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Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three anaerobic digestion trials were conducted to evaluate methane production from feedlot manure. As organic matter content of manure decreased, degradation of manure and methane production also linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.02). Quality, or organic matter content of manure, had a greater impact on anaerobic digestion than diet (with and without distillers grains) fed to cattle. Minerals are concentrated in effluent removed from anaerobic digesters.

Knowing mineral retention within cattle allows for more accurate calculation of mineral excretion in manure. Three serial slaughter trials measured mineral retention in growing and finishing cattle. During a growing phase, beef cattle gaining 1 ...


Aquaponics Art, Alexander Horton 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Aquaponics Art, Alexander Horton

Liberal Arts and Engineering Studies

Aquaponics has enormous potential to change the way we farm. I wanted to connect more people to Cal Poly's first aquaponics club by creating a functioning aquaponics art installation that allows people to plant their own plants. This paper is catalog of the design process as a reflection of what this project hopes to accomplish.


Mechanical Pretreatment Of Corncobs For Bioethanol Production By A Twin-Screw Extruder, Jun Zheng 2014 Western University

Mechanical Pretreatment Of Corncobs For Bioethanol Production By A Twin-Screw Extruder, Jun Zheng

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Extrusion pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses is a physical continuous pretreatment method for subsequent fermentative ethanol production. Twin-screw elements (conveying, kneading and reverse) have different effects on enzymatic digestibility according to their geometries and functions. The first study evaluated the effects of individual functional screw elements on enzymatic digestibility and found that extrusion enhanced enzymatic digestibility under all tested condition. Reverse and kneading screw elements however resulted in lignin re-distribution over the cellulose fibres, blocked pores (shown via SEM) and resulted in less digestible biomass, compared to conveying screw elements, only. Lignin removal via NaOH reversed this effect and the highest ...


Nutrient Runoff Following Swine Manure Application, Seth J. Lamb 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nutrient Runoff Following Swine Manure Application, Seth J. Lamb

Environmental Engineering Theses and Graduate Student Research

A field study was completed to compare the effects of land application methods, swine growth stage, and varying flow rates following the application of varying amounts of swine manure to 0.75-m by 2.00-m long plots. Three different manure sources were used to represent key different growth stages including growers, finishers, and sows and gilts. The different swine manures were applied in May and Jun 2011 to meet a 1 year nitrogen (N) requirement for corn. Three different land application methods were used to apply the swine manure, broadcast, incorporation, and injection. Runoff water quality was measured during three ...


Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker

Adam Liska Papers

The soil organic carbon (SOC) model that we used was parameterized with data from arable land under normal farming conditions in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but the equation is insensitive to changes in tillage, soil texture and moisture. The model has reasonable accuracy, however, in predicting changes in SOC, residue remaining and CO2 emissions from initial SOC, carbon inputs from residue, and daily temperature; the shoot-to-root ratio used in the geospatial simulation was 0.29 (that is, root carbon is 29% of total aboveground carbon), which did not underestimate carbon input to soil (Supplementary Figure 2 in ...


Development Of An Interactive Water Management Role‐Playing Game As An Educational Tool Representing The Central Nebraska Platte River Valley Social‐Economic‐Ecological System, Victoria Chraibi, Nathan Rossman, Anil Giri, Noelle Hart, Zion Schell 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Development Of An Interactive Water Management Role‐Playing Game As An Educational Tool Representing The Central Nebraska Platte River Valley Social‐Economic‐Ecological System, Victoria Chraibi, Nathan Rossman, Anil Giri, Noelle Hart, Zion Schell

DBER Speaker Series

As members of the National Science Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), we have gained valuable experience abroad in Europe learning about and participating in research that utilizes serious role‐playing games representing a watershed with its land use and river system. The focus of this research is on the development of such a game representing the central Platte River valley and its dynamics according to the activities played by the players and uncertain streamflow inputs. The game is adapted specifically from two other games, one called Wat‐A‐Game, developed at the French public institutes IRSTEA ...


Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, KSV Santhanam, Lixing Lu 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, Ksv Santhanam, Lixing Lu

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of vanillin, turmeric and curcumin in the forms of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solution as well as polymer packaging. Five types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes representing gram-positive bacteria; Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium as well as E.coli O157:H7 representing gram- negative bacteria. Turmeric is chosen as the antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into packaging materials. In order to study the antimicrobial effect as packaging application, two types of the polymer based turmeric products were produced. They are LDPE based turmeric pellets ...


Designing Constructed Wetlands For Water Purification In Tanzania, Danielle McNeely, Michael Sheehan, John Lumkes 2014 Purdue University

Designing Constructed Wetlands For Water Purification In Tanzania, Danielle Mcneely, Michael Sheehan, John Lumkes

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In Tanzania half of households have unsafe drinking water (Nkonya, 2010) and many diseases arise from poor water quality, including meningitis, hepatitis A and E, and salmonella (Kusiluka et al., 2004). One cost-effective way of cleaning water is by passing it through a wetland. This research is focused on simplifying the process of horizontal subsurface flow wetland construction for the villagers of Endallah. The outcome is an Excel tool that standardizes methodology for building wetlands that can then be applied to Endallah. Rainfall data from the Arusha region of Tanzania was used to make a rainfall estimation grid. From this ...


Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita 2014 Iowa State University

Identifying Sampling Locations For Field-Scale Soil Moisture Estimation Using K-Means Clustering, Zachary J. Van Arkel, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Identifying and understanding the impact of field-scale soil moisture patterns is currently limited by the time and resources required to do sufficient monitoring. This study uses K-means clustering to find critical sampling points to estimate field-scale near-surface soil moisture. Points within the field are clustered based upon topographic and soils data and the points representing the center of those clusters are identified as the critical sampling points. Soil moisture observations at 42 sites across the growing seasons of 4 years were collected several times per week. Using soil moisture observations at the critical sampling points and the number of points ...


Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer 2014 Iowa State University

Effects Of Native Perennial Vegetation Buffer Strips On Dissolved Organic Carbon In Surface Runoff From An Agricultural Landscape, Tomorra Elizabeth Smith, Randall K. Kolka, Xiaobo Zhou, Matthew J. Helmers, Richard M. Cruse, Mark D. Tomer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed’s carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially affecting aquatic ecosystems. In a study conducted in Iowa (USA), four treatments with strips of NPV varying in slope position and proportion of area were randomly assigned among 12 small agricultural watersheds in a balanced incomplete block design. Runoff samples from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed for DOC ...


Infiltration And Runoff Parameters For Tilled And No-Till Row Crops, Andrew J. Volkmer 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Infiltration And Runoff Parameters For Tilled And No-Till Row Crops, Andrew J. Volkmer

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Infiltration and runoff are hydrologic processes that effect the amount of water available to plants, for groundwater recharge, and for stream flow. No-till planting (NT) is a management practice used to reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, and reduce soil water evaporation, and can have great impact on infiltration and runoff. An investigation was conducted to determine the impact of NT on infiltration and runoff when compared to tilled conditions.

Runoff and precipitation data was gathered from sites at Fillmore County, NE, Phelps County, NE, the USDA-ARS North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (NAEW) near Coshocton, OH, and the Lennoxville Research Station ...


Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Economic Impacts Of Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (Cafe) Standards, Ann K. Hunter-Pirtle

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates that U.S. transportation fuel producers blend specific volumes of ethanol and other biofuels with fossil fuels to spur U.S. biofuel production and to minimize foreign oil imports. Ethanol is more corrosive to auto engines than gasoline, and although vehicles manufactured since 2001 are approved to use up to a 15% ethanol blend (E15) (Naylor & Falcon, 2011), E10 is much more widely available. Ethanol producers therefore face a so-called blend wall at 10 percent—a maximum amount of ethanol that is usable domestically based on the demand for gasoline.

Meanwhile, gasoline demand in ...


Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

By-products from the dry-milling ethanol process can be used in cattle diets to replace corn. There is a significant interaction between corn processing methods as CCDS concentration increases in the diet. Improvements are observed for SFC in final BW, ADG, and G:F over DRC. An experiment was conducted to determine if greater concentrations of CCDS could be fed in SFC based diets and maintain or improve performance. Performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated with increasing concentrations of CCDS at 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% in place of SFC in feedlot finishing diets. As CCDS concentration increased, DMI decreased ...


Irrigation Demand In A Changing Climate: Using Disaggregate Data To Predict Future Groundwater Use, Calvin R. Shaneyfelt 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Irrigation Demand In A Changing Climate: Using Disaggregate Data To Predict Future Groundwater Use, Calvin R. Shaneyfelt

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

The paper estimates an irrigation water demand function using disaggregate climate and well data over a 33 year time period. Aggregating climate information over long periods, like a year, causes a loss of detail on temporal climatic variation, while aggregating climate information over space causes a loss of detail on spatial variation. This analysis uses disaggregate climate variation at a temporospatial level to determine the effects of climate on groundwater use. Results show that increased heat, measured in cooling degree-days, correlates with increased water use, while increased precipitation correlates with decreased water use. However, the effects are generally magnified for ...


A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Case Study Of Changing Cropping Diversity And Agricultural Risk In The Doulthabad Mandal Of Telangana State In India, Srikanth Kondabolu

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The Doulthabad[1] Mandal is a hot semi-arid agro-ecological sub-region (Rao et al. 2006) located in Mahbubnagar District on the North Telangana Plateau in the state of Telangana. Agriculture is the main occupation in this region, which is populated mostly with small and marginal farmers. This study uses the time period from 1971 to 2004 to study the variation in cropping pattern diversity and distribution of rainfall during the monsoons and understand the implications on production risk in agriculture. Quantitative methods were used in determining the changes in rainfall while qualitative methods were used to study cropping system changes. The ...


Potential To Increase Indigenous Biodiesel Production To Help Meet 2020 Targets – An Eu Perspective With A Focus On Ireland, Fionnuala Murphy 2014 SelectedWorks

Potential To Increase Indigenous Biodiesel Production To Help Meet 2020 Targets – An Eu Perspective With A Focus On Ireland, Fionnuala Murphy

Fionnuala Murphy

The biofuels penetration rate target in Ireland for 2013 is 6% by volume. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million litres of biodiesel and 56 million litres of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline respectively. For January and February 2013, the blend rate had only reached 2.7%. The target of 10% by 2020 remains which equates to approximately 420 million litres. Achieving the biofuels target would require 345 ktoe by 2020 (14,400 TJ). Utilising the indigenous biofuels outlined in this paper leaves a shortfall of approximately 12,000 TJ or 350 million litres (achieving ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Effect Of Particle Size, Coupling Agent And Ddgs Additions On Paulownia Wood Polypropylene Composites, Brent Tisserat, Louis Reifschneider, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan 2014 Iowa State University

Effect Of Particle Size, Coupling Agent And Ddgs Additions On Paulownia Wood Polypropylene Composites, Brent Tisserat, Louis Reifschneider, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Studies aimed at improving the tensile, flexural, impact, thermal, and physical characteristics of wood–plastic composites composed of Paulownia wood flour derived from 36-month-old trees blended with polypropylene were conducted. Composites of 25% and 40% w/w of Paulownia wood were produced by twin-screw compounding and injection molding. Composites containing 0–10% by weight of maleated polypropylene were evaluated and an optimum maleated polypropylene concentration determined, i.e., 5%. The particle size distribution of Paulownia wood filler is shown to have an effect on the tensile and flexural properties of the composites. Novel combination composites of dried distiller’s grain ...


Designing A Low Cost Biogas Pressurizing System In Nicaragua, Linda R. Geiger, Kelsey B. Regan 2014 Iowa State University

Designing A Low Cost Biogas Pressurizing System In Nicaragua, Linda R. Geiger, Kelsey B. Regan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Plug flow biodigesters are popular in developing countries due to their low cost and ability to adapt to microclimates to produce biogas for cooking. These biodigesters are primarily composed of a polyethylene bag and PVC, and, typically, cattle or hog manure is used as both the organic and microbe source for gas production. The biogas is piped to a gas stove to be used for cooking. The digesters are intended to replace traditional wood burning stoves prevalent in developing countries, which are attributed to over two million deaths per year. However, due to pressure limitations due to the plastic bag ...


Evaluation Of Hermetic Maize Storage For Smallholder Farmers, Denis Bbosa, Thomas J. Brumm, Carl J. Bern, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2014 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Hermetic Maize Storage For Smallholder Farmers, Denis Bbosa, Thomas J. Brumm, Carl J. Bern, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Maize is an important crop for many smallholder farmers in the world. Maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) cause a significant loss in quality and quantity during maize storage in tropical regions. Hermetic storage of maize has been shown to be effective in controlling maize weevils in laboratory settings. The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of hermetic storage containers that could be used by smallholder farmers. Six 208-L (55-gallon) steel barrels were filled with 170 kg (375 lb) of maize with initial weevil populations of 25 live weevils/kg of maize (11 live weevils/lb). The barrels were ...


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