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Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman 2018 Iowa State University

Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are recognized as an effective best management practice in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. This edge-of-field practice intercepts and removes NO3-N, thereby reducing the NO3-N concentration in tile drainage before being discharged into surface water. Actual NO3-N load reductions realized by woodchip bioreactors are impacted by bioreactor size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and denitrification efficiency. A typical woodchip bioreactor in Iowa may have 0.07% bioreactor area with respect to treatment area, 4–8 h HRT, and 43% mean denitrification efficiency. Here, we explored the potential of using electrically stimulated woodchip bioreactors to achieve greater NO3-N removal, and ...


Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi 2018 Utah State University

Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi

All ECSTATIC Materials

Students will work in groups to develop a causal loop diagram (CLD) to illustrate the structure and expected behavior of the fictional water short state of Nevizonato facilitate qualitative discussion of expected outcomes of a proposed water management strategy. This activity requires familiarity with systems thinking and system dynamics modeling. CLDs are introduced as a fundamental systems thinking tool for conceptual modeling.


Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal

Theses and Dissertations

Furrow irrigation is a very common irrigation method for growing crops like soybean, cotton and corn in Arkansas. A major portion of this irrigation water is lost as runoff from the field significantly reducing the irrigation application efficiency. There are various methods of improving irrigation efficiency and one of the methods is using tail-water recovery. A tail-water recovery system utilizes tail-water recovery ditches or pits to collect tail-water which can be re-used for irrigation. However, this method is very labor intensive and has been found to be economically non-feasible for some farms in the past research studies. In order to ...


Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 University of Bridgeport

Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In addition to retaining high levels of customer satisfaction, sustainability of businesses is also heavily reliant on the efficiency of their internal and external processes. Continuous performance evaluations using key performance metrics to leverage operations are essential in maintaining a sustainable business while achieving growth objectives for revenue and profitability. Traditionally, companies have considered various financial criteria, quality characteristics, and targeted levels of service as their primary factors for performance evaluation. However, increasing environmental and social awareness and accompanying governmental legislations are now requiring companies to integrate these two aspects into their performance evaluations. With this motivation, this study proposes ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The worldwide decline and overexploitation of ocean fisheries stocks had provided an incentive for the rapid growth of aquaculture. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest-growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production per year and is one of the most reliable and sustainable growth markets for manufactured feeds. Extrusion technology has been extensively used in the modern aquatic feed manufacturing, due to nutritional, physical properties improvements and cost effectiveness of feeds. Cost related to aquatic feed remains the biggest challenge, especially for small-scale producers. In order to understand costs and potential breakeven points, a ...


Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack 2018 University of California, Davis

Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased public health risk caused by pathogen contamination in streams is a serious issue, and mitigating the risk requires improvement in existing microbial monitoring of streams. To improve understanding of microbial contamination in streams, we monitored Escherichia coli in stream water columns and streambed sediment. Two distinct streams and their subwatersheds were studied: (i) a mountain stream (Merced River, California), which represents pristine and wild conditions, and (ii) an agricultural stream (Squaw Creek, Iowa), which represents an agricultural setting (i.e., crop, manure application, cattle access). Stream water column and sediment samples were collected in multiple locations in the Merced ...


Comparison Of Nitrogen Fertigation Management Strategies For Center-Pivot Irrigated Maize In The Sub-Humid Area Of China, Jingjing Li, Wenjing Zang, Yaojun Li, Derek M. Heeren, Haijun Yan 2018 China Agricultural University, Beijing

Comparison Of Nitrogen Fertigation Management Strategies For Center-Pivot Irrigated Maize In The Sub-Humid Area Of China, Jingjing Li, Wenjing Zang, Yaojun Li, Derek M. Heeren, Haijun Yan

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

In the sub-humid region of Northeast China, increasing use of center-pivot irrigation systems has caused increased interest in sprinkler fertigation technology in maize production to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and protect the environment. However, the lack of fertigation strategies for maize cultivation restrains the adoption of sprinkler fertigation technology. A field experiment was carried out in a sub-humid region of Northeast China on maize to determine the effect of different fertigation management strategies on plant growth, grain yield and nitrate content in the soil during the maize growing season. Three N rates (200, 160, and 120 kg N ha ...


Developing An Integrated Model For The Corn, Ethanol, And Beef Systems Using A Loosely Coupled Web Framework, Ryan Anderson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Developing An Integrated Model For The Corn, Ethanol, And Beef Systems Using A Loosely Coupled Web Framework, Ryan Anderson

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

With the global population approaching 9 billion people by the year 2050, the world’s food, energy, and water (FEW) resources must be used more intelligently to provide for everyone. While we understand how individual FEW systems behave using modeling, we cannot understand the full environmental and production impacts of decisions in each system without understanding how they are all linked together. An approach to coupling these systems is starting with identifying a few highly interconnected FEW systems. The corn, ethanol, and beef systems are large economic and agricultural drivers in the Midwest United States and are highly linked. Many ...


Tradeoffs In Model Performance And Effort For Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Based On In Situ Field Data, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Guillermo Baigorria 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tradeoffs In Model Performance And Effort For Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Based On In Situ Field Data, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Guillermo Baigorria

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Phosphorus and N are critical nutrients for agriculture but are also responsible for surface water enrichment that leads to toxic algal growth. Although P loading to surface waters has traditionally been thought to occur primarily in surface runoff, contributions from subsurface transport can also be significant. The primary objectives of this research were to evaluate several methods of representing macropore flow and transport in a finite element model using plot-scale infiltration and leaching data and to compare several models of various levels of complexity to simulate long-term P leaching. To determine flow and transport parameters, single- and dual-porosity models in ...


Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Closed surface depressions, also known as “potholes” play an important role in the hydrologic cycle and provide multiple environmental services including flood mitigation, water quality improvements and wildlife habitat. In the Prairie Pothole Region, which covers approximately 715,000 km2, including parts of three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta) and five states in the U.S. (Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, and Montana), these potholes are typically farmed and are a dominant feature in the landscape. In this study, we evaluate the Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model for simulating the inundation behavior of two farmed potholes, termed ...


U.S. Agro-Climate In 20th Century: Growing Degree Days, First And Last Frost, Growing Season Length, And Impacts On Crop Yields, Meetpal Singh Kukal, Suat Irmak 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

U.S. Agro-Climate In 20th Century: Growing Degree Days, First And Last Frost, Growing Season Length, And Impacts On Crop Yields, Meetpal Singh Kukal, Suat Irmak

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Significant air temperature changes have occurred globally during the 20th century, which are spatially variable to a considerable degree and these changes can have substantial implications in agroecosystem productivity. The agroclimate indicators that are responsible in these contexts are first fall frost (FFF), last spring frost (LSF), climatological growing season (CGS) length, and heat accumulation (growing degree days, GDD). We explore spatial and temporal trends associated with these indices across the continental U.S. (CONUS) during 1900–2014 using datasets collected at 1218 sites. On average, FFF has been occurring later (by 5.4 days century−1), and LSF has ...


Effect Of Incubation Temperature On Phosphorous Release From Soils To Water, Seth Boles 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Incubation Temperature On Phosphorous Release From Soils To Water, Seth Boles

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, nutrient release into flood waters and runoff has been a major concern within the Illinois River watershed, as well as nationwide. This study investigated whether there was a change in the release rate of soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) into overlying water from soil cores incubated at different temperatures. Soil cores were incubated at 4.4°C, 20°C, and 32°C. After inundation, water samples were taken periodically over a seven-hour period and SRP measured. Following the drainage of the water, the upper 5 cm soil from each core was dried and analyzed for Mehlich III-extractable and ...


Investigating Initial Interactions Between Silver Nanoparticles And Wastewater, Casey Gibson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Initial Interactions Between Silver Nanoparticles And Wastewater, Casey Gibson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has increased exponentially in the last 15-20 years, especially in the consumer market. NPs are currently found in over 1800 commercial products, including cosmetics, clothing, packaging, and toys. As a result, NPs can enter the environment via wastewater (WW) streams, leading to new challenges in WW treatment. This study focuses on the initial fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in WW. The AgNP interaction including aggregation and dissolution in both synthetic and real WW were studied. Real WW was collected from the primary-clarifier, secondary-clarifier, and effluent WW streams at two local WW treatment plants (Westside and ...


Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, Madeline Ludwig 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, Madeline Ludwig

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study investigated the effect of nutrient addition on algal growth in three United States Forest Service lakes for fishery management in Arkansas. In fishery managed lakes, fertilization works by manipulating algae growth, a basal food resource in lakes, to promote the growth of the fish population. For the nutrient addition experiments, water was collected from each lake in cubitainers and spiked with nutrients; the treatments included the control, nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), and nitrogen and phosphorus (+N +P). When algal growth was visually observed, a water sample was collected from each cubitainer and analyzed for chlorophyll-α. The results showed ...


In-Cage Surface Wetting System For Cooling Poultry In Transport, Ryan Clark 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In-Cage Surface Wetting System For Cooling Poultry In Transport, Ryan Clark

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Poultry health and mortality rates are important considerations in poultry production, as companies can minimize product loss and appeal to a consumer base whose concern for animal welfare continues to grow. Although animal welfare is a consideration for the entire poultry production process, this project focuses on the live-haul phase of the process, specifically during transport from grow houses to processing facilities. During the summer months, broiler chickens being transported can suffer from heat stress that can lead to death. This project consists of the designing and testing of an in-cage surface wetting system to minimize heat stress incidents ...


Automated Control System Design Manual For Plant Growth And Support, Brooke Benham 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Automated Control System Design Manual For Plant Growth And Support, Brooke Benham

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The “Automated Control System Design Manual for Plant Growth and Support” project contains a teaching manual for high school students and teachers to use to aid in teaching STEM subjects. Building confidence in students and encouraging the pursuit of STEM related fields is one of the primary functions. This project utilizes low cost instruments and freely available software to teach the construction, installation, programming, and application for an automated control system with emphasis on plant growth and regulation. The end result is a fully automated system that can be controlled wirelessly via an android application to monitor temperature, humidity, and ...


Effect Of Incubation Temperature On Phosphorous Release From Soils To Water, Seth Boles 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Incubation Temperature On Phosphorous Release From Soils To Water, Seth Boles

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, nutrient release into flood waters and runoff has been a major concern within the Illinois River watershed, as well as nationwide. This study investigated whether there was a change in the release rate of soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) into overlying water from soil cores incubated at different temperatures. Soil cores were incubated at 4.4°C, 20°C, and 32°C. After inundation, water samples were taken periodically over a seven-hour period and SRP measured. Following the drainage of the water, the upper 5 cm soil from each core was dried and analyzed for Mehlich III-extractable and ...


Chloride Salt Inhibition On Lipid Production In Wastewater-Grown Algae For Biofuel Production, Will Richardson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chloride Salt Inhibition On Lipid Production In Wastewater-Grown Algae For Biofuel Production, Will Richardson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Algae are increasingly being recognized as useful organisms for many applications in today’s world. Their ability to remove nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace metals from water while adding oxygen to water makes them an attractive tertiary treatment technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. At the same time, algae produce lipids and carbohydrates that are useful for biofuel production, and they are not a human food crop unlike many biofuel feedstocks. In this study the effect of increased chloride concentrations in wastewater was assessed on the ability of two species of algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus, to function as a ...


Assessing Auto-Flocculation Of Microalgae In Wastewater Treatment, Alexander Parr 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessing Auto-Flocculation Of Microalgae In Wastewater Treatment, Alexander Parr

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Biofuels produced from algae have the prospect to provide a cheap, carbon neutral alternative to fossil fuels. However, the high cost for harvesting algae limits its wide application, as the preferred algae strains for biofuel production are typically unicellular microalgae that do not settle in water very well. Recently, researchers have been focusing on developing a biological method to achieve the sedimentation of algae through flocculation. A recent study has concluded that introducing microalgae that self-flocculates increases the recovery of the desired microalgae, similar to the effect of using coagulant to flocculate the algae. This option can potentially be more ...


Performance Assessment Of Solid State Anaerobic Digestion Of Poultry Litter, Mason Puckett 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Performance Assessment Of Solid State Anaerobic Digestion Of Poultry Litter, Mason Puckett

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The disposal of poultry litter can exert an economic and environmental burden to the agriculture community. As a result, it is desirable to reduce the amount of waste and recover resources from the waste. This study focuses on the construction and preliminary testing of a laboratory scale (20 L) solid state anaerobic digester (AD) fed with dry poultry litter. Glucose was added in addition to the poultry litter to achieve the appropriate C:N ratio to support the growth of anaerobic microorganisms. The AD was first fed every 4 days at 4 g VS/L/feeding for 24 days, rested ...


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