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Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell 2018 Iowa State University

Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Field drying trials were conducted using both field baskets as well as grab sampling techniques to study drying behaviour of switchgrass and maize (corn) stover (CS). Environmental conditions such as hourly solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), average wind speed, rainfall amount, harvesting method, and field operations such as swath density were used as variables for model development. A powerful classification-based algorithm, which uses a collection of decision trees called random forest (RF) was utilised to predict moisture content (MC) of switchgrass and CS on wet basis. RF predicted the MC of switchgrass and CS with a coefficient of determination ...


Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton 2018 Iowa State University

Portable Canopy Chamber Measurements Of Evapotranspiration In Corn, Soybean, And Reconstructed Prairie, Chenyi Luo, Zhuangji Wang, Thomas J. Sauer, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital component of a field water balance. Canopy chambers are a promising method for determining crop ET because they are portable and applicable at a relatively small plot (m2) scale. Although a variety of canopy chamber designs have been proposed, field tests are still necessary to evaluate chamber performance for measuring crop ET. The objectives of this study are (1) to construct and use an improved canopy chamber to measure ET of three crops [corn (Zea mays, L.), soybean (Glycine max), and reconstructed mixed prairie] and (2) to compare the canopy chamber measurements with flux tower ...


Climate-Driven Crop Yield And Yield Variability And Climate Change Impacts On The U.S. Great Plains Agricultural Production, Meetpal Singh Kukal, Suat Irmak 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Climate-Driven Crop Yield And Yield Variability And Climate Change Impacts On The U.S. Great Plains Agricultural Production, Meetpal Singh Kukal, Suat Irmak

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Climate variability and trends affect global crop yields and are characterized as highly dependent on location, crop type, and irrigation. U.S. Great Plains, due to its significance in national food production, evident climate variability, and extensive irrigation is an ideal region of investigation for climate impacts on food production. This paper evaluates climate impacts on maize, sorghum, and soybean yields and effect of irrigation for individual counties in this region by employing extensive crop yield and climate datasets from 1968–2013. Variability in crop yields was a quarter of the regional average yields, with a quarter of this variability ...


Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar 2018 Iowa State University

Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Minimizing the risks associated with manure-borne pathogenic microorganisms requires an understanding of microbial survival under realistic field conditions. The objective of this 3-year study was to assess the fate of Salmonella (SALM) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), E. coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT), in glacial till-derived soils, after application of poultry manure (PM) to cornfields under chisel-plowed (CP) or no-till (NT) management. From 2010 to 2012, soil samples were obtained each spring at 0–15- and 15–30-cm depths, to determine whether over-wintering of target bacteria had occurred. Sampling was followed by application of PM at low (PM1) and high ...


Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte 2018 Iowa State University

Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte

Jarad Niemi

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with ...


Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe 2018 Iowa State University

Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes. Here we evaluated the diversity of one type of macrolide antibiotic resistance gene (erm) in one type of environment (manure) to determine which primers ...


Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley II, Amy J. Morrow 2018 Iowa State University

Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Amy J. Morrow

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study evaluated the influence of temporal variation on the occurrence, fate, and transport of tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMZ); antibiotics commonly used in swine production. Atrazine (ATZ) was used as a reference analyte to indicate the agricultural origin of the antibiotics. We also assessed the impact of season and hydrology on antibiotic concentrations. A reconnaissance study of the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR), was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Tile drain effluent and surface water were monitored using polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) technology. Approximately 169 animal feeding operations (AFOs) exist in SFIR, with 153 of ...


Beyond The Nutrient Strategies: Common Ground To Accelerate Agricultural Water Quality Improvement In The Upper Midwest, Center for Watershed Protection, Inc., Laura Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Gregory McIsaac, David Mulla, Walton Family Foundation 2018 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Beyond The Nutrient Strategies: Common Ground To Accelerate Agricultural Water Quality Improvement In The Upper Midwest, Center For Watershed Protection, Inc., Laura Christianson, Matthew J. Helmers, Gregory Mcisaac, David Mulla, Walton Family Foundation

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nutrients in drainage waters from the Upper Mississippi River Basin states have been a well-documented contributor to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone for decades, and in response, twelve states have developed strategies to address this issue, with Iowa, Minnesota, and Illinois performing rigorous science assessments which estimated nitrogen and phosphorus reduction effectiveness for numerous agricultural non-point source conservation practices. The practices identified in these strategies were compared to identify areas of consensus and discord on nutrient load reduction potentials. Additionally, each practice was assessed for (1) the suitability to stack or be layered with other practices (stackability), (2) the ...


Split- Split Plot Theoretic Approach To Modelling Optimum Conditions For The Growth And Development Of Castor Shrub, Samuel A. Omotehinse, Anthony C. Igboanugo, Kazeem A. Bello 2018 University of Benin, Nigeria

Split- Split Plot Theoretic Approach To Modelling Optimum Conditions For The Growth And Development Of Castor Shrub, Samuel A. Omotehinse, Anthony C. Igboanugo, Kazeem A. Bello

Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Some concern had been shown about the limited availability of castor seed to meet the ever growing demand of the product for both domestic and industrial uses. This study seeks to discover optimum conditions for the growth and development of castor shrub so that it can meet the yearning of the society to complement fossil fuel that is non-renewable. The research experiment was carried out with big seeded varieties and small seeded varieties of castor seed obtained from Igueben, Edo State, Nigeria. The seeds were sown in plots having a size of 3x4m. Germination was observed at the emergence of ...


Investigation Of Performance Tests Using Bio-Derived/Chemical Additives, Joseph H. Podolsky, Ashley Buss, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran 2018 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Performance Tests Using Bio-Derived/Chemical Additives, Joseph H. Podolsky, Ashley Buss, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran

Eric W. Cochran

An industry wide emphasis on sustainable asphalt practices has given rise to increasing use of warm mix asphalt technologies. WMA reduces both binder viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures by 20-55°C during the asphalt mix production and laydown process. This research investigates several bio-derived WMA additives that act as chemical modifiers with surfactant properties. Two established additives derived from the forest products industry are studied as well as a WMA additive in development that is derived from corn. The WMA material responses are measured for binder testing and mixture testing. All binder testing with the additives was conducted using ...


Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran 2018 Iowa State University

Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran

Eric W. Cochran

Presented in this study is a novel recycling strategy for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in which the depolymerization is rapidly promoted by the base–catalyzed hydrol–/alcohol–ysis of the terminal ester bonds under mild conditions. Post–consumer PLA water bottles were cut into approximately 6 × 2 mm plastic chips and heated to 50–60×C in water, ethanol, or methanol as the depolymerization medium. A variety of carbonate salts and alkaline metal oxides were screened as potential catalysts. High–power ultrasound was also investigated as a means to accelerate the PLA decomposition. Both mass loss and HPLC analysis of ...


Intelligent Uav Scouting For Field Condition Monitoring, Hasan Seyyedhasani 2018 University of Kentucky

Intelligent Uav Scouting For Field Condition Monitoring, Hasan Seyyedhasani

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Precision agriculture requires detailed and timely information about field condition. In less than the short flight time a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) can provide, an entire field can be scanned at the highest allowed altitude. The resulting NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) imagery can then be used to classify each point in the field using a FIS (Fuzzy Inference System). This identifies areas that are expected to be similar, but only closer inspection can quantify and diagnose crop properties. In the remaining flight time, the goal is to scout a set of representative points maximizing the quality of actionable information ...


Detection Of Multi-Tomato Leaf Diseases (Late Blight, Target And Bacterial Spots) In Different Stages By Using A Spectral-Based Sensor, Jinzhu Lu, Reza Ehsani, Yeyin Shi, Ana Isabel de Castro, Shuang Wang 2018 Xihua University

Detection Of Multi-Tomato Leaf Diseases (Late Blight, Target And Bacterial Spots) In Different Stages By Using A Spectral-Based Sensor, Jinzhu Lu, Reza Ehsani, Yeyin Shi, Ana Isabel De Castro, Shuang Wang

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Several diseases have threatened tomato production in Florida, resulting in large losses, especially in fresh markets. In this study, a high-resolution portable spectral sensor was used to investigate the feasibility of detecting multi-diseased tomato leaves in different stages, including early or asymptomatic stages. One healthy leaf and three diseased tomato leaves (late blight, target and bacterial spots) were defined into four stages (healthy, asymptomatic, early stage and late stage) and collected from a field. Fifty-seven spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated in accordance with methods published in previous studies and established in this study. Principal component analysis was conducted to ...


Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwestern United States is dominated by agricultural production with high concentrations of swine, leading to application of swine manure onto lands with artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations which administer antimicrobials. While previous studies have examined the occurrence of ARGs around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known how their transport from tile-drained fields receiving swine manure application impacts downstream environments. To further our knowledge in this area, water samples were collected from five locations in the agriculturally dominated South ...


Application Of A Multi-Hybrid Planter For Geospatial Assessment Of Zone-Based Corn Hybrid And Soybean Seed Treatment Performance For Optimized Crop Production, Rachel Stevens 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Application Of A Multi-Hybrid Planter For Geospatial Assessment Of Zone-Based Corn Hybrid And Soybean Seed Treatment Performance For Optimized Crop Production, Rachel Stevens

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The ability to variably plant multiple hybrids or treatments during field operation has been identified as one option for mitigating in-field variation caused by soil, disease pressures, environmental and water conditions. While the system performance has been validated, producers still have questions concerning development of management zones, hybrid and treatment assignment, and economic advantage from implementation. Assessment of a multi-hybrid planting platform was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. On-farm trials were performed on ten corn fields and five soybean fields in eastern Nebraska. Corn trials focused on placement of two contrasting hybrids for soil type and water ...


Electrical Stimulation For Enhanced Denitrification In Woodchip Bioreactors: Opportunities And Challenges, J. Y. Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, T. B. Moorman, Say K. Ong 2018 Iowa State University

Electrical Stimulation For Enhanced Denitrification In Woodchip Bioreactors: Opportunities And Challenges, J. Y. Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, T. B. Moorman, Say K. Ong

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are being implemented for the removal of nitrates in groundwater and tile water drainage. However, low nitrate removals in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been observed for short hydraulic retention time (HRT) and low water temperature (°C). One potential approach to improve woodchip bioreactor performance is to provide an alternative and readily available electron source to the denitrifying microorganisms through electrical stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) to remove a variety of water contaminants, including nitrate, in the presence of a soluble carbon source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the denitrification ...


New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao 2018 China Agricultural University

New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Preliminary field measurements have shown substantial temperature sudden-drop (ΔTsd) at bird level in the initial stage of pad cooling process in arid regions of China. Such sudden temperature fluctuation can cause thermal stress to laying hens and this problem is attracting increasing concerns. The purpose of this study was to develop a new control strategy (NCS) to avoid or minimize ΔTsd while simplify the operational process. Theoretical calculation and field test were conducted in this study. The key ambient thermal factor affecting ΔTsd was analysed by calculating temperature drop of cooled air existing the cooling pad (ΔTd). A countermeasure was ...


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe 2018 ASABE Member

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 1. Quantification And Prediction, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Ignacio Alvarez, Daniel S. Andersen, Ulrike Passe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Air infiltration through unplanned inlets is an integral component of any ventilation process. Air infiltration affects the quality of the room environment and can also increase winter heating costs. Precise data on air infiltration is very important in the design of animal room ventilation systems. Nineteen mechanically ventilated (negative pressure type) swine finishing rooms in Iowa were tested for their air infiltration potential. Using the data of 17 rooms, air infiltration rate through the whole room (i.e., total air infiltration, It), curtains (Ic), fans (If) and net building shell (other components, Io) were quantified. Power ...


Effects Of Subsurface Drainage Systems On Water And Nitrogen Footprints Simulated With Rzwqm2, Kristina Craft, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert W. Malone, Carl H. Pederson, Linda R. Schott 2018 Iowa State University

Effects Of Subsurface Drainage Systems On Water And Nitrogen Footprints Simulated With Rzwqm2, Kristina Craft, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert W. Malone, Carl H. Pederson, Linda R. Schott

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Developing drainage water management (DWM) systems in the Midwest to reduce nitrogen (N) transport to the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone requires understanding of the long-term performance of these systems. Few studies have evaluated long-term impacts of DWM, and the simulation of controlled drainage (CD) with the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) is limited, while shallow drainage (SD) has not been examined. We tested RZWQM using nine years (2007-2015) of field data from southeast Iowa for CD, SD, conventional drainage (DD), and undrained (ND) systems and simulated the long-term (1971-2015) impacts. RZWQM accurately simulated N loss in subsurface ...


Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Amazon.com, Inc., Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge 2018 Iowa State University

Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Amazon.Com, Inc., Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution is a major cause of surface water quality degradation due to the transport of chemicals, nutrients, and sediments into lakes and streams. Vegetative buffers comprise several effective landscape best management practices (BMPs) that include vegetative filter strips (VFS) and grassed waterways. However, some BMPs are less effective due to concentrated surface flow, improper cropland-to-VFS area ratios, and surface flowpaths that partially or completely bypass vegetative buffers. The overall objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of simulated flowpaths relative to observed and global positioning system (GPS)-assisted ground-truthed surface flowpaths for improved placement of VFS ...


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