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Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, KSV Santhanam, Lixing Lu 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, Ksv Santhanam, Lixing Lu

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of vanillin, turmeric and curcumin in the forms of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solution as well as polymer packaging. Five types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes representing gram-positive bacteria; Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium as well as E.coli O157:H7 representing gram- negative bacteria. Turmeric is chosen as the antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into packaging materials. In order to study the antimicrobial effect as packaging application, two types of the polymer based turmeric products were produced. They are LDPE based turmeric pellets ...


Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

By-products from the dry-milling ethanol process can be used in cattle diets to replace corn. There is a significant interaction between corn processing methods as CCDS concentration increases in the diet. Improvements are observed for SFC in final BW, ADG, and G:F over DRC. An experiment was conducted to determine if greater concentrations of CCDS could be fed in SFC based diets and maintain or improve performance. Performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated with increasing concentrations of CCDS at 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% in place of SFC in feedlot finishing diets. As CCDS concentration increased, DMI decreased ...


Infiltration And Runoff Parameters For Tilled And No-Till Row Crops, Andrew J. Volkmer 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Infiltration And Runoff Parameters For Tilled And No-Till Row Crops, Andrew J. Volkmer

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Infiltration and runoff are hydrologic processes that effect the amount of water available to plants, for groundwater recharge, and for stream flow. No-till planting (NT) is a management practice used to reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, and reduce soil water evaporation, and can have great impact on infiltration and runoff. An investigation was conducted to determine the impact of NT on infiltration and runoff when compared to tilled conditions.

Runoff and precipitation data was gathered from sites at Fillmore County, NE, Phelps County, NE, the USDA-ARS North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (NAEW) near Coshocton, OH, and the Lennoxville Research Station ...


A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The Doulthabad[1] Mandal is a hot semi-arid agro-ecological sub-region (Rao et al. 2006) located in Mahbubnagar District on the North Telangana Plateau in the state of Telangana. Agriculture is the main occupation in this region, which is populated mostly with small and marginal farmers. This study uses the time period from 1971 to 2004 to study the variation in cropping pattern diversity and distribution of rainfall during the monsoons and understand the implications on production risk in agriculture. Quantitative methods were used in determining the changes in rainfall while qualitative methods were used to study cropping system changes. The ...


Irrigation Demand In A Changing Climate: Using Disaggregate Data To Predict Future Groundwater Use, Calvin R. Shaneyfelt 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Irrigation Demand In A Changing Climate: Using Disaggregate Data To Predict Future Groundwater Use, Calvin R. Shaneyfelt

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

The paper estimates an irrigation water demand function using disaggregate climate and well data over a 33 year time period. Aggregating climate information over long periods, like a year, causes a loss of detail on temporal climatic variation, while aggregating climate information over space causes a loss of detail on spatial variation. This analysis uses disaggregate climate variation at a temporospatial level to determine the effects of climate on groundwater use. Results show that increased heat, measured in cooling degree-days, correlates with increased water use, while increased precipitation correlates with decreased water use. However, the effects are generally magnified for ...


Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates that U.S. transportation fuel producers blend specific volumes of ethanol and other biofuels with fossil fuels to spur U.S. biofuel production and to minimize foreign oil imports. Ethanol is more corrosive to auto engines than gasoline, and although vehicles manufactured since 2001 are approved to use up to a 15% ethanol blend (E15) (Naylor & Falcon, 2011), E10 is much more widely available. Ethanol producers therefore face a so-called blend wall at 10 percent—a maximum amount of ethanol that is usable domestically based on the demand for gasoline.

Meanwhile, gasoline demand in ...


Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer 2014 Iowa State University

Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed’s carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially affecting aquatic ecosystems. In a study conducted in Iowa (USA), four treatments with strips of NPV varying in slope position and proportion of area were randomly assigned among 12 small agricultural watersheds in a balanced incomplete block design. Runoff samples from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed for DOC ...


Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita 2014 Iowa State University

Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Identifying and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points ...


Potential To Increase Indigenous Biodiesel Production To Help Meet 2020 Targets – An Eu Perspective With A Focus On Ireland, Fionnuala Murphy 2014 SelectedWorks

Potential To Increase Indigenous Biodiesel Production To Help Meet 2020 Targets – An Eu Perspective With A Focus On Ireland, Fionnuala Murphy

Fionnuala Murphy

The biofuels penetration rate target in Ireland for 2013 is 6% by volume. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million litres of biodiesel and 56 million litres of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline respectively. For January and February 2013, the blend rate had only reached 2.7%. The target of 10% by 2020 remains which equates to approximately 420 million litres. Achieving the biofuels target would require 345 ktoe by 2020 (14,400 TJ). Utilising the indigenous biofuels outlined in this paper leaves a shortfall of approximately 12,000 TJ or 350 million litres (achieving ...


Feeding Alkaline Treated And Processed Crop Residue To Feedlot Cattle, Sarah J. Peterson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feeding Alkaline Treated And Processed Crop Residue To Feedlot Cattle, Sarah J. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Chemical treatment and decreased particle size are methods used to improve digestibility and utilization of the available nutrients in low quality forages. Previous research has indicated that chemically treated corn residue can take the place of corn when included in finishing rations containing distillers grains. Also, decreasing particle size utilizing methods such as pelleting has been shown to improve DMI and ADG. However, limited research has been completed on use of chemical treatment and pelleting in growing and receiving rations. Also, an ideal distillers inclusion has not yet been identified when including alkaline treated stalks in finishing rations. Therefore, a ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Designing A Low Cost Biogas Pressurizing System In Nicaragua, Linda R. Geiger, Kelsey B. Regan 2014 Iowa State University

Designing A Low Cost Biogas Pressurizing System In Nicaragua, Linda R. Geiger, Kelsey B. Regan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Plug flow biodigesters are popular in developing countries due to their low cost and ability to adapt to microclimates to produce biogas for cooking. These biodigesters are primarily composed of a polyethylene bag and PVC, and, typically, cattle or hog manure is used as both the organic and microbe source for gas production. The biogas is piped to a gas stove to be used for cooking. The digesters are intended to replace traditional wood burning stoves prevalent in developing countries, which are attributed to over two million deaths per year. However, due to pressure limitations due to the plastic bag ...


Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) By Combination Of Sieving And Aspiration, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Samantha M. Riess, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) By Combination Of Sieving And Aspiration, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Samantha M. Riess, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

The high protein and oil contents of Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be obtained by separating raw DDGS into different particle sizes fractions. The separation processes included four sieving and aspiration procedures. Sieving was able to produce fractions with different compositions. As the particle size decreased, the protein and oil content of DDGS increased. For aspiration, that separated DDGS into different fractions depending upon different gravity profiles of protein, oil and fiber basically. The terminal velocity of airflow was determined for each sieving fraction. Large and heavy fractions consisted of mainly protein and oil; light fractions were ...


Evaluation Of Hermetic Maize Storage For Smallholder Farmers, Denis Bbosa, Thomas J. Brumm, Carl J. Bern, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Hermetic Maize Storage For Smallholder Farmers, Denis Bbosa, Thomas J. Brumm, Carl J. Bern, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Maize is an important crop for many smallholder farmers in the world. Maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) cause a significant loss in quality and quantity during maize storage in tropical regions. Hermetic storage of maize has been shown to be effective in controlling maize weevils in laboratory settings. The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of hermetic storage containers that could be used by smallholder farmers. Six 208-L (55-gallon) steel barrels were filled with 170 kg (375 lb) of maize with initial weevil populations of 25 live weevils/kg of maize (11 live weevils/lb). The barrels were ...


Laboratory-Scale Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Congmu Zhang, Kun Xie, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Laboratory-Scale Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Congmu Zhang, Kun Xie, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

The objective of this project was to separate distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) into high protein and high fiber fractions, in order to improve value and utility as a livestock feed. This project used a laboratory-scale cylindrical blower (Iowa blower) and a laboratory-scale gravity table (Whippet V-80 separator, Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc.). The raw DDGS was sieved into multiple streams using 10 mesh, 20 mesh and 40 mesh screens. The 10-20 mesh fraction and 20-40 mesh fraction were then run on the blower and the separator separately, using the same settings for air velocity in the range of 0 ...


Narasin As A Manure Additive To Reduce Methane Production From Swine Manure, Daniel S. Andersen, Kelsey B. Regan 2014 Iowa State University

Narasin As A Manure Additive To Reduce Methane Production From Swine Manure, Daniel S. Andersen, Kelsey B. Regan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Animal production systems are an important source of anthropogenic methane emissions. Production of methane results from microbial activity by anaerobic bacteria populations within the stored manure that breaks down organic material and converts it to biogas. Swine manures obtained from three deep pit storages in Central Iowa were dosed with Narasin, an ionophore, to evaluate its inhibitory effects on methane and biogas production. Four Narasin dosing rates were evaluated, these included 0 (Control), 7.5, 15, and 30 mg Narasin/kg of manure. Overall, the results indicated that Narasin had an inhibitory effect on methane and biogas production, with greater ...


Energy Use For Field Operations, Crop Drying, And Swine Housing On University Farms, H. Mark Hanna, Jay D. Harmon, Dana D. Schweitzer 2014 Iowa State University

Energy Use For Field Operations, Crop Drying, And Swine Housing On University Farms, H. Mark Hanna, Jay D. Harmon, Dana D. Schweitzer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Energy is an input cost to agricultural production. Knowing typical values can help farmers evaluate management options. Diesel, propane, and electrical energy used on the farm during selected field operations, crop drying, and in swine housing were measured on Iowa State University farms. Baseline values were measured and for tractor operation management styles were compared.

Fuel use was reduced in five of six comparisons (18 to 34%) when operating the tractor in a higher gear and at reduced engine speed while maintaining travel speed. Fuel use also reduced with disking depth, but varied with travel speed during chisel plowing. Energy ...


Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Gravity Separator: Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis, Kun Xie, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Gravity Separator: Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis, Kun Xie, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

DDGS could have higher market price and wider use if it could be separated into higher protein and higher fiber fractions. In our work, DDGS was firstly sieved into three size categories, and one category was further separated into light, midlight, midheavy and heavy fractions using a gravity separator. This process was effective in getting enhanced DDGS with increased protein and oil. In this study, both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) of our approach to DDGS fractionation were conducted. Three scales, including lab scale, pilot scale, and commercial scale of DDGS fractionation were considered and analyzed. All ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Using A Destoner To Fractionate Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Using A Destoner To Fractionate Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs), Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

With the rapid development of the ethanol industry in recent years, various studies have examined distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the main co-product from ethanol production. Previous studies have examined fractionating DDGS using sieves and aspirators. However, information about the cost effectiveness is lacking. The objective of this project was to determine techno-economics of DDGS fractionation using a destoner to separate nutrients. Mathematical models were built for conducting techno-economic analysis (TEA), which allowed for estimations of capital costs, annual operating costs, annual revenues, and net profits. The techno-economics of the base case ethanol plant were examined by adjusting material ...


Optimization Of Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Of Corn Stover, Minliang Yang, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Optimization Of Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Of Corn Stover, Minliang Yang, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

With many environmental benefits, corn-based ethanol has been widely used in recent years. Cellulosic ethanol, however, will require pretreatment to break down lingo-cellulosic structures prior to fermentation. Among all the pretreatment reagents which can be used, ammonia has been shown to be one of the most effective, because it can readily delignify, swell, and preserve the cellulose. Previous work evaluated the effectiveness of the LMAA pretreatment method. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal conditions (i.e. highest glucose yield) using the LMAA pretreatment process. In this experiment, corn stover was prepared with different moisture contents (20%, 50 ...


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