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Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley II, Amy J. Morrow 2018 Iowa State University

Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Amy J. Morrow

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study evaluated the influence of temporal variation on the occurrence, fate, and transport of tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMZ); antibiotics commonly used in swine production. Atrazine (ATZ) was used as a reference analyte to indicate the agricultural origin of the antibiotics. We also assessed the impact of season and hydrology on antibiotic concentrations. A reconnaissance study of the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR), was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Tile drain effluent and surface water were monitored using polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) technology. Approximately 169 animal feeding operations (AFOs) exist in SFIR, with 153 of ...


Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwestern United States is dominated by agricultural production with high concentrations of swine, leading to application of swine manure onto lands with artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations which administer antimicrobials. While previous studies have examined the occurrence of ARGs around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known how their transport from tile-drained fields receiving swine manure application impacts downstream environments. To further our knowledge in this area, water samples were collected from five locations in the agriculturally dominated South ...


Soil Stabilization With Bioenergy Coproduct, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim 2017 Iowa State University

Soil Stabilization With Bioenergy Coproduct, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim

Halil Ceylan

The production and use of biofuel have increased under the context of sustainable development. Biofuel production from plant biomass not only produces biofuel or ethanol but also coproduces products containing lignin, modified lignin, and lignin derivatives. The use of lignin-containing biofuel coproduct in pavement soil stabilization was explored as a new application area. The primary experimental test plan encompassed the comparison of coproduct-treated soils, untreated soils, and traditional stabilizer-treated soils in terms of their strengths. The focus of the secondary experimental test plan was to investigate the effect of additive combinations on strength improvement. The laboratory test matrix in each ...


Impact Of Farm Equipment Loading On Rigid Pavement Performance Using Finite Element Analysis, Shiyun Wang, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Lev Khazanovich, Shongtao Dai 2017 Iowa State University

Impact Of Farm Equipment Loading On Rigid Pavement Performance Using Finite Element Analysis, Shiyun Wang, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Lev Khazanovich, Shongtao Dai

Halil Ceylan

The increase in agricultural product sales in recent years has led to the use of larger hauling and application equipment to transfer farm productions. This rapid shift in equipment size has raised a concern about their potential to cause significant damage in pavements and bridges. The study reported in this paper (part of a larger pooled fund study initiated in 2007) discusses the impact of farm equipment loading on rigid pavement performance based on Finite Element (FE) analysis. The study considered various types of farm equipment to determine the pavement responses and to quantify their damage on rigid pavement systems ...


Effect Of Acetylation On The Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Soy Flour Elastomers, Kendra A. Allen, Sarah Cady, David Grewell 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Acetylation On The Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Soy Flour Elastomers, Kendra A. Allen, Sarah Cady, David Grewell

David A. Grewell

Biobased fillers were utilized as components in soy-elastomer composites. Soy flour is lightweight, low cost, and high strength, which makes it an ideal alternative to petroleum-derived fillers. However, poor interfacial adhesion and low dispersion within the polymer matrix are limiting factors for composite performance. Soy flour chemically pretreated by acetylation was compounded with synthetic rubber elastomers. In general, soy flour (as received) concentration in the composite is proportional to the ultimate strength. However, soy-elastomer composites with acetylated filler performed similar to the neat elastomer. In addition, the pretreated composite's thermal stability increased and exhibited less phase seperation compared to ...


Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project was to estimate the nitrate reduction that could be achieved using restored wetlands as nitrogen sinks in tile-drained regions of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) and Ohio River basins. This report provides an assessment of nitrate concentrations and loads across the UMR and Ohio River basins and the mass reduction of nitrate loading that could be achieved using wetlands to intercept nonpoint source nitrate loads. Nitrate concentration and stream discharge data were used to calculate stream nitrate loading and annual flow-weighted average (FWA) nitrate concentrations and to develop a model of FWA nitrate concentration ...


Walnut Creek And Squaw Creek Watersheds, Iowa: National Institute Of Food And Agriculture–Conservation Effects Assessment Project, Deanna L. Osmond, Philip W. Gassman, Keith E. Schilling, Calvin F. Wolter, Catherine Kling, Matthew J. Helmers, Thomas M. Isenhart, William W. Simpkins, Thomas B. Moorman, Mark D. Tomer, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Manoj K. Jha, Dana L. K. Hoag, Donald K. Meals, Mazdak Arabi 2017 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Walnut Creek And Squaw Creek Watersheds, Iowa: National Institute Of Food And Agriculture–Conservation Effects Assessment Project, Deanna L. Osmond, Philip W. Gassman, Keith E. Schilling, Calvin F. Wolter, Catherine Kling, Matthew J. Helmers, Thomas M. Isenhart, William W. Simpkins, Thomas B. Moorman, Mark D. Tomer, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Manoj K. Jha, Dana L. K. Hoag, Donald K. Meals, Mazdak Arabi

Matthew J. Helmers

The goal of the Iowa National Institute of Food and Agriculture–Conservation Effects Assessment Project (NIFA–CEAP), Economic and Water Quality Effects of Multiple Conservation Practices in Three Midwest Watersheds, was to provide science-based information to policymakers concerning the water quality benefits and economic costs of implementing multiple agricultural conservation practices in these watersheds. The three primary watersheds were (1) Walnut Creek Watershed in south central Iowa and the Squaw Creek Watershed (which was the “control watershed” within the paired-watershed study), (2) Sny Magill Creek Watershed and Bloody Run Creek Watershed (which was also a “control watershed” within that paired-watershed ...


Using Total Solids Concentration To Estimate Nutrient Content Of Feedlot Runoff Effluent From Solid Settling Basins, Vegetative Infiltration Basins, And Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Using Total Solids Concentration To Estimate Nutrient Content Of Feedlot Runoff Effluent From Solid Settling Basins, Vegetative Infiltration Basins, And Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

Increased environmental awareness has promoted the need for improved feedlot runoff control. The use of vegetative treatment systems (VTSs) to control and treat feedlot runoff may enhance environmental security and protect water quality. Knowledge of effluent nutrient concentrations throughout the vegetative treatment system is required to evaluate impact on water quality and system performance. Previously collected VTS monitoring data has provided the opportunity to investigate relationships between effluent quality parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate, through correlation and regression, the relationships between total solids, nutrients, and effluent quality indicator concentrations of feedlot runoff at various stages of ...


Surface Waters: Ammonium Is Not Ammonia – Part 3, John E. Sawyer, Matthew J. Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Surface Waters: Ammonium Is Not Ammonia – Part 3, John E. Sawyer, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

Two previous ICM News articles outlined the difference between ammonium and ammonia, the relationship between the two nitrogen forms, and the implication of a combined (ammonium-N plus ammonia-N) analysis related to water quality criteria for aquatic life and chlorination treatment for drinking water.This article focuses on the potential sourcing of ammonium and ammonia in surface waters. Ammonium and ammonia in surface water systems can originate from many sources, and are naturally occurring forms of nitrogen. Predominant sources will vary on a watershed or sub-watershed basis. Also, sources and concentrations are greatly influenced by hydrology, including timing and volume of ...


Perspectives Of Extension Agents And Farmers Toward Multifunctional Agriculture In The United States Corn Belt, John W. Doudna, Matthew E. O'Neal, John C. Tyndall, Matthew J. Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Perspectives Of Extension Agents And Farmers Toward Multifunctional Agriculture In The United States Corn Belt, John W. Doudna, Matthew E. O'Neal, John C. Tyndall, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

We surveyed the perspectives of farmers, crop professionals, and Extension agents and found that they have positive perspectives concerning multifunctional agriculture, including a positive effect of a nearby prairie to cropland productivity. The survey was conducted in central Iowa and included individuals predominantly from Iowa involved in commodity research and production. Our results are preliminary and provide a baseline for further research into the perspectives of change agents in the U.S. Corn Belt. They also provide insight into similarities among key links in the diffusion of innovation chain.


What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil 2017 University of Wisconsin–Madison

What Does It Take To Detect A Change In Soil Carbon Stock? A Regional Comparison Of Minimum Detectable Difference And Experiment Duration In The North Central United States, Magdalena Necpálová, Robert P. Anex Jr., Alexandra N. Kravchenko, Lori J. Abendroth, Stephen J. Del Grosso, Warren A. Dick, Matthew J. Helmers, Daryl E. Herzmann, Joseph G. Lauer, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Jeffrey S. Strock, Maria B. Villamil

Matthew J. Helmers

Variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) results from natural and human processes interacting across time and space, and leads to large variation in the minimum difference in SOC that can be detected with a particular experimental design. Here we report a unique comparison of minimum detectable differences (MDDs) in SOC, and the estimated times required to observe those MDDs across the north central United States, calculated for the two most common SOC experiments: (1) a comparison between two treatments, e.g., moldboard plow (MP) and no-tillage (NT), using a randomized complete block design experiment; and (2) a comparison of changes ...


Soil Moisture Dynamics And Plant Transpiration Under Contrasting Annual-Perennial Cover Types, Matt Helmers, Heidi Asbjornsen, Amy L. Kaleita 2017 Iowa State University

Soil Moisture Dynamics And Plant Transpiration Under Contrasting Annual-Perennial Cover Types, Matt Helmers, Heidi Asbjornsen, Amy L. Kaleita

Matthew J. Helmers

Soil moisture dynamics are influenced by land cover, thus different land covers would be expected to have different soil moisture behavior. This project tested various land covers and crops to see whether and how moisture was retained or depleted.


Phosphorus Sorption Capacity Of Six Iowa Soils Before And After Five Years Of Use As Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert T. Burns 2017 Iowa State University

Phosphorus Sorption Capacity Of Six Iowa Soils Before And After Five Years Of Use As Vegetative Treatment Areas, Daniel S. Andersen, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert T. Burns

Matthew J. Helmers

Accumulation of phosphorus in soil is a major factor limiting the operational life (period of time where the soil can serve as an effective phosphorus sink) of land application waste disposal systems. Better evaluation of phosphorus operational life requires improved understanding of how manure application to soil can affect its phosphorus sorption characteristics. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of feedlot runoff effluent application on phosphorus sorption capacities, equilibrium phosphorus concentrations, and phosphorus buffering capacities of six Iowa soils. Soil samples were collected from vegetative treatment areas that had received feedlot runoff application for the ...


Teaching Farmland Drainage Design Features To Contractors And Service Providers, Kapil Arora, Matthew J. Helmers, L. Gregory Brenneman 2017 Iowa State University

Teaching Farmland Drainage Design Features To Contractors And Service Providers, Kapil Arora, Matthew J. Helmers, L. Gregory Brenneman

Matthew J. Helmers

Farmland drainage is an integral part of Iowa’s landscape and plays a critical role in its bio-economy. Production capacities of Iowa soils can only be optimized with well-designed and properly operating subsurface drainage systems. Features needing attention when designing and installing a new system or retrofitting an old one include drainage intensity (spacing and depth), drainage capacity (size and grade), water quality and quantity management (controlled drainage, shallow drainage, etc.), and the economics of payback. Iowa State University Extension & Outreach initiated the Iowa Drainage School in 2007 to educate stakeholders on subsurface drainage concepts customized to the upper Midwestern ...


Landlabs: An Integrated Approach To Creating Agricultural Enterprises That Meet The Triple Botom Line, Nicholas Jordan, Lisa A. Schulte, Carol Williams, David Mulla, David Pitt, Carissa Shively Slotterback, Randall Jackson, Douglas Landis, Bruce Dale, Dennis Becker, Mark Rickenbach, Matt Helmers, V. Bobby Bringi 2017 University of Minnesota

Landlabs: An Integrated Approach To Creating Agricultural Enterprises That Meet The Triple Botom Line, Nicholas Jordan, Lisa A. Schulte, Carol Williams, David Mulla, David Pitt, Carissa Shively Slotterback, Randall Jackson, Douglas Landis, Bruce Dale, Dennis Becker, Mark Rickenbach, Matt Helmers, V. Bobby Bringi

Matthew J. Helmers

Global demand is increasing for food, feed, and fiber; for additional agricultural outputs, such as biofuels; and for ecosystem services, such as clean water and outdoor recreation. In response, new agricultural enterprises are needed that produce more outputs from existing lands while meeting the "triple bottom line" of high performance in economic, environmental, and social terms. Establishing such enterprises requires coordination and development within three critical domains: landscape configurations (i.e., types and arrangements of land uses), supply/value chains (i.e., processing and utilization), and policy and governance. In this essay, we describe our efforts, as land-grant university scientists ...


Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Ground Water Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Matthew J. Helmers, Antonio P. Mallarino 2017 Iowa State University

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Ground Water Quality, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Matthew J. Helmers, Antonio P. Mallarino

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary design of this project was to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen and phosphorus requirements on crop yields, soil phosphorus accumulation, and nitrate and phosphorus leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this design was to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize the water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as inorganic fertilizer. A third component was to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to shallow ground water.


Heavy Rain, Soil Erosion And Nutrient Losses, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Matthew J. Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Heavy Rain, Soil Erosion And Nutrient Losses, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

As we write this article spring rains are coming hard and fast causing substantial soil erosion when soils are most vulnerable because of degraded crop residue cover, soil preparation by tillage and no crop canopy. The soil profiles in most of Iowa are now filled to capacity with water. The profiles are at or near saturation. Therefore, the intensity and amount of rain we received have exceeded the soil capacity to filter water and minimize surface runoff even in fields with the most adequate conservation practices.


Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Nitrate In Subsurface Drainage Water, Carl Pederson, Matt Helmers, Michelle Soupir, Ramesh Kanwar, Antonio Mallarino 2017 Iowa State University

Impact Of Liquid Swine Manure Application And Cover Crops On Nitrate In Subsurface Drainage Water, Carl Pederson, Matt Helmers, Michelle Soupir, Ramesh Kanwar, Antonio Mallarino

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project is to determine the impact of appropriate rates of swine manure applications to corn and soybeans based on nitrogen requirements of crops, and the potential of nitrate leaching to groundwater. Another purpose of this longterm experimental study is to develop and recommend appropriate manure and nutrient management practices to producers to minimize the water contamination potential and enhance the use of swine manure as an organic fertilizer. A third component of this study is to determine the potential effects of rye as a cover crop to reduce nitrate loss to shallow ground water.


From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte 2017 Iowa State University

From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte

Matthew J. Helmers

The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of the most critical sources of agricultural vulnerability and to outline strategies for increasing the resiliency of Iowa agriculture. This paper delineates pathways toward that goal and provides a basis for community discussions about how we can work together to improve agriculture’s environmental, economic, and social resilience and sustainability.


Investigation Of Bacteria Transport And Resistance Mechanisms And Implications For Water Quality From Confinement Swine And Beef Grazing Production Systems In Iowa, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Michael L. Thompson, Laura R. Jarboe, Antonio P. Mallarino, Ramesh S. Kanwar 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Bacteria Transport And Resistance Mechanisms And Implications For Water Quality From Confinement Swine And Beef Grazing Production Systems In Iowa, Michelle Soupir, Matt Helmers, Michael L. Thompson, Laura R. Jarboe, Antonio P. Mallarino, Ramesh S. Kanwar

Matthew J. Helmers

This multi-scale, multi-year study was conducted to begin answering questions related to the fate and transport of nutrients and bacteria from land receiving manure application. Experiments were conducted on tile water drainage at an ISU Research Farm in northeast Iowa.


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