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Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński 2021 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


Effects Of Drying And Providing Supplemental Oxygen To Piglets At Birth On Rectal Temperature Over The First 24 H After Birth, Katherine D. Vande Pol, Andres F. Tolosa, Raphael O. Bautista, Naomi C. Willard, Richard S. Gates, Caleb M. Shull, Catherine B. Brown, Stephan A.S. Alencar, Clay A. Lents, Michael Ellis 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Effects Of Drying And Providing Supplemental Oxygen To Piglets At Birth On Rectal Temperature Over The First 24 H After Birth, Katherine D. Vande Pol, Andres F. Tolosa, Raphael O. Bautista, Naomi C. Willard, Richard S. Gates, Caleb M. Shull, Catherine B. Brown, Stephan A.S. Alencar, Clay A. Lents, Michael Ellis

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Neonatal piglets can experience both a decrease in body temperature and hypoxia, increasing risks for pre-weaning mortality. This research evaluated the effects of drying and providing supplemental oxygen to newborn piglets on rectal temperature (RT) over the first 24 h after birth. The study used a CRD with 3 Intervention Treatments (IT; applied at birth): Control (no intervention), Drying (dried using a desiccant), Oxygen [dried using a desiccant and placed in a chamber (at 40% oxygen concentration) for 20 min]. A total of 42 litters (485 piglets) were randomly allotted to treatments at the start of farrowing. At birth, each ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrating Soybean Biorefinery Products Into Corn-Based Ethanol Fermentation Operations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Weitao Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrating Soybean Biorefinery Products Into Corn-Based Ethanol Fermentation Operations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Weitao Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

With the development of agricultural biorefineries and bioprocessing operations, understanding the economic efficiencies and environmental impacts for these have gradually become popular for the deployment of these industrial processes. The corn-based ethanol and soybean oil refining industries have been examined extensively over the years, especially details of processing technologies, including materials, reaction controls, equipment, and industrial applications. The study focused on examining the production efficiency changes and economic impacts of integrating products from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of soybeans into corn-based ethanol fermentation processing. Using SuperPro Designer to simulate production of corn-based ethanol at either 40 million gallons ...


Implementation Of Biomimetics As An Optimization Process Of Animal Production Structures, Fabiane de Fátima Maciel, Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Leonardo França da Silva, Fernanda Campos de Sousa, Ilda de Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Richard S. Gates 2021 Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Implementation Of Biomimetics As An Optimization Process Of Animal Production Structures, Fabiane De Fátima Maciel, Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Leonardo França Da Silva, Fernanda Campos De Sousa, Ilda De Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The theoretical study of the applications of Biomimetics in the construction and development of solutions brings together methods, concepts and examples of applications that can awaken creativity and, at the same time, critical thinking about the recovery of the balance between human action and nature. The inspiration of Biomimetics can raise awareness about the need to adopt new technologies, standards, and survival criteria, considering the environmental balance. In this sense, the objective of this study is to describe the use of Biomimetics as a promising agent for sustainable ideas to the problems identified in ambience in animal production. With a ...


Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissipation In Soil Microcosms Amended With Antibiotics And Swine Manure, Laura Alt, Alyssa N. Iverson, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe 2021 Iowa State University

Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissipation In Soil Microcosms Amended With Antibiotics And Swine Manure, Laura Alt, Alyssa N. Iverson, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of antibiotics in animal agriculture has exacerbated the presence of both antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and residual antibiotics excreted in animal manure. Field application of this manure is a common practice as its nutrient rich material can benefit crop growth. However, this practice can also introduce antibiotics and ARGs into non-agricultural settings. The integration of prairie buffer strips within and at the edge of crop fields is a potential management solution to reduce concentrations of ARGs commonly transported via water runoff and infiltration. To investigate the fate of ARGs in directly manured crop field soils and surrounding, impacted ...


Perennial Groundcovers: An Emerging Technology For Soil Conservation And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture, Brandon Schlautman, Cynthia Bartel, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Shuizhang Fei, Scott Flynn, Erin Haramoto, Kenneth J. Moore, D. Raj Raman 2021 The Land Institute

Perennial Groundcovers: An Emerging Technology For Soil Conservation And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture, Brandon Schlautman, Cynthia Bartel, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Shuizhang Fei, Scott Flynn, Erin Haramoto, Kenneth J. Moore, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Integrating perennial groundcovers (PGC) — sometimes referred to as living mulches or perennial cover crops — into annual cash-crop systems could address root causes of bare-soil practices that lead to negative impacts on soil and water quality. Perennial groundcovers bring otherwise absent functional traits — namely perenniality — into cash-crop systems to preserve soil and regenerate water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. However, if not optimized, they can also cause competitive interactions and yield loss. When designing PGC systems, the goal is to maximize complementarity — spatial and temporal separation of growth and resource acquisition — between PGC and cash crops through both breeding and management. Traits ...


Mitigation Of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide And Ammonia Emissions From Swine Manure During 3-Hour Agitation Using Pelletized Biochar, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Robert C. Brown 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide And Ammonia Emissions From Swine Manure During 3-Hour Agitation Using Pelletized Biochar, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The risk of inhalation exposure to elevated concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) during the agitation of stored swine manure is high. Once or twice a year, farmers agitate manure before pump-out and application to fields. Agitation of the swine manure causes the short-term releases of highly toxic levels of H2S and NH3. In our previous pilot-scale studies, the biochar powder had shown significant mitigation of H2S and NH3 emissions when surficially applied to manure immediately before agitation. However, fine biochar powder application poses hazards by itself and may not be practical to apply on a farm scale ...


Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks 2021 Iowa State University

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, and ...


Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In order to demonstrate a skill set obtained through the University of Arkansas Biological Engineering, a group of students and I developed a hydroponic system where plants could be grown in a chamber. System parameters such as air quality, irrigation, and lighting were controlled by a Programmable Logic Computer (PLC) and an array of sensors and actuators. Each student focused on a certain aspect of this system, mine being the lighting. Developing this system involved researching the relationship between light intensity and plant growth, designing a system to suspend the lights above the growth chamber, and develop a system to ...


Sensor-Based Nitrogen Management On Non-Irrigated Corn Based Systems In Nebraska, Samantha L. Teten 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sensor-Based Nitrogen Management On Non-Irrigated Corn Based Systems In Nebraska, Samantha L. Teten

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Optimizing nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications in corn to reduce environmental impacts while maintaining producer profitability remains a challenge due to spatial and temporal variability in crop yield potential and soil N dynamics. In response to these challenges, active crop canopy sensors and imagery systems have been studied to test the performance of vegetative index-based N management, but adoption has been low. There is also a lack of field-scale research evaluating this technology in water-limiting environments.

The evaluation of two sensor-based N management techniques was completed at nine non-irrigated sites in Eastern Nebraska. The first sensor-based N management technique evaluated an ...


Assessment And Improvement Of Performance Of Septic Systems In Cold Climates (Year 1), Stu Geza, Todd Menkhaus, Lianping Li, Galen Hoogestraat 2021 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Assessment And Improvement Of Performance Of Septic Systems In Cold Climates (Year 1), Stu Geza, Todd Menkhaus, Lianping Li, Galen Hoogestraat

SDWRI Publications and Reports

Onsite septic systems are used for wastewater treatment for households not connected to sewers. There is a concern about surface and groundwater pollution when effectiveness becomes limited due to soil texture, soil temperature, neighborhood density, and distance to water resources. The goal of this study was to assess treatment performance of local soils and selected treatment media. Lab-scale column experiments were conducted using wastewater from Wastewater Reclamation Facility in Rapid City. The experiments were conducted inside and outside the lab to evaluate the effect of temperature. The columns outside the lab were subject to seasonal variation in temperature. Moisture content ...


Design Of Control Logic And The Human-Machine Interface For A Demonstration Plant Growth Chamber Implemented On A Programmable Logic Controller, Rachael Koehler 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of Control Logic And The Human-Machine Interface For A Demonstration Plant Growth Chamber Implemented On A Programmable Logic Controller, Rachael Koehler

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This honors thesis covers the planning, development, and implementation of system controls and human-machine interface (HMI) for a demonstration plant growth chamber. The work is a continuation of an ongoing project to be used as an educational and recruiting tool manifesting the skills acquired from the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas’ College of Engineering. This work includes emergency controls, overall design interface, and controls for both the aeration and lighting subsystems of the growth chamber. Overall design interface controls established included development of two user modes, Administrator and Visitor. The Administrator user will have full ...


Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global food production must increase to meet the demand associated with increased population growth, so irrigation water use will continue to rise. Therefore, it is important to monitor water usage particularly when an irrigation flowmeter is unavailable. A field water balance was created for a selection of rice fields in East-central Arkansas under observation in 2018 and 2019. From those, irrigation inputs are deduced from the water balance alone. First, each field had sensors that collected water table level (WTL) data. Next, other water inputs and outputs such as precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) were collected from two modeled sources. The ...


Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 ...


Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study’s objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3—sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Precision Irrigation Decision-Support Systems For Center Pivots, Jingwen Zhang, Kaiyu Guan, Bin Peng, Chongya Jiang, Wang Zhou, Yi Yang, Ming Pan, Trenton Franz, Derek M. Heeren, Daran R. Rudnick, Olufemi P. Abimbola, Hyungsuk Kimm, Kelly Caylor, Stephen Good, Madhu Khanna, John Gates, Yaping Cai 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Challenges And Opportunities In Precision Irrigation Decision-Support Systems For Center Pivots, Jingwen Zhang, Kaiyu Guan, Bin Peng, Chongya Jiang, Wang Zhou, Yi Yang, Ming Pan, Trenton Franz, Derek M. Heeren, Daran R. Rudnick, Olufemi P. Abimbola, Hyungsuk Kimm, Kelly Caylor, Stephen Good, Madhu Khanna, John Gates, Yaping Cai

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Irrigation is critical to sustain agricultural productivity in dry or semi-dry environments, and center pivots, due to their versatility and ruggedness, are the most widely used irrigation systems. To effectively use center pivot irrigation systems, producers require tools to support their decision-making on when and how much water to irrigate. However, currently producers make these decisions primarily based on experience and/or limited information of weather. Ineffective use of irrigation systems can lead to overuse of water resources, compromise crop productivity, and directly reduce producers’ economic return as well as bring negative impacts on environmental sustainability. In this paper, we ...


Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

High resolution, long-term monitoring of key biological analytes would improve patient outcomes by providing earlier detection of disease states and improved efficacy of treatment. One class of biosensors that have gained much attention in recent years are optical biosensors. Optical probes are attractive biosensors due to their noninvasive nature of detection, as certain light can pass through tissue, water, and blood. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are a specific type of optical biosensor that fluoresce in the near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and offer unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution. SWNT have been applied as biosensors in vitro, ex ...


Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren 2021 University of Kentucky

Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren

Geography Faculty Publications

Accurate phenological information is essential for monitoring crop development, predicting crop yield, and enhancing resilience to cope with climate change. This study employed a curve-change-based dynamic threshold approach on NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) time series to detect the planting and harvesting dates for corn and soybean in Kentucky, a typical climatic transition zone, from 2000 to 2018. We compared satellite-based estimates with ground observations and performed trend analyses of crop phenological stages over the study period to analyze their relationships with climate change and crop yields. Our results showed that corn and soybean planting dates were delayed by 0 ...


Evaluating Evapotranspiration Values In Rwanda Using The Fao-56 Pm, Turc, And Hargreaves-Samani Equations, Elizabeth Uwase 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Evapotranspiration Values In Rwanda Using The Fao-56 Pm, Turc, And Hargreaves-Samani Equations, Elizabeth Uwase

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and involves exchange of water between the surrounding water bodies, soil, crop surfaces, and the atmosphere. Therefore, this research was aimed at determining ET and its trend across Rwanda using climatic data measured at five sites. Equations were used to calculate ET using extra-terrestrial radiations, solar radiations, evapotranspiration using the FAO-56 guidelines - Turc method (1961) and Hargreaves-Samani (HS) method (1983). The obtained data from the weather stations were analyzed using the two methods and graphs were plotted for visualization. The average monthly reference evapotranspiration for both equations ranges from 3 ...


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