# Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Commons™

## All Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

3,504 full-text articles. Page 2 of 150.

Efects Of Non‑Newtonian Viscosity On Arterial And Venous Fow And Transport, 2022 University of Michigan

#### Efects Of Non‑Newtonian Viscosity On Arterial And Venous Fow And Transport, Sabrina Lynch, Nitesh Nama, C Alberto Figueroa

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

It is well known that blood exhibits non-Newtonian viscosity, but it is generally modeled as a Newtonian fluid. However, in situations of low shear rate, the validity of the Newtonian assumption is questionable. In this study, we investigated differences between Newtonian and non-Newtonian hemodynamic metrics such as velocity, vorticity, and wall shear stress. In addition, we investigated cardiovascular transport using two different approaches, Eulerian mass transport and Lagrangian particle tracking. Non-Newtonian solutions revealed important differences in both hemodynamic and transport metrics relative to the Newtonian model. Most notably for the hemodynamic metrics, in-plane velocity and vorticity were consistently larger in …

Enhanced Electron Correlation And Significantly Suppressed Thermal Conductivity In Dirac Nodal-Line Metal Nanowires By Chemical Doping, 2022 Indiana University

#### Enhanced Electron Correlation And Significantly Suppressed Thermal Conductivity In Dirac Nodal-Line Metal Nanowires By Chemical Doping, Amanda L. Coughlin, Zhiliang Pan, Jeonghoon Hong, Tongxie Zhang, Xun Zhan, Wenqian Wu, Dongyue Xie, Tian Tong, Thomas Ruch, Jean J. Heremans, Jiming Bao, Herbert A. Fertig, Jian Wang, Jeongwoo Kim, Hanyu Zhu, Deyu Li, Shixiong Zhang

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Enhancing electron correlation in a weakly interacting topological system has great potential to promote correlated topological states of matter with extraordinary quantum properties. Here, the enhancement of electron correlation in a prototypical topological metal, namely iridium dioxide (IrO2), via doping with 3d transition metal vanadium is demonstrated. Single-crystalline vanadium-doped IrO2 nanowires are synthesized through chemical vapor deposition where the nanowire yield and morphology are improved by creating rough surfaces on substrates. Vanadium doping leads to a dramatic decrease in Raman intensity without notable peak broadening, signifying the enhancement of electron correlation. The enhanced electron correlation is further …

Exosomes Derived From Differentiated Human Admsc With The Schwann Cell Phenotype Modulate Peripheral Nerve-Related Cellular Functions, 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

#### Exosomes Derived From Differentiated Human Admsc With The Schwann Cell Phenotype Modulate Peripheral Nerve-Related Cellular Functions, Bo Liu, Yunfan Kong, Wen Shi, Mitchell Kuss, Ke Liao, Guoku Hu, Peng Xiao, Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Chittibabu Guda, Xinglong Wang, Yuguo Lei, Bin Duan

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Peripheral nerve regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge due to the unsatisfactory functional recovery and public health burden. Exosomes, especially those derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are promising as potential cell-free therapeutics and gene therapy vehicles for promoting neural regeneration. In this study, we reported the differentiation of human adipose derived MSCs (hADMSCs) towards the Schwann cell (SC) phenotype (hADMSC-SCs) and then isolated exosomes from hADMSCs with and without differentiation (i.e., dExo vs uExo). We assessed and compared the effects of uExo and dExo on antioxidative, angiogenic, antiinflammatory, and axon growth promoting properties by using various peripheral nerve-related cells. …

Surface Treatment Of Polyester Fabric With Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, 2022 Florida International University

#### Surface Treatment Of Polyester Fabric With Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Srujana Yellapragada

##### 2022 MME Undergraduate Research Symposium

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fabric, a recycled synthetic fiber, has been frequently studied to innovate increased usage in both the clothing and medical industry. Some include ways to dye the fabric so that it can be commercially used for the purpose of environmental conservation from frequent discard of nonrecyclable fabric. Some biomedical applications involve the application of plasma treatment to reduce bacteria adhesion and improve anti-bacterial properties on the fabric. However, neither has been successful due to a lack of understanding of the surface modification of PET fabric to enable such properties. The hypothesis is that hydrophobicity is an issue in …

Phase Space Analysis Of Nonlinear Wave Propagation In A Bistable Mechanical Metamaterial With A Defect, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Phase Space Analysis Of Nonlinear Wave Propagation In A Bistable Mechanical Metamaterial With A Defect, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Piyush Grover

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We study the dynamics of solitary waves traveling in a one-dimensional chain of bistable elements in the presence of a local inhomogeneity (“defect”). Numerical simulations reveal that depending upon its initial speed, an incoming solitary wave can get transmitted, captured, or reflected upon interaction with the defect. The dynamics are dominated by energy exchange between the wave and a breather mode localized at the defect. We derive a reduced-order two degree of freedom Hamiltonian model for wave-breather interaction and analyze it using dynamical systems techniques. Lobe dynamics analysis reveals the fine structure of phase space that leads to the complicated …

Feedforward Control Of Thermal History In Laser Powder Bed Fusion: Toward Physics-Based Optimization Of Processing Parameters, 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

#### Feedforward Control Of Thermal History In Laser Powder Bed Fusion: Toward Physics-Based Optimization Of Processing Parameters, Alex Riensche, Benjamin D. Bevans, Ziyad M. Smoqi, Reza Yavari, Ajay Krishnan, Josie Gilligan, Nicholas Piercy, Kevin D. Cole, Prahalada K. Rao

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

We developed and applied a model-driven feedforward control approach to mitigate thermal-induced flaw formation in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process. The key idea was to avert heat buildup in a LPBF part before it is printed by adapting process parameters layer-by-layer based on insights from a physics-based thermal simulation model. The motivation being to replace cumbersome empirical build-and-test parameter optimization with a physics-guided strategy. The approach consisted of three steps: prediction, analysis, and correction. First, the temperature distribution of a part was predicted rapidly using a graph theory-based computational thermal model. Second, the model-derived thermal trends were …

A Method Of Assessing Peripheral Stent Abrasiveness Under Cyclic Deformations Experienced During Limb Movement, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### A Method Of Assessing Peripheral Stent Abrasiveness Under Cyclic Deformations Experienced During Limb Movement, Courtney Keiser, Kaspars Maleckis, Pauline Struczewska, Majid Jadidi, Jason N. Mactaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Poor outcomes of peripheral arterial disease stenting are often attributed to the inability of stents to accommodate the complex biomechanics of the flexed lower limb. Abrasion damage caused by rubbing of the stent against the artery wall during limb movement plays a significant role in reconstruction failure but has not been characterized. Our goals were to develop a method of assessing the abrasiveness of peripheral nitinol stents and apply it to several commercial devices. Misago, AbsolutePro, Innova, Zilver, SmartControl, SmartFlex, and Supera stents were deployed inside electrospun nanofibrillar tubes with femoropopliteal artery-mimicking mechanical properties and subjected to cyclic axial compression …

2022 Clemson University

#### Design Of Arbitrary Planar Optical Devices With Full Phase Control Using Nanoimprinting Of Refractive Index, Matthew Panipinto

##### All Theses

Planar optical devices offer a lightweight solution to the constraints found in traditional optical devices. While subwavelength patterning of optics offers attractive performance and size, traditional fabrication methods demand a trade-off between resolution and throughput that presents a significant hurdle for the widespread use of subwavelength devices. Nanoimprinting of refractive index (NIRI) is a novel fabrication method pioneered in previous work that offers promise in mitigating the throughput issues that hamstring traditional fabrication methods. However, NIRI has not been shown to impart full $2\pi$ phase control in planar optical devices, nor has a method for fabricating arbitrary designs using the …

Revealing The Pulse-Induced Electroplasticity By Decoupling Electron Wind Force, 2022 Zhejiang University

#### Revealing The Pulse-Induced Electroplasticity By Decoupling Electron Wind Force, Xing Li, Qi Zhu, Youran Hong, He Zheng, Jian Wang, Jiangwei Wang, Ze Zhang

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Micro/nano electromechanical systems and nanodevices often suffer from degradation under electrical pulse. However, the origin of pulse-induced degradation remains an open question. Herein, we investigate the defect dynamics in Au nanocrystals under pulse conditions. By decoupling the electron wind force via a properly-designed in situ TEM electropulsing experiment, we reveal a non-directional migration of Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundary upon electropulsing, in contrast to the expected directional migration under electron wind force. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that such exceptional incoherent twin boundary migration is governed by the electron-dislocation interaction that enhances the atom vibration at dislocation cores, rather than driven by the …

Highly Efficient, Perfect, Large Angular And Ultrawideband Solar Energy Absorber For Uv To Mir Range, 2022 Marwadi University

#### Highly Efficient, Perfect, Large Angular And Ultrawideband Solar Energy Absorber For Uv To Mir Range, Shobhit K. Patel, Arun Kumar Udayakumar, G. Mahendran, B. Vasudevan, Jaymit Surve, Juveriya Parmar

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Although different materials and designs have been tried in search of the ideal as well as ultrawideband light absorber, achieving ultra-broadband and robust unpolarized light absorption over a wide angular range has proven to be a major issue. Light-field regulation capabilities provided by optical metamaterials are a potential new technique for perfect absorbers. It is our goal to design and demonstrate an ultra-wideband solar absorber for the ultraviolet to a mid-infrared region that has an absorptivity of TE/TM light of 96.2% on average. In the visible, NIR, and MIR bands of the solar spectrum, the absorbed energy is determined to …

Finite Element-Based Machine Learning Model For Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Composite Hydrogels, 2022 Florida Institute of Technology

#### Finite Element-Based Machine Learning Model For Predicting The Mechanical Properties Of Composite Hydrogels, Yasin Shokrollahi, Pengfei Dong, Peshala T. Gamage, Nashaita Patrawalla, Vipuil Kishore, Hozhabr Mozafari, Linxia Gu

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, a finite element (FE)-based machine learning model was developed to predict the mechanical properties of bioglass (BG)-collagen (COL) composite hydrogels. Based on the experimental observation of BG-COL composite hydrogels with scanning electron microscope, 2000 microstructural images with randomly distributed BG particles were created. The BG particles have diameters ranging from 0.5 μm to 1.5 μm and a volume fraction from 17% to 59%. FE simulations of tensile testing were performed for calculating the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of 2000 microstructures. The microstructural images and the calculated Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio by FE simulation were used …

Explorer 14 Magnetron Sputterer (Pvd-05) Standard Operating Procedure, 2022 University of Pennsylvania

#### Explorer 14 Magnetron Sputterer (Pvd-05) Standard Operating Procedure, Mohsen Azadi, Jason Alexander Röhr

##### Standard Operating Procedures

Standard Operating Procedure for the Explorer 14 Magnetron Sputterer (PVD-05) located at the Quattrone Nanofabrication Facility within the Singh Center for Nanotechnology at the University of Pennsylvania

Large Refrigerant Capacity In Superparamagnetic Iron Nanoparticles Embedded In A Thin Film Matrix, 2022 North Carolina A&T State University

#### Large Refrigerant Capacity In Superparamagnetic Iron Nanoparticles Embedded In A Thin Film Matrix, Kaushik Sarkar, Surabhi Shaji, Jeffrey E. Shield, Christian H. Binek, Dhananjay Kumar

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with sizable isothermal entropy change (ΔS) maintained over a broad range of temperatures above the blocking temperature is reported for a rare earth-free superparamagnetic nanoparticle system comprising of Fe–TiN heterostructure. Superparamagnetic iron (Fe) particles were embedded in a titanium nitride (TiN) thin film matrix in a TiN/Fe/TiN multilayered pattern using a pulsed laser deposition method. High angle annular dark-field images in conjunction with dispersive energy analysis, recorded using scanning transmission electron microscopy, show a clear presence of alternating layers of Fe and TiN with a distinct atomic number contrast between Fe particles and TiN. Quantitative information …

A Nanofiber-Embedded Microfluidic Platform For Studying Neurobiology, 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

#### A Nanofiber-Embedded Microfluidic Platform For Studying Neurobiology, Donghee Lee, Navatha Shree Sharma, S. M. Shatil Shahriar, Kai Yang, Zheng Yan, Jingwei Xie

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Due to their biomimetic properties, electrospun nanofibers have been widely used in neurobiology studies. However, mechanistic understanding of cell-nanofiber interactions is challenging based on the current in vitro culture systems due to the lack of control of spatiotemporal patterning of cells and difficulty in monitoring single cell behavior. To overcome these issues, we apply microfluidic technology in combination with electrospun nanofibers for in vitro studies of interactions between neurons and nanofiber materials. We demonstrate a unique nanofiber embedded microfluidic device which contains patterned aligned or random electrospun nanofibers as a new culture system. With this device, we test how different …

Lesker Pvd75 E-Beam Evaporator (Pvd-04) Standard Operating Procedure, 2022 University of Pennsylvania

#### Lesker Pvd75 E-Beam Evaporator (Pvd-04) Standard Operating Procedure, David J. Jones, Jason A. Röhr

##### Standard Operating Procedures

Standard Operating Procedure for the Lesker PVD75 E-beam Evaporator (PVD-04) located at the Quattrone Nanofabrication Facility within the Singh Center for Nanotechnology at the University of Pennsylvania

Preface For Millard Beatty, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Preface For Millard Beatty, E. Baesu, Roger Fosdick

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Professor Beatty has contributed a wide variety of research papers and book articles on topics in finite elasticity, continuum mechanics and classical mechanics, including some fundamental experimental work. His works are clear and informative and expose a didactic quality. In the following, we briefly touch upon some of the highlights of his research involvement throughout the years.

Bi-Substituted Ferrite Garnet Type Magneto-Optic Materials Studied At Esri Nano-Fabrication Laboratories, Ecu, Australia, 2022 Edith Cowan University

#### Bi-Substituted Ferrite Garnet Type Magneto-Optic Materials Studied At Esri Nano-Fabrication Laboratories, Ecu, Australia, Mohammad Nur-E-Alam, Mikhail Vasiliev, Kamal Alameh

##### Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Since 2007, at the Electron Science Research Institute (ESRI) nano-fabrication laboratories, Edith Cowan University, Australia, we have devoted research efforts to the synthesis and characterization of bismuth-containing ferrite-garnet-type thin-film magneto-optic (MO) materials of different compositions. We report on the growth and characteristics of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered bismuth-substituted iron-garnet thin films. We study the process parameters associated with the RF magnetron sputter deposition technique and investigate the results of optimizing process parameters. To achieve the best MO properties, we employ a few unique techniques, such as co-sputtered nanocomposite films and all-garnet multilayer structures, as well as the application of …

Machine Learning-Based Peripheral Artery Disease Identification Using Laboratory-Based Gait Data, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Machine Learning-Based Peripheral Artery Disease Identification Using Laboratory-Based Gait Data, Ali Al-Ramini, Mahdi Hassan, Farahnaz Fallahtafti, Mohammad Ali Takallou, Basheer Qolomany, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Fadi Alsaleem, Sara A. Myers

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) manifests from atherosclerosis, which limits blood flow to the legs and causes changes in muscle structure and function, and in gait performance. PAD is underdiagnosed, which delays treatment and worsens clinical outcomes. To overcome this challenge, the purpose of this study is to develop machine learning (ML) models that distinguish individuals with and without PAD. This is the first step to using ML to identify those with PAD risk early. We built ML models based on previously acquired overground walking biomechanics data from patients with PAD and healthy controls. Gait signatures were characterized using ankle, knee, …

Machine Learning-Based Peripheral Artery Disease Identification Using Laboratory-Based Gait Data, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Machine Learning-Based Peripheral Artery Disease Identification Using Laboratory-Based Gait Data, Ali Al-Ramini, Mahdi Hassan, Farahnaz Fallahtafti, Mohammad Ali Takallou, Hafizur Rahman, Basheer Qolomany, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Fadi M. Alsaleem, Sara A. Myers

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) manifests from atherosclerosis, which limits blood flow to the legs and causes changes in muscle structure and function, and in gait performance. PAD is underdiagnosed, which delays treatment and worsens clinical outcomes. To overcome this challenge, the purpose of this study is to develop machine learning (ML) models that distinguish individuals with and without PAD. This is the first step to using ML to identify those with PAD risk early. We built ML models based on previously acquired overground walking biomechanics data from patients with PAD and healthy controls. Gait signatures were characterized using ankle, knee, …

Design Of An Innovative Hybrid Sandwich Protective Device For Offshore Structures, 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Design Of An Innovative Hybrid Sandwich Protective Device For Offshore Structures, Hozhabr Mozafari, Fabio Distefano, Gabriella Epasto, Linxia Gu, Emanoil Linul, Vincenzo Crupi

##### Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Lightweight foam sandwich structures have excellent energy absorption capacity, combined with good mechanical properties and low density. The main goal of this study is to test the application of an innovative hybrid sandwich protective device in an offshore wind turbine (OWT). The results are useful for offshore structure applications. Different lightweight materials (aluminum foam, agglomerated cork, and polyurethane foam) were investigated using experimental tests and numerical simulations. Closed-cell aluminum foam showed the best performance in terms of the energy absorption capacity during an impact. As such, a Metallic Foam Shell (MFS) device was proposed for the fender of offshore wind …