Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Civil and Environmental Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

26,190 Full-Text Articles 31,819 Authors 8,148,744 Downloads 158 Institutions

All Articles in Civil and Environmental Engineering

Faceted Search

26,190 full-text articles. Page 1 of 622.

Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network For Terrestrial Laser Scanner-Based Crack Detection, Yelda Turkan, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Nisha Puri 2018 Oregon State University

Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network For Terrestrial Laser Scanner-Based Crack Detection, Yelda Turkan, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Nisha Puri

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Objective, accurate, and fast assessment of civil infrastructure conditions is critical to timely assess safety risks. Current practices rely on visual observations and manual interpretation of reports and sketches prepared by inspectors in the field, which are labor intensive, subject to personal judgment and experience, and prone to error. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are promising for automatically identifying structural condition indicators, as they are capable of providing coverage for large areas with accuracy at long ranges. Major challenges in using this technology are in storing significant amount of data and extracting appropriate features enabling condition assessment. This paper proposes a ...


Seismic Performance Of Soil-Mix Panel Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin II 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Seismic Performance Of Soil-Mix Panel Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

Ground reinforcement methods such as stone columns, jet grouting, and soil mixing are commonly used to improve subsoil conditions for seismic mitigation. In most cases, the purpose of this improvement is for foundation support and/or liquefaction mitigation. Additional benefits of the improvement, such as possible reduction in seismic ground motions, are not explicitly considered in NEHRP/IBC code provisions for establishing site classification and seismic design motions. Such reductions, if present, can have significant payoff. Reduced seismic loads on the super structure result in lower seismic design levels and reduced construction costs. It is conceivable that the cost of ...


Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun

C. Guney Olgun

Ground improvement using stiff columnar reinforcement, such as stone, jet-grout and soil-mix columns, is commonly used for mitigation of seismic damage in weak ground. Seismic shear stress reduction in the reinforced soil mass is often counted on for reducing liquefaction potential. Current design methods assume composite behavior of the reinforced soil, where the shear stress reduction is based on the ratio of the columnar stiffness relative to the soil as well as the area replacement ratio. This implicitly assumes that the stiff columns will deform in pure shear along with the surrounding soft soil. Three dimensional dynamic finite element analyses ...


Numerical Modeling Of Columnar Reinforced Ground 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake Case History, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin II 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Numerical Modeling Of Columnar Reinforced Ground 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake Case History, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

The Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4) struck Turkey on August 17, 1999 and caused significant damage along Izmit Bay. Following the earthquake, the authors investigated the field performance at improved soil sites. Of particular interest was the Carrefour Shopping Center that was under construction during the earthquake. The reclaimed site is underlain by strata of saturated soft clays, silts, and liquefiable loose sands. Small-diameter jet-grout columns had been installed at close spacings to reduce settlements and prevent liquefaction-related damage beneath footings and mats. Nonlinear dynamic three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to model the reinforced ground at Carrefour. The results ...


Liquefaction Potential Of Railway Embankments, Miguel A. Pando, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin II 2018 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA

Liquefaction Potential Of Railway Embankments, Miguel A. Pando, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

This paper presents an overview of the nature of train-induced vibrations and discusses the liquefaction potential of railway embankments under such low-level vibrations. The paper also presents the results of static and dynamic finite difference numerical analyses performed for a simple railway embankment geometry. The liquefaction potential for the railway embankment foundation was estimated using the results corn FLAC numerical analyses, as well as a cyclic shear stress liquefaction resistance approach using a modified cyclic resistance ratio curve. Liquefaction of railway embankment foundations was found to be possible. However, based on the majority of reported failures the liquefaction potential remains ...


Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin II, Atila Sezen 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii, Atila Sezen

C. Guney Olgun

Significant earthquake-induced settlements occurred in saturated fine-grained soils at the Carrefour Shopping Center in Turkey during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4). Most of the settlement was due to the undrained cyclic failure of silt/clay (ML/CL) and highplasticity clay (CH) strata within the subsoil profile. Each suffered about 1% vertical strain. Extensive laboratory testing on undisturbed samples from these silty and clayey strata has been performed to investigate this behavior. The laboratory testing included monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests, triaxial tests and conventional 1-D consolidation tests. Considerable pore pressure increases have been measured during cyclic simple ...


Eco-Efficient Preplaced Recycled Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Recycled Tire Waste Rubber Granules And Steel Wire Fibre Reinforcement, Saud A. Alfayez 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Eco-Efficient Preplaced Recycled Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Recycled Tire Waste Rubber Granules And Steel Wire Fibre Reinforcement, Saud A. Alfayez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With increasing world population and urbanization, the depletion of natural resources and generation of waste materials is becoming a considerable challenge. As the number of humans has exceeded 7 billion people, there are about 1.1 billion vehicles on the road, with 1.7 billion new tires produced and over 1 billion waste tires generated each year. In the USA, it was estimated in 2011 that 10% of scrap tires was being recycled into new products, and over 50% is being used for energy recovery, while the rest is being discarded into landfills or disposed. The proportion of tires disposed ...


Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi 2018 Utah State University

Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi

All ECSTATIC Materials

Students will work in groups to develop a causal loop diagram (CLD) to illustrate the structure and expected behavior of the fictional water short state of Nevizonato facilitate qualitative discussion of expected outcomes of a proposed water management strategy. This activity requires familiarity with systems thinking and system dynamics modeling. CLDs are introduced as a fundamental systems thinking tool for conceptual modeling.


Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll

Robert S. Woodley

This paper presents the development of a computational model that can be used to study the interactions between structures and detonating explosives contained within them. This model was developed as part of an effort to develop a rubble characterization model for use in AmmoSIM, an agent based urban tactical decision aid (UTDA) software for weapon-target pairing. The rubble pile created following the collapse of a building in a combat situation can significantly impact mission accomplishment, particularly in the area of movement and maneuver. The information provided by AmmoSIM will enable both platoon level and command center staff to make informed ...


Development Of A Subsurface Landfill Fire Risk-Index, Samain Sabrin 2018 Rowan University

Development Of A Subsurface Landfill Fire Risk-Index, Samain Sabrin

Theses and Dissertations

Landfill subsurface fires create environmental hazards by emitting potentially dangerous particulates into the atmosphere and damaging liners, potentially contaminating surrounding soil and groundwater aquifers with leachate. Currently, the only means of detecting underground fires are physical tests. This paper is used to describe an index that can be employed to track fire risk across a landfill. The landfill parameters analyzed for fire risk susceptibility in Chapter 1 include residual nitrogen concentration, oxygen exceedance, methane concentration, carbon monoxide level, methane and carbon dioxide ratio and monitoring well temperature. Incorporating these factors, a landfill fire index ranging from 1 to 10 was ...


Spatial And Temporal Storm Generation From A Stochastic View, Jiaxiang Ding, Josept D. Revuelta-Acosta, Engel Bernard 2018 Purdue University

Spatial And Temporal Storm Generation From A Stochastic View, Jiaxiang Ding, Josept D. Revuelta-Acosta, Engel Bernard

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Precipitation is one of the most important parameters in the study of hydrology and most of the research has been done on daily storm generation. Current weather generation models are used to replicate daily or monthly time resolution, which is not able to show the variability within one day or one month. This project deals with sub-daily storm generation with finer resolution and more accurate estimation, which also requires an independent storm separation method. And the Monte Carlo correlated multivariate simulation is applied to compute the variables. The description is essential for soil erosion and water quality research. Another reason ...


Real-Time Non-Contact Road Defect Detection Using Inexpensive Sensors, Zhao Xing Lim, Mohammad Jahanshahi, Tarutal Ghosh Mondal, Da Cheng, Shutao Wang, Mohammad K. Sweidan, Aanis Ahmad, Omar Hesham Abouhussein, Xi Chen 2018 Purdue University

Real-Time Non-Contact Road Defect Detection Using Inexpensive Sensors, Zhao Xing Lim, Mohammad Jahanshahi, Tarutal Ghosh Mondal, Da Cheng, Shutao Wang, Mohammad K. Sweidan, Aanis Ahmad, Omar Hesham Abouhussein, Xi Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Road defects such as potholes, humps, and road cracks have become one of the main concerns for road and traffic safety worldwide. Pavement defect detection is crucial to ensure road safety. However, current solutions to this problem are either too time-consuming or too expensive to be employed large-scale. We propose a novel approach which has the ability to autonomously detect potholes in real-time using cost-effective sensors. Inexpensive sensors are mounted on a vehicle and a deep learning algorithm is used to identify road defects. The detection system is paired with a GPS and positional sensors to map the location of ...


Robust Allocation Of Funds For Nonstructural Flood Risk Mitigation In Coastal Louisiana, Simón Gómez Sierra, David R. Johnson, Matthew P. Shisler, Zachariah T. Richardson 2018 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Robust Allocation Of Funds For Nonstructural Flood Risk Mitigation In Coastal Louisiana, Simón Gómez Sierra, David R. Johnson, Matthew P. Shisler, Zachariah T. Richardson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Coastal Louisiana is a critical economic, ecological and cultural asset, acting as a major hub for waterborne commerce, fisheries, and the petrochemical industry, and also as one of the world’s unique wetlands. Unfortunately, this rich environment is in great danger from the threat of hurricanes and storm surge flooding. Direct economic losses are estimated to average $2.7 billion per year under current conditions, and this could increase to $12 billion a year, or more, within 50 years if nothing is done. To prevent this catastrophe, Louisiana has developed a Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast, which plans ...


Indoor Premise Plumbing: The Relationship Between Water Stagnation, Chlorine Decay, And Total Organic Carbon Levels, Emerson M. Ringger, Andrew J. Whelton, Tolulope Odimayomi, Maryam Salehi 2018 Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering

Indoor Premise Plumbing: The Relationship Between Water Stagnation, Chlorine Decay, And Total Organic Carbon Levels, Emerson M. Ringger, Andrew J. Whelton, Tolulope Odimayomi, Maryam Salehi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Drinking water safety is critical to the health of populations worldwide, and modern plumbing infrastructure can influence drinking water chemical characteristics. Inside residential and commercial buildings however, water use and contact with different plumbing components can vary. For example, water can endure lengthy stagnation periods and residual disinfectant agents like chlorine can decay, leaving the water vulnerable to microbial growth. Plastic cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes have become popular and have shown to influence water quality. While several studies have been carried out on chemical leaching from PEX piping, none were found that examined the role of pipe diameter in relation ...


High Performance Mortar With 100% Recycled Aggregate Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Molly Schrager, Vito Francioso, Arjun Kadakia, Mirian Velay-Lizancos 2018 Purdue University

High Performance Mortar With 100% Recycled Aggregate Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Molly Schrager, Vito Francioso, Arjun Kadakia, Mirian Velay-Lizancos

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Concrete and mortar are materials commonly used in construction. Their main compounds are cement, aggregates (sand and gravel) and water. In an effort to increase the sustainability of these materials, the idea of using recycled aggregates from ground old concrete and using it to make mortar and concrete has gained more interest. It has two advantages: it reduces the need to mine for raw materials and lessens the amount of old and defective concrete that is typically put in landfills. But, the use of recycled concrete aggregate lowers the strength of mortars and concretes because the residual compounds in the ...


Purdue Air Sense: A Methodology For Improving The Accuracy Of Ambient Aerosol Mass Concentration And Size Distribution Measurement With Low-Cost Optical Sensing Techniques, Rishabh Ramsisaria, Satya Sundar Patra, Brandon Emil Boor 2018 Purdue University

Purdue Air Sense: A Methodology For Improving The Accuracy Of Ambient Aerosol Mass Concentration And Size Distribution Measurement With Low-Cost Optical Sensing Techniques, Rishabh Ramsisaria, Satya Sundar Patra, Brandon Emil Boor

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is a global lack of a means for monitoring air pollutant levels at a local level due to expensive and bulky instrument requirements. It is important to monitor toxic gas levels, as well as particulate matter levels, in the atmosphere to study their effects on human health and to further develop city- and community-level air pollution solutions. In this study, with the means of a Raspberry Pi, low-cost Alphasense Optical Particle Counter and gas sensors, and methodical calibration techniques, we built a portable 3-D printed module powered by clean electricity generated by an on-board Voltaic solar cell that measures ...


Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Systems: Safety, Reliability, And Resilience, Jory C. Lyons Jr., Amin Maghareh, Audai Theinat, Shirley Dyke, Antonio Bobet 2018 Purdue University

Extra-Terrestrial Habitat Systems: Safety, Reliability, And Resilience, Jory C. Lyons Jr., Amin Maghareh, Audai Theinat, Shirley Dyke, Antonio Bobet

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Developing a resilient extra-terrestrial habitat with regards to long-term reliability and safety from hazards including radiation, meteorites, and quakes is necessary to ensure human survival during interplanetary exploration. The objective of this study is to examine conventional aerospace safety and reliability analysis techniques to investigate whether they are sufficient to achieve resilience in extra-terrestrial habitats. These results will be obtained to complete a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of compiled techniques to design a sustainable habitat system. Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with their past applications will be assessed to provide ...


Determining The Optimal Traffic Opening Time Using Piezoelectric Sensors, Adlan Amran, Yen-Fang Su, Na Lu 2018 Purdue University

Determining The Optimal Traffic Opening Time Using Piezoelectric Sensors, Adlan Amran, Yen-Fang Su, Na Lu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) requires a reliable method of determining the early age quality of concrete to improve traffic opening time. We propose to develop an in-situ method that enables an accurate, efficient, and non-destructive health monitoring of concrete using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique coupled with a piezoelectric sensor named Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT). The test was conducted by mounting a PZT sensor on mortar samples. The PZT sensor was then excited by a voltage to track the strengthening of samples. The data obtained from the EMI technique was refined using the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD ...


Load Distribution Of Adjacent Prestressed Concrete Box Beam Bridges, Luis F. Urrego, Ryan T. Whelchel, Robert J. Frosch, Christopher S. Williams 2018 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Load Distribution Of Adjacent Prestressed Concrete Box Beam Bridges, Luis F. Urrego, Ryan T. Whelchel, Robert J. Frosch, Christopher S. Williams

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

One of the most common bridge types is the adjacent prestressed concrete box beam bridge because the system is economical and simple to build; over 43,000 are currently in service within the US. However, they are highly susceptible to strand corrosion and concrete deterioration which can result in early loss of load capacity. Therefore, an experimental program sponsored by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) was initiated to determine the behavior of deteriorated beams and develop recommendations for load rating and design of this bridge type. Displacement sensors were installed on a bridge in service to measure its deformation ...


Lead In Residential Water Heaters: An Analysis Of Lead Dissolution Kinetics In Non-Ideal Aquatic Environments, Kelsey Vought, Inez Hua, Amisha D. Shah, Nadezhda N. Zyaykina, Mackenzie Davies 2018 Purdue University

Lead In Residential Water Heaters: An Analysis Of Lead Dissolution Kinetics In Non-Ideal Aquatic Environments, Kelsey Vought, Inez Hua, Amisha D. Shah, Nadezhda N. Zyaykina, Mackenzie Davies

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Lead dioxide, a lead corrosion product, is an important contributor to residential drinking water contamination. A neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor, lead poses serious human health concerns. Despite previous research on water distribution pipes, lead in water heating and softening systems is unexplored. Standard tank water heaters and water softeners have significantly different aquatic environments compared to distribution pipes, due to increased temperature and ion concentration levels. This research verifies the iodometric method for lead dioxide detection and quantifies total lead and dissolved lead(IV) ions over time in simulated water heater and softener environments. Initial experiments confirmed the iodometric method ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress