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A Cost Effective Method To Create Accurate Engine Performance Maps & Updating The Nebraska Pumping Plant Performance Criteria, Jacob K. Keller 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Cost Effective Method To Create Accurate Engine Performance Maps & Updating The Nebraska Pumping Plant Performance Criteria, Jacob K. Keller

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The objective of this paper was to develop a simplified process to create engine performance maps using tractor test data and theoretical modeling techniques. Performance maps for industrial engines can greatly simplify the process of matching engines to their various applications in the most economical way. However, a common performance graph supplied by a manufacturer typically only includes a single performance curve across the range of an engine’s operating speed. The single curve is good for some applications but lacks the needed performance detail at operating conditions other than shown on the performance curve. Extensive testing and resources are ...


Evaluating Sampling Strategies For Rainfall Simulation Studies And Surface Transport Of Antibiotics From Swine Manure Applied To Fescue Plots, Holly K. Enlow 2014 University of Kentucky

Evaluating Sampling Strategies For Rainfall Simulation Studies And Surface Transport Of Antibiotics From Swine Manure Applied To Fescue Plots, Holly K. Enlow

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Antibiotics are commonly used in animal agriculture to treat and prevent diseases and promote growth. Unfortunately, large amounts of antibiotics are not metabolized, but instead are excreted in urine and feces. Rainfall simulation studies were used to investigate the transport of the antibiotic oxytetracycline and various constituents in runoff and the ability of alum to reduce pollutant transport. Runoff samples were collected at several points during the simulated storm event from each of four treatments: control (C), manure only (M), manure and antibiotics (MA), and manure, antibiotics and alum (MAA). Flow-weighted composite samples were created and compared to the flow ...


Sequential Co-Culture Of Anaerobic Bacteria On Switchgrass In A Continuous Flow-Through Reactor For Biofuel Production, Noelia M. Elia 2014 University of Kentucky

Sequential Co-Culture Of Anaerobic Bacteria On Switchgrass In A Continuous Flow-Through Reactor For Biofuel Production, Noelia M. Elia

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Solid substrate cultivation (SSC) using lignocellulosic non-food feedstock, such as switchgrass, is an alternative for advanced biofuel production. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation in two stages using a sequential culture of microorganisms from the class Clostridia is an approach proposed to increase the butanol production.

The goal was to test the efficacy of a sequential culture on high solid substrate cultivation in batch and continuous cultivation, and to evaluate conditions to optimize butanol production using switchgrass as substrate.

Initial batch experiments were used to determine particle size effect, choice of solvent producer and pretreatment evaluation: The effect of particle size on gas ...


Corn Grown Under Drought-Stressed Conditions Does Not Have Lower Energy Content Than Corn Grown In A Previous “Normal” Year, Monica A. Newman, John F. Patience, Charles R. Hurburgh 2014 Iowa State University

Corn Grown Under Drought-Stressed Conditions Does Not Have Lower Energy Content Than Corn Grown In A Previous “Normal” Year, Monica A. Newman, John F. Patience, Charles R. Hurburgh

Animal Industry Report

Record-breaking heat and lack of rainfall during the 2012 growing season resulted in drought-stressed growing conditions. An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of these conditions on nutrient composition and apparent total tract digestibilities (ATTD) of energy in corn, and determine if relationships exist between corn quality measurements, nutrient content, and digestibility of energy. Twenty-eight samples of corn from the 2012 crop, plus 2 samples of corn from the 2011 crop to serve as a positive control, were collected across the Midwest using yield as an initial screen for drought impact. Each sample was graded by an official U ...


County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen 2014 Iowa State University

County-Level Assessment Of Manure Nutrient Availability Relative To Crop Nutrient Capacity In Iowa, Daniel S. Andersen

Animal Industry Report

During the twentieth century, agricultural production strived to achieve increased food production in order to satisfy demands. This led to increased farm sizes and an operational separation of crop and livestock production. Society fears that the trend of increasing industrialization of animal agriculture has resulted in concentration of waste products associated with their production over relatively small geographic regions that are spatially segregated from crop production areas. A county level analysis of manure nutrients relative to crop nutrient capacity was conducted to assess the prevalence of these issues in Iowa. Results indicated that in general all counties had sufficient nutrient ...


Performance Of Evaporative Cooling Pads On A Swine Farm In Central Iowa, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin 2014 Iowa State University

Performance Of Evaporative Cooling Pads On A Swine Farm In Central Iowa, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Heat stress can lead to significant production losses for livestock. Production losses can take the form of slower rate of gain or poor reproductive performance in livestock systems. While modern ventilation systems utilize elevated air velocity to cool the animals, conditioning the air via evaporative cooling is a viable option for heat stress relief. While it is commonly thought that humid summer weather conditions in the upper Midwest are not suitable for use of evaporative cooling, this study found that evaporative cooling pads on a commercial breeding/gestation/farrowing facility showed good performance. Temperature drops of 10-20° F were measured ...


Investigating And Mitigating The Causes Of Foam Accumulation On Swine Manure Deep Pits, Daniel S. Andersen, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian J. Kerr, Steven L. Trabue 2014 Iowa State University

Investigating And Mitigating The Causes Of Foam Accumulation On Swine Manure Deep Pits, Daniel S. Andersen, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brian J. Kerr, Steven L. Trabue

Animal Industry Report

The appearance of foam on the surface of deep-pit swine manure storages is a serious concern for the pork industry. Manure foam has the capacity to trap gases produced by the anaerobic decomposition of the manure, leading to dangerous flammable gas concentrations upon foam disruption. Field sampling and feeding trials were conducted to determine manure characteristics leading to foam accumulation. Results indicated that foaming pits were more biologically active having lower volatile fatty acid contents and higher rates of methane production. Research is being undertaken to develop foam mitigation strategies based on these findings.


Heat Lamp Vs. Heat Mat As Localized Heat Source In Swine Farrowing Crate, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin 2014 Iowa State University

Heat Lamp Vs. Heat Mat As Localized Heat Source In Swine Farrowing Crate, John P. Stinn, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Three, 40-crate farrowing rooms were selected for this comparison study. Half of each room used heat lamps for localized piglet heating while the other half of each room used heat mats. Sixteen turns over 12 months were monitored for power use, piglet mortality, and average weight gain. The only significant impact of either localized heating system was on the power use, where the mats were 36% lower than the lamps.


Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Initial Results From A Survey Of Iowa Corn Ethanol Plants, Bailley A. Richardson, Russell M. Euken, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Animal Industry Report

A survey of Iowa ethanol plants was conducted to understand the production of animal feed coproducts from ethanol processing. Of interest is which coproducts are being produced, how the coproducts are being produced, coproduct composition, facility utility information, and challenges associated with coproduct manufacture. Specifically, the intent was to understand oil removal from distillers coproducts, and the impact of those processes on the concentration of oil in the distillers coproducts. We did not intend to determine variation in coproducts plant to plant or within a given plant over time.


Optimizing Tunnel Ventilation Systems For Summer Conditions, John P. Stinn, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin 2014 Iowa State University

Optimizing Tunnel Ventilation Systems For Summer Conditions, John P. Stinn, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin

Animal Industry Report

Tunnel ventilation is a popular choice for livestock housing systems as it allows producers to elevate the wind speed across the animals to increase heat dissipation during summer conditions. Recent work with tunnel-ventilated facilities has shown that at maximum ventilation stage the building static pressure (SP) often exceeds 0.12 inches of H2O. The effects of reducing SP on electrical consumption and ventilation performance were investigated. Decreasing SP of the tunnel-ventilated barn increased the overall ventilation rate, increased air velocity within the barn, and decreased the temperature rise along the length of the barn. From May to September, maintaining a ...


Demonstrating Farrowing Alternatives For Small-Farms: Insulated Tents For Sows And Pigs, Year One, Peter J. Lammers, Jay D. Harmon, Lyle T. Rossiter, Mark S. Honeyman 2014 Iowa State University

Demonstrating Farrowing Alternatives For Small-Farms: Insulated Tents For Sows And Pigs, Year One, Peter J. Lammers, Jay D. Harmon, Lyle T. Rossiter, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Farmers raising pigs for niche markets are usually prohibited from using farrowing crates and must provide bedding and greater space per sow than typical commodity production. Because current consumer expectations dictate that pigs be produced year-round, crate-free farrowing options for cold weather are necessary and many niche pork companies will not accept new producers into their program unless they agree to farrow pigs during winter months. Several crate-free farrowing systems for cold weather have been demonstrated in Iowa, however those alternatives generally require a permanent, well-insulated structure and/or tremendous amounts of energy to provide a suitable environment for the ...


Neutron Diffraction Analysis Of Residual Stresses Near Unannealed Welds In Anhydrous Ammonia Nurse Tanks, Andrew T. Becker, L. Scott Chumbley, David Goettee, Alan M. Russell 2014 Iowa State University

Neutron Diffraction Analysis Of Residual Stresses Near Unannealed Welds In Anhydrous Ammonia Nurse Tanks, Andrew T. Becker, L. Scott Chumbley, David Goettee, Alan M. Russell

Materials Science and Engineering Publications and Papers

Neutron diffraction analysis was employed to measure residual stresses near welds in used anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks. Tensile residual stresses contribute to stress corrosion cracking of nurse tanks, which can cause tanks to release toxic ammonia vapor. The analysis showed that tensile residual stresses were present in the tanks measured, and the magnitudes of these stresses approached the yield strength of the steel. Implications for agricultural safety and health are discussed.


Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Zhiping Zhu, Hongmin Dong, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin 2014 Iowa State University

Ammonia And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Co-Composting Of Dead Hens With Manure As Affected By Forced Aeration Rate, Zhiping Zhu, Hongmin Dong, Jialin Xi, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications and Papers

The effect of ventilation rate (VR) on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from co-composting dead hens mixed with hen manure was quantified. Three VR levels of 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5 m3 h-1 were evaluated. Gaseous concentrations were measured using a multi-gas infrared photoacoustic analyzer, VR was measured with flowmeters, and the gas emission rate was computed from the VR and gas concentration. Decomposition of the carcasses over the 11-week composting period was greater than 88%. VR was found to significantly affect NH3, CO2, and CH4 emissions (p < 0.05). Specifically, cumulative emissions per kg of initial matter for VR of 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5 m3 h-1 were, respectively ...


Airborne Particulate Matter And Culturable Bacteria Reduction From Spraying Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water In An Experimental Aviary Laying-Hen Housing Chamber, Weichao Zheng, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Richard S. Gates, Baoming Li, Yuanhui Zhang, Michelle L. Soupir 2014 Iowa State University

Airborne Particulate Matter And Culturable Bacteria Reduction From Spraying Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water In An Experimental Aviary Laying-Hen Housing Chamber, Weichao Zheng, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Richard S. Gates, Baoming Li, Yuanhui Zhang, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications and Papers

Compared to conventional cage laying-hen houses, aviary hen houses generally have much higher concentrations of airborne dust and bacteria due to generation of bioaerosols by the hens’ access to and activities on the litter floor. Hence, reducing these airborne agents is important to safeguard the health of the animals and workers in such housing systems. Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is a novel approach to reducing airborne culturable bacteria (CB) and particulate matter (PM) levels in hen houses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reducing airborne CB and PM in an experimental aviary chamber ...


Design And Construction Of A Portable Gantry Hoist, Sam Hutcheson 2013 California Polytechnic State University

Design And Construction Of A Portable Gantry Hoist, Sam Hutcheson

BioResource and Agricultural Engineering

This report covers the design of a portable gantry hoist with a custom frame design. The design was based off of the materials that were available and practical for this project to save money. The portable gantry hoist will be rated for a 2 ton capacity. The casters, trolley, and hoist were the only parts purchased.


Thermodynamic Efficiency Evaluation For Distillation Of Ethanol, Joe A. Cavaletto 2013 California Polytechnic State University

Thermodynamic Efficiency Evaluation For Distillation Of Ethanol, Joe A. Cavaletto

BioResource and Agricultural Engineering

Energy will always be a consideration when distilling any product. Fog’s End Distillery in Gonzales, CA is a small scale micro distillery for ethanol. For Fog’s End, efficiency is key to staying competitive. In this project the efficiency of energy in vs product out will be calculated. While collecting this data the price/bottle for energy will be determined and used for an assembly cost. To determine the efficiency the fuel usage will be recorded for several distillation trials. The mash contents and product contents will all be measured and calculations will be performed to find the theoretical ...


Heat Of Combustion Of Algae For Use In A Diesel Engine, Cassia Diane Davis 2013 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Heat Of Combustion Of Algae For Use In A Diesel Engine, Cassia Diane Davis

Theses and Dissertations

With nearly a quarter of the world’s population living without any access to electricity or modern energy, strategies for providing energy are very important. While the use of fossil fuels can bring the much needed energy to these areas they come with a host of problems. Fossil fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and ocean acidification. In many areas fossil fuels have to be transported in. The subsequent transmission and distribution can be difficult especially in rural areas. Dependence on fossil fuels also leaves the user vulnerable to disruption in deliveries and price fluctuations. While there ...


Swine Manure & Aqua-Ammonia Nitrogen Application Timing On Subsurface Drainage Water, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Carl H. Pederson 2013 Iowa State University

Swine Manure & Aqua-Ammonia Nitrogen Application Timing On Subsurface Drainage Water, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Carl H. Pederson

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

In Iowa and many other Midwestern states, excess water is removed artificially throughsubsurface drainage systems. While these drainage systems are vital for crop production, nitrogen (N) added as manure or commercial fertilizer, or derived from soil organic matter, can be carried as nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) to downstream water bodies. A five-year, five-replication, field study was conducted in north-central Iowa with the objective to determine the influence of seasonal N application as ammonia or liquid swine manure on flow-weighted NO3-N concentrations and losses in subsurface drainage water and crop yields in a corn-soybean rotation. Four aqua-ammonia N treatments (150 or 225 ...


Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land-Applied Swine Manure: Development Of Method Based On Static Flux Chambers, Kelsey M. Bruning, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Tanner Lewis, Danica Tamaye, William Salas 2013 Iowa State University

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land-Applied Swine Manure: Development Of Method Based On Static Flux Chambers, Kelsey M. Bruning, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer, Tanner Lewis, Danica Tamaye, William Salas

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

A new method was used at the Ag 450 Farm Iowa State University (41.98N, 93.65W) from October 24, 2012 through December 14, 2012 to assess GHG emission from land-applied swine manure on crop land. Gas samples were collected daily from four static flux chambers. Gas method detection limits were 1.99 ppm, 170 ppb, and 20.7 ppb for CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively. Measured gas concentrations were used to estimate flux using four different models, i.e., (1) linear regression, (2) non-linear regression, (3) non-equilibrium, and (4) revised Hutchinson & Mosier (HMR). Sixteen days of baseline measurements (before ...


Improving Data Quality For A Dairy Pollutant Emissions Study, Ian K. Hahus, Albert J. Heber 2013 Purdue University

Improving Data Quality For A Dairy Pollutant Emissions Study, Ian K. Hahus, Albert J. Heber

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) was sanctioned by the EPA to determine the characteristics of airborne pollutant emissions from confined broiler, egg, pork, and dairy housing. Fifteen representative monitoring sites were selected around the U.S., at which influent and effluent pollutant concentrations were measured in conjunction with airflow and climatic data. Due to the monumental nature of this study and the potential ramifications of its findings, it is of vital importance that the data collected by the researchers and utilized by the EPA be as complete and accurate as possible. To improve the validity of the data ...


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