issues of ideology, government business and risk.

The Government accepted the business case for the redevelopment of the Southbank Education and Training Precinct (SETP) and nominated Southbank Institute of TAFE (SBIT) as the public sector agency to lead the procurement of the ...


Traffic Risk In The Australian Toll Road Sector, John Black 2014 Bond University

Traffic Risk In The Australian Toll Road Sector, John Black

Public Infrastructure Bulletin

The article seeks to provide an answer to question about the role of the state in infrastructure planning and delivery and why have Australian state governments been keen to embrace the PPP model of procurement for roads, bridges and tunnels. A contemporary issue is the accuracy of the traffic forecasts on toll roads procured by governments with the PPP model. The “traffic forecasters” in Australia are identified and the broad order of magnitude are the accuracies of their forecasts on projected traffic for toll facilities compared with the actual opening traffic are analysed. Performance is poor (on average, traffic is ...


The Study Of Safety Governance For Service Robots: On Open-Texture Risk, Yueh-Hsuan Weng 2014 Peking University Law School

The Study Of Safety Governance For Service Robots: On Open-Texture Risk, Yueh-Hsuan Weng

Yueh-Hsuan Weng

The emergence of steam and microelectrical machines in society gradually expanded since the era of the Industrial Revolution. Up until now, human beings have already co-existed with these machines for more than two centuries, and contemporary laws have developed preventional regulatory frameworks. These frameworks are based on risk assessments to supervise the safety of microelectrical machines which include automobiles, railway systems, elevators and industrial robots, etc. Regulators, especially South Korea and Japan expect human-robot co-existence societies to emerge within the next decade. These next generation robots will be capable of adapting to complex, unstructured environments and interact with humans to ...


Development Of Safety Standards For Cubesat Propulsion Systems, Liam Jon Cheney 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Development Of Safety Standards For Cubesat Propulsion Systems, Liam Jon Cheney

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The CubeSat community has begun to develop and implement propulsion systems. This movement represents a new capability which may satisfy mission needs such as orbital and constellation maintenance, formation flight, de-orbit, and even interplanetary travel. With the freedom and capability granted by propulsion systems, CubeSat providers must accept new responsibilities in proportion to the potential hazards that propulsion systems may present.

The Cal Poly CubeSat program publishes and maintains the CubeSat Design Specification (CDS). They wish to help the CubeSat community to safety and responsibly expand its capabilities to include propulsive designs. For this reason, the author embarked on the ...


Analyzing Current And Future Catastrophic Risks From Emerging-Threat Technologies, Anthony Michael Barrett 2014 University of Southern California

Analyzing Current And Future Catastrophic Risks From Emerging-Threat Technologies, Anthony Michael Barrett

Current Research Project Narratives

Events such as terrorist attacks and technological accidents can have a range of possible consequences. Potential events with extremely catastrophic consequences merit at least some risk analyses of greater scope, including longer time horizons, than for less-consequential events. Some rapidly developing technologies, such as in synthetic biology or critical infrastructure control systems, pose much greater risks of catastrophe in the future than they do today. These risks could be significantly reduced with enough foresight and advance warning. However, risk assessments that focus on what is possible in the relatively near term may overlook indicators of developments that would enable more-catastrophic ...


Spatially Layered Defenses Against Terrorism Using Decision And Risk Analysis, Detlof von Winterfeldt 2014 University of Southern California

Spatially Layered Defenses Against Terrorism Using Decision And Risk Analysis, Detlof Von Winterfeldt

Current Research Project Narratives

Year 10 will be the beginning of a new research effort by the PI, which was motivated by his involvement in a National Academy study on evaluating the effectiveness of the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA), a major effort of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Organization (DNDO). The GNDA employs a geographically layered defense strategy to prevent the theft and transportation of radiological and nuclear materials from a foreign source to a target in the US. The GNDA concept of a layered defense is similar to the concept of “defense in depth” promoted by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency for nuclear power ...


Using Risk Analysis To Assess The Value Of Improved Biosurveillance, Henry H. Willis 2014 RAND

Using Risk Analysis To Assess The Value Of Improved Biosurveillance, Henry H. Willis

Current Research Project Narratives

The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Health Affairs (DHS-OHA) manages the National Biosurveillance Integration Center (NBIC) to enable early warning and shared situational awareness of bioterrorism and pandemic disease events. NBIC’s goal is to improve public response to these incidents by disseminating warning and recommended actions to the appropriate interagency partners in a timely fashion. Strategic Goal 2 of the NBIC Strategic Plan (DHS 2012) establishes a directive for DHS to:

Enhance federal government ability to rapidly identify, characterize, localize, and track a biological event of national concern by integrating and analyzing information relating to human health, animal ...


Synthesizing Instruction And Inoculation In Tailored Crisis Communication Messages Of Self-Efficacy, Tim Sellnow 2014 CREATE

Synthesizing Instruction And Inoculation In Tailored Crisis Communication Messages Of Self-Efficacy, Tim Sellnow

Current Research Project Narratives

For too long, government agencies presumed that a single warning shared through standard media channels was sufficient for reaching all stakeholders during a crisis. This linear view fails to account for the diverse informational needs and cultural constraints within the broad audiences that are confronted by crises (Sellnow, Ulmer, Seeger, & Littlefield). As a means of addressing variance of audience needs, more recent scholarship has bridged instructional research with risk communication. The objective of this blended approach is to enhance an organization or agency’s capacity to generate messages that attend to the varying learning styles inherent in their audiences. Moreover, this line of research seeks to account for varying cultural preferences in crisis messages. Through ongoing message testing procedures, current research seeks to engage diverse audiences in a dialogue of message preferences prior to a crisis situation. One promising line of such instructional or informative communication focuses on inoculating or two-sided persuasion messages. These messages, delivered before a crisis and at the onset of a crisis recovery period, have the potential for diminishing loss of confidence in government agencies or in expediting the recovery of confidence for these agencies.

This project provides a framework for establishing communication strategies that, when implemented routinely prior to a crisis can reduce recovery time and enhance public resilience. Current research provides a detailed summary of effective crisis communication. Existing research, however has only recently begun to evaluate the effectiveness of communication strategies used prior to an acute crisis event. This project focuses on two highly relevant communication aspects in maintaining or rebuilding public confidence—accepting uncertainty and self-protection (Seeger, 2006; Sellnow, Ulmer, Seeger, & Littlefield, 2009). We selected these two aspects because of their salience in current literature and because of our presumption that they have relevance to post-crisis recovery. This project will build on previous research that has (a) successfully identified the importance of instructional messages in raising the perceived ...


Modeling The Dynamics Of Risk Perception And Fear: Examining Amplifying Mechanisms And Their Consequences, William J. Burns 2014 Cal State San Marcos

Modeling The Dynamics Of Risk Perception And Fear: Examining Amplifying Mechanisms And Their Consequences, William J. Burns

Current Research Project Narratives

The purpose of this research is to improve our understanding of how perceived risk and negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger, sadness) might spread throughout a community and ripple to other parts of the nation following events differing in their risk signal. It specifically seeks to understand the public’s comparative response to a wide array of hazards. It also seeks to examine how the effects of risk communication messaging spread throughout a population offering protection from counterproductive attitudes and behaviors. This work significantly extends the system dynamics modeling done by Burns and Slovic, decision modeling by Rosoff et al ...


Calibration Of Expert Judgments In Counterterrorism Risk Assessment, Vicki M. Bier 2014 University of Wisconsin–Madison

Calibration Of Expert Judgments In Counterterrorism Risk Assessment, Vicki M. Bier

Current Research Project Narratives

The purpose of this research is to develop an elicitation process to effectively assess important quantities, such as adversary intent and capabilities, target vulnerabilities, and countermeasure costs, by aggregating probabilistic judgments given by multiple experts. In particular, in the proposed method, a panel of subject-matter experts with differing backgrounds and interests would be asked to give estimates for the uncertain quantities of interest, as well as a set of “seed variables” whose values are verifiable using historical or anticipated near-future data. To adequately reflect the experts’ levels of confidence or uncertainty about each quantity of interest, they would be asked ...


Individuals’ Responses To Near-Miss Events Over Time, Robin Dillon-Merrill 2014 Georgetown University

Individuals’ Responses To Near-Miss Events Over Time, Robin Dillon-Merrill

Current Research Project Narratives

This research team has been studying near-miss events and individuals’ reactions to near-miss events for several years as part of the CREATE effort. We have also been closely collaborating for several years with CREATE researchers: William Burns, Richard John, and Heather Rosoff. While this is a proposal submitted by Georgetown University, the work will be collaborative with our USC-CREATE colleagues, and we will be focused on developing insights and recommendations that can support the economic modeling efforts of CREATE. After most catastrophes, prior near-misses are identified. Near-misses occur when a negative event could have happened (for example, because of hazardous ...


Proxy Decision Analysis For Adaptive Adversaries, Richard John, Heather Rosoff 2014 University of Southern California

Proxy Decision Analysis For Adaptive Adversaries, Richard John, Heather Rosoff

Current Research Project Narratives

The threat of terrorism is of great concern in many countries and significant resources are being spent to deter terrorism and to mitigate the impacts of terrorist attacks. A better understanding of terrorist organizations and their evolving motivations and values over time is a critical component to decisions about allocating resources to minimize the impact of these organizations.

During past years, we have focused on developing and validating our pioneering approach to adversary preference modeling (APM) through the construction of random utility models of terrorist preferences. For year 10, we propose developing and testing a tool that serves as a ...


Systematic Exploration Of Public Response To Experimentally Manipulated Disaster Events (Terror And Non-Terror) Using Video-Based Scenario Simulation, Richard John, Heather Rosoff 2014 University of Southern California

Systematic Exploration Of Public Response To Experimentally Manipulated Disaster Events (Terror And Non-Terror) Using Video-Based Scenario Simulation, Richard John, Heather Rosoff

Current Research Project Narratives

The objective of this research is to formulate a better understanding of how the public perceives the risk associated with disaster events (terrorist attacks and natural disasters) and the influence this has on behavioral decision making. More specifically, we propose to systematically explore perceived risk and avoidance behavior in response to the role of near-misses and false alarms, gain-loss framing, social media, and event attribution (could be a person – e.g., terrorist caused, or pilot saving the damaged plane, a system – e.g. security system, and so forth) both in the immediate and in the long-term. In the event of ...


Economy-Wide Modeling For Analysis Of Major Disruptive Events: Terrorism, Natural Disasters And Accidents, Peter B. Dixon 2014 Monash University

Economy-Wide Modeling For Analysis Of Major Disruptive Events: Terrorism, Natural Disasters And Accidents, Peter B. Dixon

Current Research Project Narratives

The Centre of Policy Studies (CoPS) at Monash University has developed several versions of the USAGE model of the United States and applied them in collaboration with Adam Rose and other colleagues at CREATE in analyses of various terrorism/security-related events including port closures, disease epidemics and localized infrastructure damage. In 2011, CoPS created a bottom-up regional version of USAGE, called USAGE-R. This is the first bottom-up CGE model of the U.S. USAGE-R identifies the 50 states of the U.S. as 50 separate economies closely linked by interstate trade and interstate movement of people and capital. The initial ...


Modeling Attacker-Defender Games With Risk Preference, Jun Zhuang 2014 University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Modeling Attacker-Defender Games With Risk Preference, Jun Zhuang

Current Research Project Narratives

Traditional models of attacker-defender games generally assume that players are risk-neutral; i.e. they choose strategies that maximize their expected payoff or benefit. In practice, decision makers could be either risk seeking or risk averse, which has not been extensively studied in the attacker-defender game literature. For example, terrorists could have risk preferences (Yang et al. 2013); and Phillips (2013) even estimated the coefficient of relative risk-aversion for Al-Qaeda. Government could be risk averse: Standish (2002) argued that Western governments tend to be extremely risk-averse and constantly introduce disruptive risk-averse policies in many areas such as air travel security; Stewart ...


Game Theory For Security: New Domains, New Challenges, Milind Tambe 2014 CREATE

Game Theory For Security: New Domains, New Challenges, Milind Tambe

Current Research Project Narratives

Our research focuses on effective allocation of limited security resources using game theory, accounting for the capability of adversaries to observe and exploit security schedules and data collected from multiple and repeated interaction with adversaries. We make use of attacker-defender Stackelberg games, and apply machine learning (to learn from interactions) and advanced algorithms using game-theoretic analysis to find optimal security policies for the defender to implement. These policies account for the different characteristics of the targets, the intelligent response of an adversary, and evolve over time with data.

It is critical to note that this research provides a significant advance ...


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