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Failures Of Mainline Railway Sleepers And Suggested Remedies-Review Of Current Practice, Wahid Ferdous 2014 SelectedWorks

Failures Of Mainline Railway Sleepers And Suggested Remedies-Review Of Current Practice, Wahid Ferdous

Wahid Ferdous

Over the last two decades, the premature failures of traditional railway sleepers have significantly increased the track maintenance costs. The primary obstacle to minimising this problem is the lack of understanding of the mechanism of sleeper degradation. This paper discusses the different deterioration mechanisms for traditional timber, concrete and steel sleepers and the potential protective measures to minimise these problems. This paper exhaustively reviews the failure mechanisms of these three commonly used sleeper materials with suggested solutions. Fungal decay, end splitting and termite attacks has been identified as the principal causes of timber sleeper failures. On the other hand, concrete ...


Assessment Of Policies For Innovative Financing In Infrastructure Systems, Ali Mostafavi, Dulcy Abraham, Charlene Sullivan 2014 Florida International University

Assessment Of Policies For Innovative Financing In Infrastructure Systems, Ali Mostafavi, Dulcy Abraham, Charlene Sullivan

Infrastructure System-of-Systems (I-SoS ) Research Group

Infrastructure systems are drivers of the economy in the nation. A dollar spent on infrastructure development yields roughly double the initial spending in ultimate economic output in the short term; and over a twenty-year period, and generalized ‘public investment’ produces an aggregated $3.21 of economic activity per $1.00 spent [1]. Thus, formulation of policies pertaining to infrastructure investment and development is of significance affecting the social and economic wellbeing of the nation. The aim of this policy brief is to evaluate innovative financing in infrastructure systems from two different perspectives: (1) through consideration of the current condition of ...


Turbulent Circular Culvert Flow: Implications To Fish Passage Design, Amin Mohebbi 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Turbulent Circular Culvert Flow: Implications To Fish Passage Design, Amin Mohebbi

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Culverts are popular conveyance structures in America and Canada to be used as a fish passage or in sewage collection and disposal systems. Fish passage design criteria is based on biological capabilities of fish whereas it should satisfy hydraulic and hydrological constraints as well. Failing to provide enough low velocity regions for aquatic organisms may result in their mass extinctions. Currently, proper road crossing design depends on either model studies or numerical simulations via Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) packages, both of which are expensive and time consuming. Further, although the design procedures released by FHWA recently ensures safe fish migration ...


Review Of Microbially Induced Corrosion And Comments On Needs Related To Testing Procedures, Mitchell House, W. J. Weiss 2014 Purdue University

Review Of Microbially Induced Corrosion And Comments On Needs Related To Testing Procedures, Mitchell House, W. J. Weiss

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Concrete is the most widely used material for the construction of the wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated Portland cement may make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multistage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion (MIC). MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on ...


Numerical Simulation Method For Fracture Effect Of Corroded Steel Strand Under Tension, Fumin Li, Yaxu Qu, Yu Zhao, Rong Lu 2014 Purdue University

Numerical Simulation Method For Fracture Effect Of Corroded Steel Strand Under Tension, Fumin Li, Yaxu Qu, Yu Zhao, Rong Lu

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Steel strand presents characteristic pitting corrosion in chloride environment, which leads PC structures to a serious structural failure even with light presentational corrosion. So it is necessary to analyze the fracture effect of steel strand caused by pitting corrosion. The theoretical analyses are difficult for the presence of complicated threedimension pits, so numerical method becomes a feasible choice. A numerical simulation method for fracture effect of corroded steel strand under tension by the ANSYS software is introduced in this paper, which contains mainly four issues such as fracture criterion, constitutive relation, geometrical models, and simplified mechanical models. The Mises strain ...


Effects Of Stirrups On Bond Behavior Between Concrete And Corroded Steel Bars, Hongwei Lin, Yuxi Zhao, Ming Sun 2014 Purdue University

Effects Of Stirrups On Bond Behavior Between Concrete And Corroded Steel Bars, Hongwei Lin, Yuxi Zhao, Ming Sun

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Steel corrosion leads to the deterioration of bond between concrete and steel bars. The serviceability and ultimate strength of concrete elements within RC structures are hence affected. Many researchers have studied the bond behavior of corroded steel bars. However, very few studies have investigated the effects of confinements on the degradation of bond strength. The present paper proposed a new kind of beam specimen based on which the effects of stirrups on degradation of bond were investigated. The test results proved that stirrups can effectively increase the bond strength between concrete and corroded steel bars.


Behavior Of Steel–Concrete Composite Beams With Corroded Shear Studs Under Negative Bending Moment, Ju Chen, A. Jiang, W. Jin 2014 Purdue University

Behavior Of Steel–Concrete Composite Beams With Corroded Shear Studs Under Negative Bending Moment, Ju Chen, A. Jiang, W. Jin

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The behavior of corroded steel–concrete composite beams under hogging moment was studied by experimental investigation and theoretical analysis. A total of eight specimens, six of which had corroded shear studs, were tested. The corrosion rate of studs ranged from 0 to approximately 50%. The constant-current accelerated corrosion method was adopted to accelerate the corrosion process. The loading test results indicated that the bending capacity of the corroded beams decreased slightly with increasing corrosion ratio of the studs. The corroded beams also exhibited an obvious decrease in bending rigid stiffness and increase in the slip between the steel beam and ...


Flexural Behavior Of Rc Beams Under Combined Effects Of Acid–Salt Mist And Carbon Dioxide, Wu Yuan-Zhou, Lv Heng-Lin, Fang Zhong-Nian 2014 Purdue University

Flexural Behavior Of Rc Beams Under Combined Effects Of Acid–Salt Mist And Carbon Dioxide, Wu Yuan-Zhou, Lv Heng-Lin, Fang Zhong-Nian

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The coupling effects of hydrochloric acid mist, carbon dioxide, and salt mist rich in Cl and SO42– on the degradation of reinforcement concrete (RC) beams were researched with the simulation of colliery ground environment (CGE) and experimental investigation. The results indicated that carbonation of concrete and corrosion of rebar increased slowly as the maximum width of crack became <0.5 mm. Meanwhile, the flexural carrying capacity of the deteriorated beam decreased slightly, while the concrete strength got a small increase first and a large decrease of more than 20% quickly. As the width of crack exceeded 0.5 mm, each target changed rapidly except the carbonation depth. Because of the interaction of deteriorated concrete and corroded rebar, the crack width, and flexural behavior of the beams have discrete correlation with the corrosion of rebar. The failure mode of beams changed from the crushing of compression concrete to the yielding of rebar.


Tensile Bond Between Substrate Concrete And Normal Repairing Mortar Under Freeze–Thaw Cycles, Ye Qian, Dawei Zhang, Tamon Ueda 2014 Purdue University

Tensile Bond Between Substrate Concrete And Normal Repairing Mortar Under Freeze–Thaw Cycles, Ye Qian, Dawei Zhang, Tamon Ueda

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Concrete patch repair has long been used to repair the damaged concrete structures. In cold regions, freeze– thaw cycle is one of the major damage factors. Not only the material itself is damaged by freeze–thaw cycles, but also the adhesive interface, which is regarded as the weakest part of composite system, degrades under freeze–thaw cycles. Air entraining agent has long been used to increase the freeze–thaw resistance of concrete materials. However, the effect of air entraining agent on the adhesive interface under freeze–thaw cycles has not been explored. The degradation mechanism and failure mode of concrete ...


Development Of Improved Electrodeposition Method For Repair Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Takahiro Nishida, Nobuaki Otsuki, Atsushi Saito 2014 Purdue University

Development Of Improved Electrodeposition Method For Repair Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Takahiro Nishida, Nobuaki Otsuki, Atsushi Saito

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Deterioration of reinforced concrete members and their repair methods have been reported in various concrete published reports. Electrodeposition method is one of these repair methods for repairing deteriorated concrete members using an electrochemical mechanism. The purposes of the electrodeposition method are to fill cracks in concrete and to coat the concrete surface by electrodeposits of chemical compounds. This can be accomplished by passing a weak direct current (1.0–3.0 A/m2 of concrete surface area) between a reinforcing steel bar (cathode) in concrete and an external electrode (anode) located in an external solution near the concrete surface ...


Research On Embedded Sensors For Concrete Health Monitoring Based On Ultrasonic Testing, Shifeng Huang, Mimi Li, Yuesheng Xu, Dongyu Xu, Xinchun Xie, Xin Cheng 2014 Purdue University

Research On Embedded Sensors For Concrete Health Monitoring Based On Ultrasonic Testing, Shifeng Huang, Mimi Li, Yuesheng Xu, Dongyu Xu, Xinchun Xie, Xin Cheng

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

In this article, embedded ultrasonic sensors were prepared using 1–3-type piezoelectric composite and piezoelectric ceramic as the piezoelectric elements, respectively. The frequency bandwidth of the novel embedded ultrasonic sensors was investigated. To obtain the relationship between the receiving ultrasonic velocity and compressive strength, as well as their response signals to crack damage, the sensors were fabricated and embedded into the cement mortar before testing. The results demonstrated that the piezoelectric composite sensor had wider frequency bandwidth than the piezoelectric ceramic sensor. The compressive strength and ultrasonic velocity had a positive linear relationship, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9216 ...


Numerical Simulation Of The Early Age Three-Dimensional Microstructure Development Of Cement Pastes, Yunsheng Zhang, Zhiyong Liu, Wei Sun 2014 Purdue University

Numerical Simulation Of The Early Age Three-Dimensional Microstructure Development Of Cement Pastes, Yunsheng Zhang, Zhiyong Liu, Wei Sun

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The formation process of microstructure in cement pastes was first simulated with a numerical model CEMHYD3D. The influence of water-to-cement ratio and particles size on heat release and degree of hydration were then investigated. In addition, the mass of CH and C–S–H phases simulated have been verified by measuring values by thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)-Rietveld analysis. The evolutions of solids phase percolation and capillary pores de-percolation were also identified by means of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical model. The results show that the simulated values are in good agreement with the available experimental ...


Effect Of Blast Furnace Slag Powder And Fly Ash On Durability Of Concrete Mixed With Seawater, Nobuaki Otsuki, Takahiro Nishida, Chang Yi, Tomohiro Nagata, Hiroki Ohara 2014 Purdue University

Effect Of Blast Furnace Slag Powder And Fly Ash On Durability Of Concrete Mixed With Seawater, Nobuaki Otsuki, Takahiro Nishida, Chang Yi, Tomohiro Nagata, Hiroki Ohara

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

According to the report of the United Nations, it is said that two-third of world population would be influenced by water shortage before 2050. To use fresh water effectively, the usage of seawater in concrete industry seems imperative. However, the usage of seawater as concrete material is prohibited in almost all the standards or specifications around the world. In this article, the usage of seawater as a material of concrete based on the results of experimental works and deterioration prediction was discussed. Especially, the effects of by-products such as blast furnace slag or fly ash on the durability of concrete ...


Research On Chloride Penetration Resistance Of Phosphoaluminate Cement Concrete, Wu-Jian Long, Ning Xu Han, Da Wang Li, Feng Xing, Ya-Man Zhao 2014 Purdue University

Research On Chloride Penetration Resistance Of Phosphoaluminate Cement Concrete, Wu-Jian Long, Ning Xu Han, Da Wang Li, Feng Xing, Ya-Man Zhao

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The chloride penetration resistance of phosphoaluminate cement (PAC) concrete was investigated in this study. The effects of mixture proportioning parameters, including cement content, water–cement ratio (w/c), and superplasticizer content on chloride ion penetration resistance of PAC concrete were investigated by the rapid chloride migration test (RCM). The result shows that the increase of cement content and the decrease of w/c can reduce the coefficient of chloride ion penetration of PAC concrete at a certain range. Moreover, the penetration of chloride ion can be declined effectively when polycarboxylate superplasticizer is employed. The PAC concrete exhibited better chloride penetration ...


Effect Of Aggregate Gradation With Fuller Distribution On Properties Of Sulfoaluminate Cement Concrete, Chenchen Gong, Jie Zhang, Shoude Wang, Wen Zong, Lingchao Lu 2014 Purdue University

Effect Of Aggregate Gradation With Fuller Distribution On Properties Of Sulfoaluminate Cement Concrete, Chenchen Gong, Jie Zhang, Shoude Wang, Wen Zong, Lingchao Lu

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Aggregate, the main ingredient of concrete, has a great effect on mechanical property and durability of concrete. Sulfoaluminate cement has lots of special properties such as high early-age compressive strength, fast hydration and setting rate, and hydration with slight swelling. But effect of aggregate gradation with Fuller distribution on properties of sulfoaluminate cement concrete was seldom studied. Hence, in this paper, experimental investigations on mechanical property and durability of sulfoaluminate cement concrete with aggregate gradations according to Fuller distribution were presented. Fuller distribution of aggregates was beneficial to the close packing of aggregates, and the packing density was changed by ...


Effect Of Drying Rate On Shrinkage Of Alkali-Activated Slag Cements, Hailong Ye, Christopher Cartwright, Farshad Rajabipour, Aleksandra Radlińska 2014 Purdue University

Effect Of Drying Rate On Shrinkage Of Alkali-Activated Slag Cements, Hailong Ye, Christopher Cartwright, Farshad Rajabipour, Aleksandra Radlińska

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The volumetric instability of alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders has raised concerns and impeded the acceptance of this Portland cement-free material. The objective of this article is to characterize the influence of drying rate on drying shrinkage behavior of AAS mortars to better understand the mechanisms responsible for its large shrinkage deformation. A series of four AAS mortar mixtures with varying activator composition, as well as a reference Portland cement mortar, was cast and dried at different relative humidities, that is, 30, 50, 70, and 85% RH. Drying took place inside nitrogen-purged environmental chambers for the purpose of eliminating the contribution ...


Performance Evaluation Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash-Based Cement For Durable Concrete, A. Bahurudeen, Manu Santhanam 2014 Purdue University

Performance Evaluation Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash-Based Cement For Durable Concrete, A. Bahurudeen, Manu Santhanam

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is obtained as a by-product from cogeneration combustion boilers in sugar industries. Bagasse ash is mainly composed of reactive silica and can be used as pozzolanic material in concrete. Previous studies have reported that the utilization of SCBA as pozzolanic material in concrete can significantly improve its performance. A comprehensive investigation of durability performance of bagasse ash in concrete is not available in existing literature. In all previous studies, raw bagasse ash was ground to cement fineness and directly used in the concrete for the performance evaluation, without suitable characterization. Development of SCBA-based Portland pozzolana cement ...


Influence Of Fly Ash On Surface Chloride Concentration Under Shallow Immersion Condition, Jun Liu, Xiaodong Wang, Feng Xing, Ningxu Han 2014 Purdue University

Influence Of Fly Ash On Surface Chloride Concentration Under Shallow Immersion Condition, Jun Liu, Xiaodong Wang, Feng Xing, Ningxu Han

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

In this paper, the influence of fly ash content on concrete surface chloride concentration was investigated through periodical tests of surface chloride concentration of concrete by immersing three kinds of concrete specimens in 5.0 wt.% sodium chloride solution. One kind of specimen is common concrete without fly ash, whereas the other two kinds of specimens are mixed with fly ash. The results show that the surface chloride ion concentration ranges from 0.295 to 0.777 wt.% for the immersed concrete samples in this study; in the initial stage of immersion, the concrete surface chloride ion concentration is affected ...


Application Of Nanomechanical Methods In Investigation Of C–S–H Gel/Cement Grain Interface, Jing Xu, David J. Corr, Surendra P. Shah 2014 Purdue University

Application Of Nanomechanical Methods In Investigation Of C–S–H Gel/Cement Grain Interface, Jing Xu, David J. Corr, Surendra P. Shah

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Investigation on the mechanical properties of cement-based materials at micron and submicron scales is important for understanding the overall performance, particularly of high-performance concrete (HPC). Due to low water-tocement ratio of HPC, a large amount of unhydrated cement grains remain in matrix, and a significant impact of the interface between C–S–H gel and cement grains on concrete behavior could be expected. Recent progress in experimental nanomechanics opens new access to nanoengineering of cement-based composites. In this paper, nanoindentation and viscoelastic modulus mapping were used to study the interfacial properties. The interface width measured by modulus mapping was around ...


Nondestructive Integrated Ct-Xrd Method For Research On Hydrated Cement System, Takafumi Sugiyama, T. Hitomi, K. Kajiwara 2014 Purdue University

Nondestructive Integrated Ct-Xrd Method For Research On Hydrated Cement System, Takafumi Sugiyama, T. Hitomi, K. Kajiwara

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

A nondestructive integrated CT-XRD method has been developed and used to study hydrated cement system. In this research, a beam line (BL) at the third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, in Japan, was used. First, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was employed to obtain three-dimensional (3D) images and select a region of interest (ROI) in a given plane section of the hardened cement paste. Then, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was conducted on the specified region. These operations were implemented in situ without the removal of specimen from the stage inside the BL. The hardened cement paste was precracked and then leached by ...


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