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Effect Of Time, Depth And Method Of Plowing Upon Yield And Eradication Of Biennial Sweet Clovers, F. S. Wilkins, E. V. Collins 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Time, Depth And Method Of Plowing Upon Yield And Eradication Of Biennial Sweet Clovers, F. S. Wilkins, E. V. Collins

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

From the standpoint of amount of dry matter and nitrogen added to the soil and the eradication of the plants, sweet clover may best be plowed for corn about April 25 to May 5. The five dates of harvest used rank as follows in yield of dry matter for tops and roots: May 3-18, Nov. 1-13, Oct. 1, April 9-13 and Sept. 1. Nitrogen yields rank in much the same order.

Of the total for tops and roots, the tops contained 68 percent of the dry matter and 73 percent of the nitrogen in September, 51 and 48 percent, respectively ...


Length And Floor Construction Of Dairy Stalls, Henry Giese, C. Y. Cannon 2017 Iowa State College

Length And Floor Construction Of Dairy Stalls, Henry Giese, C. Y. Cannon

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

One of the problems confronting the designer of a dairy barn is to determine the proper length of the stall platform. Cows vary considerably in length, and the stall length should vary to to meet the requirements of individual cows. Stalls that are too short make uncomfortable beds, force the cows to stand with one or both hind feet in the gutter and cause them, in reaching for hay in the manger, to carry manure to the stall floor. Long stalls are equally objectionable as the droppings fall on the platform rather than in the gutter. Adjustable stanchions are available ...


Two-Step Sequential Pretreatment For The Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Coffee Spent Waste, Rajeev Ravindran, Swarna Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-ghannam, Amit Jaiswal 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Two-Step Sequential Pretreatment For The Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Coffee Spent Waste, Rajeev Ravindran, Swarna Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, Amit Jaiswal

Articles

In the present study, eight different pretreatments of varying nature (physical, chemical and physico-chemical) followed by a sequential, combinatorial pretreatment strategy was applied to spent coffee waste to attain maximum sugar yield. Pretreated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar, individual sugars and generation of inhibitory compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity. Native spent coffee waste was high in hemicellulose content. Galactose was found to be the predominant sugar in spent coffee waste. Results showed that sequential pretreatment yielded 350.12mg of reducing sugar/g of substrate, which was 1 ...


Phototherapy Mounting System For Inpatient Rehabilitation, Kelsey Henderson, Elizabeth Fortunato, Jacob Dixon 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Phototherapy Mounting System For Inpatient Rehabilitation, Kelsey Henderson, Elizabeth Fortunato, Jacob Dixon

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Genetically Engineered Organisms: Progress Or Poison, Melina Sansi 2017 Dominican University of California

Genetically Engineered Organisms: Progress Or Poison, Melina Sansi

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Genetically engineered organisms are a part of almost everything we put into our bodies. More than any other time in history, humans are manipulating plants and organisms on an advanced level. Scientists are able to genetically alter food so that it precisely fills a specific dietary need, or increase crop yields to feed the growing global population expected to reach 9 billion people by the year 2050. Currently 250 million acres worldwide are used to grow genetically modified organisms. Many consumers don’t fully understand the use and impact of genetically engineered organisms for lack of accessible and straightforward information ...


Analysis Of Lid Implementation To Combat Flooding And Erosion At The University Of Arkansas Campus, Madison E. Crowl 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analysis Of Lid Implementation To Combat Flooding And Erosion At The University Of Arkansas Campus, Madison E. Crowl

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The city of Fayetteville, Arkansas has experienced rapid urbanization throughout recent years as it continues to grow. Within the city, the University of Arkansas has been constantly expanding, with increased impervious surfaces as more parking lots and facilities are built. This has caused issues including flooding and stream bank erosion, specifically in Mullins Creek, which receives runoff from a large part of campus. A portion of the creek was restored, but there are still downstream issues. Low Impact Development (LID) is a type of green infrastructure that has been shown to decrease runoff and increase infiltration. EPA SWMM, a hydrologic ...


Temporal Evaluation Of Corn Respiration Rates Using Pressure Sensors, Gagandeep Singh Ubhi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Temporal Evaluation Of Corn Respiration Rates Using Pressure Sensors, Gagandeep Singh Ubhi

Theses and Dissertations

High respiration rate of a grain indicates faster degradation of its dry matter. Proper grain management requires chronological and precise measurements of carbon dioxide evolved from grain respiration during the postharvest storage duration. Therefore the main goal of this research was to develop a new technique that evaluates temporal corn respiration rate using pressure sensors. It was based on measuring pressure drop associated with the grain respiration in a closed container and using it to calculate the grain respiration rates.

Dry corn (Zea Mays L.) was procured from a local farmer and stored at 4ºC. Corn rewetting technique was applied ...


Testing Effectiveness Of Aqueous Phases From Struvite And Hydroxyapatite Mineral Precipitation As Algal Nutrient Sources, Aaron Lyons 2017 Old Dominion University

Testing Effectiveness Of Aqueous Phases From Struvite And Hydroxyapatite Mineral Precipitation As Algal Nutrient Sources, Aaron Lyons

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

As interest in algal biofuel grows, the need to explore diverse nutrient sources for growing algae becomes apparent. Struvite and Hydroxyapatite (HAP) were precipitated after flash hydrolysis. The leftover aqueous phase (AP) could serve as nutrients source for algae cultivation and the potential reuse of this waste stream is promising. To test this, 12 bottles of Scenedemus sp., four of Struvite, four of HAP, and four control AM-14 synthetic media were cultivated. 10% of the Phosphorus in the synthetic media was replaced with phosphorous from the struvite AP, and 10% of the nitrogen in the synthetic media was replaced with ...


Investigation Of Petroleum Use In Off-Road Agricultural Machinery And Analysis Of J1939 Controller Area Network (Can) Data For Advanced Machinery Testing, Rodney Rohrer 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigation Of Petroleum Use In Off-Road Agricultural Machinery And Analysis Of J1939 Controller Area Network (Can) Data For Advanced Machinery Testing, Rodney Rohrer

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Nearly all modern off-road agricultural machinery are powered by petroleum, primarily diesel fuel. Equipment manufacturers work to improve fuel efficiency of their equipment to provide better value to their customers. Benefits of reducing petroleum use include lower operating costs, improved operational efficiency, improved energy security, and environmental benefits. Agricultural tractor testing focuses primarily on characterizing maximum performance but there is a need for advanced test procedures to better measure fuel efficiency for load cases representative of in-field operations. This would help farmers make better equipment purchasing and utilization decisions and help manufacturers quantify efficiency improvements; ultimately driving continued progress toward ...


High Throughput In Vivo Analysis Of Plant Leaf Chemical Properties Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Piyush Pandey, Yufeng Ge, Vincent Stoerger, James C. Schnable 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

High Throughput In Vivo Analysis Of Plant Leaf Chemical Properties Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Piyush Pandey, Yufeng Ge, Vincent Stoerger, James C. Schnable

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The possibility of predicting plant leaf chemical properties using hyperspectral images was studied. Sixty maize and 60 soybean plants were used, and two experiments were conducted: one with water limitation and the second with nutrient limitation, with the purpose of creating wide ranges of these chemical properties in plant leaf tissues. A hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range from 550 to 1700 nm was used to acquire plant images in a high throughput fashion (plants placed on an automated conveyor belt). Leaf chemical properties were measured in the laboratory. Partial least squares regression was implemented on spectral data to ...


Energy-Water Reduction And Wastewater Reclamation In A Fluid Milk Processing Facility, CarlyRain Adams, Yulie E. Meneses, Bing Wang, Curtis Weller 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-Water Reduction And Wastewater Reclamation In A Fluid Milk Processing Facility, Carlyrain Adams, Yulie E. Meneses, Bing Wang, Curtis Weller

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The energy-water nexus is the inseparable connection linking water and energy. We are faced with a unique opportunity to co-manage these resources, as conservation of one is directly linked to the conservation of its counterpart. Therefore, immediately facing this critical challenge, will lead to tangible impacts on the water and energy crisis our food system is faced with. Determining the role of water and energy in the food industry has proved to be the starting point for reducing the distance between process productivity and resource efficiency. Therefore, this research focuses on determining opportunities for water-energy optimization and wastewater reduction and ...


Integrated Life Cycle And Techno-Economic Assessment Of The Conversion Of High Productivity, Low Lipid Algae To Renewable Fuels, Chad R. De Mill 2017 Utah State University

Integrated Life Cycle And Techno-Economic Assessment Of The Conversion Of High Productivity, Low Lipid Algae To Renewable Fuels, Chad R. De Mill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The production of alternative transportation fuels is imperative to meet future energy demands without contributing to global climate change. Advances in alternative processing techniques that have emerged due to interest in microalgae as a feedstock have led to a variety of potential processing pathways for the production of bio-based fuels. A major hurdle in the algal production process is maintaining a fast and stable algae culture. Monocultures, developed for their high lipid content, suffer from low productivity, are susceptible to crashes and require a constant supply of carbon dioxide to maintain productivity. In an effort to circumvent these obstacles, algal ...


Oral History Conversation With Lydell Aaron, Alexander Z. Bulkin, Kari Schattinger, Kate L. Gardner, Charbel Mouannes, Danielle Silvaggio 2017 University of San Diego

Oral History Conversation With Lydell Aaron, Alexander Z. Bulkin, Kari Schattinger, Kate L. Gardner, Charbel Mouannes, Danielle Silvaggio

Philosophy: All Student Work

Oral History Interview conducted with Lydell Aaron. He founded Beartha Systems which builds scalable and smart systems that harness energy and resources for small communities.


Maximum Soil Organic Carbon Storage In Midwest U.S. Cropping Systems When Crops Are Optimally Nitrogen-Fertilized, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel W. Barker, Matthew J. Helmers, Fernando E. Miguez, Daniel C. Olk, John E. Sawyer, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano 2017 Iowa State University

Maximum Soil Organic Carbon Storage In Midwest U.S. Cropping Systems When Crops Are Optimally Nitrogen-Fertilized, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Daniel W. Barker, Matthew J. Helmers, Fernando E. Miguez, Daniel C. Olk, John E. Sawyer, Johan Six, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C ...


Relating Watershed Characteristics To Elevated Stream Escherichia Coli Levels In Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study, Conrad Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir 2017 Iowa State University

Relating Watershed Characteristics To Elevated Stream Escherichia Coli Levels In Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study, Conrad Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a leading cause of surface water impairments in the United States. However, the relative impacts of different watershed characteristics on microbial water quality in agriculturally dominated watersheds are unclear. Spatial and statistical analyses were utilized to examine relationships between watershed characteristics and FIB and a multiple regression model was created. Geometric mean E. coli concentration data were obtained for 395 ambient water quality monitoring locations in Iowa. Watersheds were delineated for thirty randomly selected monitoring locations and drainage areas ranged from 93 to 1.1 million hectares. Watershed characteristics ...


Anhydrous Ammonia Pretreatment Of Corn Stover And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Glucan From Pretreated Corn Stover, Minliang Yang, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2017 Iowa State University

Anhydrous Ammonia Pretreatment Of Corn Stover And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Glucan From Pretreated Corn Stover, Minliang Yang, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

As a promising alternative of fossil fuel, ethanol has been widely used. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. In previous research, it is found that the pretreatment method named low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) has the advantage of high conversion efficiency and less washing requirements. The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal conditions by employing the LMAA pretreatment method. Corn stover was treated under three levels of moisture content: 20, 50, 80 w.b.% (wet basis), and three levels of particle size: <0.09, 0.09–2, >2 mm; it was also ammoniated with a ...


Detection Of Extremely Low Concentration Waterborne Pathogen Using A Multiplexing Self-Referencing Sers Microfluidic Biosensor, Chao Wang, Foram Madiyar, Chenxu Yu, Jun Li 2017 Iowa State University

Detection Of Extremely Low Concentration Waterborne Pathogen Using A Multiplexing Self-Referencing Sers Microfluidic Biosensor, Chao Wang, Foram Madiyar, Chenxu Yu, Jun Li

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background It is challenging to achieve ultrasensitive and selective detection of waterborne pathogens at extremely low levels (i.e., single cell/mL) using conventional methods. Even with molecular methods such as ELISA or PCR, multi-enrichment steps are needed which are labor and cost intensive. In this study, we incorporated nano-dielectrophoretic microfluidic device with Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique to build a novel portable biosensor for easy detection and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high sensitivity level (single cell/mL).

Results A multiplexing dual recognition SERS scheme was developed to achieve one-step target detection without the need to ...


Pilot-Scale Testing Of Renewable Biocatalyst For Swine Manure Treatment And Mitigation Of Odorous Vocs, Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey M. Bruning, David B. Parker 2017 Iowa State University

Pilot-Scale Testing Of Renewable Biocatalyst For Swine Manure Treatment And Mitigation Of Odorous Vocs, Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey M. Bruning, David B. Parker

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28–45 ...


The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, And Sustainability, Christopher M. Chini, James F. Canning, Kelsey L. Schreiber, Joshua M. Peschel, Ashlynn S. Stillwell 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, And Sustainability, Christopher M. Chini, James F. Canning, Kelsey L. Schreiber, Joshua M. Peschel, Ashlynn S. Stillwell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular ...


The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama 2017 President of the United States

The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama

US Department of Energy Publications

The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to human activity is increasing global av-erage surface air temperatures, disrupting weather patterns, and acidifying the ocean (1). Left unchecked, the continued growth of GHG emissions could cause global average tem-peratures to increase by another 4°C or more by 2100 and by 1.5 to 2 times as much in many midcontinent and far northern locations (1). Although our understanding of the impacts of climate change is increasingly and disturbingly clear, there is still debate about the proper course for U.S. policy—a debate that is ...


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