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Denitrification And Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Annual Croplands, Perennial Grass Buffers, And Restored Perennial Grasslands, Javed Iqbal, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Michael J. Castellano 2015 Iowa State University

Denitrification And Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Annual Croplands, Perennial Grass Buffers, And Restored Perennial Grasslands, Javed Iqbal, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Xiaobo Zhou, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications and Papers

Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFSs) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease NO3–N losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFSs are similar to riparian buffers, the processes responsible for NO3–N removal from PFSs are not well understood. Our objectives were to (i) determine the importance of denitrification as a sink for NO3–N loss from PFSs and (ii) evaluate how PFSs alter the biophysical processes that affect the relative importance of N2O and N2 emissions. To address our objectives, we used a coupled field laboratory approach with ...


Comparing Nitrate Sink Strength In Perennial Filter Strips At Toeslopes Of Cropland Watersheds, David C. Mitchell, Xiaobo Zhou, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael J. Castellano 2015 Iowa State University

Comparing Nitrate Sink Strength In Perennial Filter Strips At Toeslopes Of Cropland Watersheds, David C. Mitchell, Xiaobo Zhou, Timothy B. Parkin, Matthew J. Helmers, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications and Papers

Integration of perennial filter strips (PFS) into the toeslopes of agricultural watersheds may decrease downstream nitrate (NO3) losses. However, long-term NO3 removal depends on the relative importance of several NO3 sinks in the PFS. Plant biomass and labile soil organic matter (SOM) are temporary NO3 sinks, while stable SOM is a long-term, but potentially finite, NO3 sink. In contrast, denitrification is a permanent NO3 sink. We investigated the relative importance of these NO3 sinks in PFS at the toeslope of row crop watersheds in Iowa. Using 25- × 30-cm in situ mesocosms, we added ...


Greenhouse Gas And Energy Based Life Cycle Analysis Of Products From The Irish Wood Processing Industry, Fionnuala Murphy, Ger Devlin, Kevin McDonnell 2015 University College Dublin

Greenhouse Gas And Energy Based Life Cycle Analysis Of Products From The Irish Wood Processing Industry, Fionnuala Murphy, Ger Devlin, Kevin Mcdonnell

Fionnuala Murphy

The timber industry in Ireland is an important producer of wood products for export and indigenous use, and supplies significant volumes of sawmill co-products as biomass for energy generation. This research expands existing knowledge on the environmental impacts of wood supply chains in Ireland by widening the analysis to incorporate the wood processing stage. The study determines and analyses energy and material inputs in the production of several timber products; sawnwood, wood chip, wood-based panel (WBP) boards and wood pellets, with an analysis of the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Forestry operations and transportation make an important contribution to overall emissions ...


Center Pivot Sprinkler Distribution Uniformity Impacts On The Spatial Variability Of Evapotranspiration, Daniel Howes, Sean Ellenson, Lucas Hoffmann, Franklin Gaudi 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Center Pivot Sprinkler Distribution Uniformity Impacts On The Spatial Variability Of Evapotranspiration, Daniel Howes, Sean Ellenson, Lucas Hoffmann, Franklin Gaudi

Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

Understanding variable evapotranspiration (ET) throughout a field can help maximize yield on a per-acre basis, as well as assist with proper irrigation scheduling. The results from this study indicate that irrigation system distribution uniformity (DU) has a significant effect on the uniformity of ET during water-stressed periods. The study site involved intensely managed forage (alfalfa and winter grain hay) irrigated by center pivots being supplied with reclaimed water near Palmdale, California. During spring and early summer 2007 the center pivots were operating under deficit irrigation. In 2010, after the installation of reservoirs, water was applied to meet full evapotranspiration (ETc ...


Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson 2014 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three anaerobic digestion trials were conducted to evaluate methane production from feedlot manure. As organic matter content of manure decreased, degradation of manure and methane production also linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.02). Quality, or organic matter content of manure, had a greater impact on anaerobic digestion than diet (with and without distillers grains) fed to cattle. Minerals are concentrated in effluent removed from anaerobic digesters.

Knowing mineral retention within cattle allows for more accurate calculation of mineral excretion in manure. Three serial slaughter trials measured mineral retention in growing and finishing cattle. During a growing phase, beef cattle gaining 1 ...


Aquaponics Art, Alexander Horton 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Aquaponics Art, Alexander Horton

Liberal Arts and Engineering Studies

Aquaponics has enormous potential to change the way we farm. I wanted to connect more people to Cal Poly's first aquaponics club by creating a functioning aquaponics art installation that allows people to plant their own plants. This paper is catalog of the design process as a reflection of what this project hopes to accomplish.


Post Harvest Treatment Of Crops Using Emulsified Petroleum, Innovative Research Publications IRP India, Shourya Pokhriyal, , Kanishk Rawat 2014 Innovative Research Publications

Post Harvest Treatment Of Crops Using Emulsified Petroleum, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, Shourya Pokhriyal, , Kanishk Rawat

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

The present invention relates to the post-harvest treatment method for eradication of biological infestation in crops including pests, parasites, funguses, moulds, etc. comprises the step of applying post-harvest to the crop by petroleum oil that has a density at 15° C. in the range of 0.75 to 0.83 g/ml.


Estimating Streambank Erosion Using Gps-Based Watershed-Scale Video Mapping And Usepa Bancs For The Development Of Sediment Tmdls, Kelsey Jo Hensley 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Estimating Streambank Erosion Using Gps-Based Watershed-Scale Video Mapping And Usepa Bancs For The Development Of Sediment Tmdls, Kelsey Jo Hensley

Masters Theses

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), sediment is one of the most common water pollutants in the nation’s rivers. Consequently, the identification of streambank locations with high erosion potential is important in reducing sediment input via management and monitoring practices. Furthermore, the estimation of erosion rates and sediment loads can assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). The objective of this study was to integrate two USEPA-recommended approaches with the Streambank Video Mapping System (SVMS) in order to predict site-specific Total Daily Sediment Loads (TDSLs) and calculate sediment TMDLs for streambank erosion over ...


Field Abundance And Performance Of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) On Soybean Aphid, James O. Eckberg, Julie A. Peterson, Colin P. Borsh, Joe M. Kaser, Gregg A. Johnson, John C. Luhman, Donald L. Wyse, George E. Heimpel 2014 University of Minnesota

Field Abundance And Performance Of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) On Soybean Aphid, James O. Eckberg, Julie A. Peterson, Colin P. Borsh, Joe M. Kaser, Gregg A. Johnson, John C. Luhman, Donald L. Wyse, George E. Heimpel

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

The management of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumara is a major challenge to soybean production in the north-central United States. The identification and characterization of the insect predator community has informed integrated pest management strategies by providing insight on predators that can suppress soybean aphid populations. Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are known predators of A. glycines, but more information is needed on their diversity, abundance, and performance to evaluate their importance as biological control agents of A. glycines. In this study, syrphid abundance was evaluated across two growing seasons in four soybean fields in east-central Minnesota. Six methods were used ...


Mechanical Pretreatment Of Corncobs For Bioethanol Production By A Twin-Screw Extruder, Jun Zheng 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanical Pretreatment Of Corncobs For Bioethanol Production By A Twin-Screw Extruder, Jun Zheng

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Extrusion pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses is a physical continuous pretreatment method for subsequent fermentative ethanol production. Twin-screw elements (conveying, kneading and reverse) have different effects on enzymatic digestibility according to their geometries and functions. The first study evaluated the effects of individual functional screw elements on enzymatic digestibility and found that extrusion enhanced enzymatic digestibility under all tested condition. Reverse and kneading screw elements however resulted in lignin re-distribution over the cellulose fibres, blocked pores (shown via SEM) and resulted in less digestible biomass, compared to conveying screw elements, only. Lignin removal via NaOH reversed this effect and the highest ...


Nutrient Runoff Following Swine Manure Application, Seth J. Lamb 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nutrient Runoff Following Swine Manure Application, Seth J. Lamb

Environmental Engineering Theses and Graduate Student Research

A field study was completed to compare the effects of land application methods, swine growth stage, and varying flow rates following the application of varying amounts of swine manure to 0.75-m by 2.00-m long plots. Three different manure sources were used to represent key different growth stages including growers, finishers, and sows and gilts. The different swine manures were applied in May and Jun 2011 to meet a 1 year nitrogen (N) requirement for corn. Three different land application methods were used to apply the swine manure, broadcast, incorporation, and injection. Runoff water quality was measured during three ...


Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reply To ‘Co2 Emissions From Crop Residue-Derived Biofuels’, Adam Liska, Haishun Yang, Matthew P. Pelton, Andrew E. Suyker

Adam Liska Papers

The soil organic carbon (SOC) model that we used was parameterized with data from arable land under normal farming conditions in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but the equation is insensitive to changes in tillage, soil texture and moisture. The model has reasonable accuracy, however, in predicting changes in SOC, residue remaining and CO2 emissions from initial SOC, carbon inputs from residue, and daily temperature; the shoot-to-root ratio used in the geospatial simulation was 0.29 (that is, root carbon is 29% of total aboveground carbon), which did not underestimate carbon input to soil (Supplementary Figure 2 in ...


Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher 2014 Iowa State University

Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Generally, capstone courses focus on the integration and application of technical knowledge and skills acquired in previous coursework along with a consideration of multiple realistic constraints. However, capstone courses also require students to focus on a variety of professional skills, including teamwork, unstructured task completion, and project management. Because students are often new at these skills, they may find it difficult to resolve issues as they arise, particularly when working with an actual industrial client.

Capstone courses also pose challenges to faculty. Finding a consistent stream of projects that are at the appropriate level for senior level students can be ...


Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher 2014 Iowa State University

Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Virtual learning simulations have received increasing attention due various proposed educational, instructional, and institutional advantages; with literature focusing largely on perceptions of this technology and empirical comparisons to other instructional methods. Compared to traditional learning environments, virtual learning environments may present methodological advantages in studying learning processes through applying behavioral tracing techniques.

This paper will discuss behavioral indicators of cognitive learning processes used in virtual decision scenarios designed for third year engineering and engineering technology students. Behavioral measures to quantitatively analyze the learning process will be presented. Implications for assessing student learning, instructional strategy selection, and improving higher education quality ...


Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez 2014 Iowa State University

Understanding Engineering Students' Perceptions And Knowledge About Sustainable Development And Sustainability, Bhavna Sharma, Brian L. Steward, Say K. Ong, Fernando E. Miguez

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The Sustainable Engineering and International Development course was first offered to engineering majors at the Iowa State University (ISU) in 2005. The course is focused on describing, discussing and comparing the key concepts of sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable engineering. In 2005, sustainability was not a major part of the engineering curricula and students had little to no knowledge about these concepts. Nine years later, sustainability has become an integral part of our daily lives. In this study, we wanted to understand student perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of sustainability, sustainable development and its implementation across various engineering systems. The assessment ...


Successful Strategies For Engaging Community Colleges And Universities In Transfer Partnership, Marcia R. Laugerman, Diane T. Rover, Steven K. Mickelson, Mack C. Shelley, Kari Hensen 2014 University of Iowa

Successful Strategies For Engaging Community Colleges And Universities In Transfer Partnership, Marcia R. Laugerman, Diane T. Rover, Steven K. Mickelson, Mack C. Shelley, Kari Hensen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In order to increase the number of students (U.S. citizens or permanent residents) receiving associate or baccalaureate degrees in established or emerging fields within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), the National Science Foundation (NSF) established the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Talent Expansion Program (STEP).

The Student Enrollment and Engagement through Connections (SEEC) project is a collaboration between Iowa State University (ISU) and Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC) funded by a STEP grant to increase the number of students graduating with a bachelor's degree in engineering at ISU and the number of students in pre-engineering study ...


Development Of An Interactive Water Management Role‐Playing Game As An Educational Tool Representing The Central Nebraska Platte River Valley Social‐Economic‐Ecological System, Victoria Chraibi, Nathan Rossman, Anil Giri, Noelle Hart, Zion Schell 2014 University of Nebraska‐Lincoln

Development Of An Interactive Water Management Role‐Playing Game As An Educational Tool Representing The Central Nebraska Platte River Valley Social‐Economic‐Ecological System, Victoria Chraibi, Nathan Rossman, Anil Giri, Noelle Hart, Zion Schell

DBER Speaker Series

As members of the National Science Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), we have gained valuable experience abroad in Europe learning about and participating in research that utilizes serious role‐playing games representing a watershed with its land use and river system. The focus of this research is on the development of such a game representing the central Platte River valley and its dynamics according to the activities played by the players and uncertain streamflow inputs. The game is adapted specifically from two other games, one called Wat‐A‐Game, developed at the French public institutes IRSTEA ...


Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, KSV Santhanam, Lixing Lu 2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, Ksv Santhanam, Lixing Lu

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of vanillin, turmeric and curcumin in the forms of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solution as well as polymer packaging. Five types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes representing gram-positive bacteria; Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium as well as E.coli O157:H7 representing gram- negative bacteria. Turmeric is chosen as the antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into packaging materials. In order to study the antimicrobial effect as packaging application, two types of the polymer based turmeric products were produced. They are LDPE based turmeric pellets ...


Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz 2014 Iowa State University

Manure Storage & Handling—Aeration Overview, Daniel S. Andersen, Jay D. Harmon, Steven J. Hoff, Angela M. Rieck-Hinz

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Aeration is the process of mixing air into the manure to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria. Oxygen must be supplied either naturally, mechanically through mixing, or using oxygen diffusion systems. This technology can provide dramatic odor reduction from livestock waste management facilities, but has not found frequent application in agriculture due to intensive energy use and resulting added utility costs.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate ...


Designing Constructed Wetlands For Water Purification In Tanzania, Danielle McNeely, Michael Sheehan, John Lumkes 2014 Purdue University

Designing Constructed Wetlands For Water Purification In Tanzania, Danielle Mcneely, Michael Sheehan, John Lumkes

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In Tanzania half of households have unsafe drinking water (Nkonya, 2010) and many diseases arise from poor water quality, including meningitis, hepatitis A and E, and salmonella (Kusiluka et al., 2004). One cost-effective way of cleaning water is by passing it through a wetland. This research is focused on simplifying the process of horizontal subsurface flow wetland construction for the villagers of Endallah. The outcome is an Excel tool that standardizes methodology for building wetlands that can then be applied to Endallah. Rainfall data from the Arusha region of Tanzania was used to make a rainfall estimation grid. From this ...


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