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Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar 2018 Iowa State University

Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Minimizing the risks associated with manure-borne pathogenic microorganisms requires an understanding of microbial survival under realistic field conditions. The objective of this 3-year study was to assess the fate of Salmonella (SALM) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), E. coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT), in glacial till-derived soils, after application of poultry manure (PM) to cornfields under chisel-plowed (CP) or no-till (NT) management. From 2010 to 2012, soil samples were obtained each spring at 0–15- and 15–30-cm depths, to determine whether over-wintering of target bacteria had occurred. Sampling was followed by application of PM at low (PM1) and high ...


Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte 2018 Iowa State University

Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte

Jarad Niemi

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with ...


Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe 2018 Iowa State University

Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes. Here we evaluated the diversity of one type of macrolide antibiotic resistance gene (erm) in one type of environment (manure) to determine which primers ...


Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley II, Amy J. Morrow 2018 Iowa State University

Monitoring Tylosin And Sulfamethazine In A Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed Using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (Pocis), Maurice T. Washingtion, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Amy J. Morrow

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This study evaluated the influence of temporal variation on the occurrence, fate, and transport of tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMZ); antibiotics commonly used in swine production. Atrazine (ATZ) was used as a reference analyte to indicate the agricultural origin of the antibiotics. We also assessed the impact of season and hydrology on antibiotic concentrations. A reconnaissance study of the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR), was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Tile drain effluent and surface water were monitored using polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) technology. Approximately 169 animal feeding operations (AFOs) exist in SFIR, with 153 of ...


Investigation Of Performance Tests Using Bio-Derived/Chemical Additives, Joseph H. Podolsky, Ashley Buss, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran 2018 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Performance Tests Using Bio-Derived/Chemical Additives, Joseph H. Podolsky, Ashley Buss, R. Christopher Williams, Eric W. Cochran

Eric W. Cochran

An industry wide emphasis on sustainable asphalt practices has given rise to increasing use of warm mix asphalt technologies. WMA reduces both binder viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures by 20-55°C during the asphalt mix production and laydown process. This research investigates several bio-derived WMA additives that act as chemical modifiers with surfactant properties. Two established additives derived from the forest products industry are studied as well as a WMA additive in development that is derived from corn. The WMA material responses are measured for binder testing and mixture testing. All binder testing with the additives was conducted using ...


Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran 2018 Iowa State University

Depolymerization Of Post-Consumer Polylactic Acid Products, David A. Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Eric W. Cochran

Eric W. Cochran

Presented in this study is a novel recycling strategy for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in which the depolymerization is rapidly promoted by the base–catalyzed hydrol–/alcohol–ysis of the terminal ester bonds under mild conditions. Post–consumer PLA water bottles were cut into approximately 6 × 2 mm plastic chips and heated to 50–60×C in water, ethanol, or methanol as the depolymerization medium. A variety of carbonate salts and alkaline metal oxides were screened as potential catalysts. High–power ultrasound was also investigated as a means to accelerate the PLA decomposition. Both mass loss and HPLC analysis of ...


Intelligent Uav Scouting For Field Condition Monitoring, Hasan Seyyedhasani 2018 University of Kentucky

Intelligent Uav Scouting For Field Condition Monitoring, Hasan Seyyedhasani

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Precision agriculture requires detailed and timely information about field condition. In less than the short flight time a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) can provide, an entire field can be scanned at the highest allowed altitude. The resulting NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) imagery can then be used to classify each point in the field using a FIS (Fuzzy Inference System). This identifies areas that are expected to be similar, but only closer inspection can quantify and diagnose crop properties. In the remaining flight time, the goal is to scout a set of representative points maximizing the quality of actionable information ...


Electrical Stimulation For Enhanced Denitrification In Woodchip Bioreactors: Opportunities And Challenges, J. Y. Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, T. B. Moorman, Say K. Ong 2018 Iowa State University

Electrical Stimulation For Enhanced Denitrification In Woodchip Bioreactors: Opportunities And Challenges, J. Y. Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, T. B. Moorman, Say K. Ong

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are being implemented for the removal of nitrates in groundwater and tile water drainage. However, low nitrate removals in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been observed for short hydraulic retention time (HRT) and low water temperature (°C). One potential approach to improve woodchip bioreactor performance is to provide an alternative and readily available electron source to the denitrifying microorganisms through electrical stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) to remove a variety of water contaminants, including nitrate, in the presence of a soluble carbon source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the denitrification ...


Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Seasonal Variation Of Macrolide Resistance Gene Abundances In The South Fork Iowa River Watershed, Elizabeth Luby Rieki, Thomas B. Moorman, Elizabeth L. Douglass, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwestern United States is dominated by agricultural production with high concentrations of swine, leading to application of swine manure onto lands with artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations which administer antimicrobials. While previous studies have examined the occurrence of ARGs around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known how their transport from tile-drained fields receiving swine manure application impacts downstream environments. To further our knowledge in this area, water samples were collected from five locations in the agriculturally dominated South ...


New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao 2018 China Agricultural University

New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Preliminary field measurements have shown substantial temperature sudden-drop (ΔTsd) at bird level in the initial stage of pad cooling process in arid regions of China. Such sudden temperature fluctuation can cause thermal stress to laying hens and this problem is attracting increasing concerns. The purpose of this study was to develop a new control strategy (NCS) to avoid or minimize ΔTsd while simplify the operational process. Theoretical calculation and field test were conducted in this study. The key ambient thermal factor affecting ΔTsd was analysed by calculating temperature drop of cooled air existing the cooling pad (ΔTd). A countermeasure was ...


Detection Of Multi-Tomato Leaf Diseases (Late Blight, Target And Bacterial Spots) In Different Stages By Using A Spectral-Based Sensor, Jinzhu Lu, Reza Ehsani, Yeyin Shi, Ana Isabel de Castro, Shuang Wang 2018 Xihua University

Detection Of Multi-Tomato Leaf Diseases (Late Blight, Target And Bacterial Spots) In Different Stages By Using A Spectral-Based Sensor, Jinzhu Lu, Reza Ehsani, Yeyin Shi, Ana Isabel De Castro, Shuang Wang

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Several diseases have threatened tomato production in Florida, resulting in large losses, especially in fresh markets. In this study, a high-resolution portable spectral sensor was used to investigate the feasibility of detecting multi-diseased tomato leaves in different stages, including early or asymptomatic stages. One healthy leaf and three diseased tomato leaves (late blight, target and bacterial spots) were defined into four stages (healthy, asymptomatic, early stage and late stage) and collected from a field. Fifty-seven spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated in accordance with methods published in previous studies and established in this study. Principal component analysis was conducted to ...


Feasibility Of Developing A Sustainable Multidisciplinary Senior Capstone Experience, Jacqulyn Baughman, Gretchen A. Mosher, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Tejas Dhadphale 2017 Iowa State University

Feasibility Of Developing A Sustainable Multidisciplinary Senior Capstone Experience, Jacqulyn Baughman, Gretchen A. Mosher, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Tejas Dhadphale

Tejas Dhadphale

Today’s undergraduate engineering students will enter a workforce requiring a multidisciplinary approach to problem-solving. Although both academic and industry professionals agree on the importance of providing students the opportunity to work on multidisciplinary teams, many institutions struggle to create these opportunities within their curriculum. This paper will examine the challenges of creating a multidisciplinary senior capstone course from the perspective of engineering faculty. Currently the senior capstone design course is a requirement for most engineering degree program. Most capstone courses are departmental and discipline-specific, but the integrative problem-solving required in such courses provide an opportunity to increase the multidisciplinary ...


Evaluation Of Foldable Tractor Roll-Over Protective Structures (Rops) Clearance, Luke Martin 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Foldable Tractor Roll-Over Protective Structures (Rops) Clearance, Luke Martin

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Tractor rollovers are a leading cause of death in the agricultural industry. While rollovers continue to happen, Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS) have shown great ability to prevent or reduce the casualties and injuries associated with rollover events. Foldable ROPS provide a practical solution to various issues faced by tractor operators. However, a ROPS is not meant to be used in the folded down position, as they are commonly used.

This study determined the operator protection provided by ROPS in the extended and the folded positions relative to the applicable engineering standards. To accomplish this, six different sized tractors with different ...


Cultivation Of Chlorella Sorokiniana Using Beef Feedlot Runoff Holding Pond Effluent, Mitchell Klaus Goedeken 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cultivation Of Chlorella Sorokiniana Using Beef Feedlot Runoff Holding Pond Effluent, Mitchell Klaus Goedeken

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A study was conducted to test the suitability of utilizing beef feedlot runoff holding pond effluent for cultivating algae. The algae strain used, Chlorella sorokiniana, was previously identified as a potential energy feedstock for cattle. The previous research was initiated in pursuit of a goal to develop a cycle of utilizing nutrients from beef manure to cultivate algae and then utilizing dewatered algae as a feed supplement for beef cattle.

Runoff holding pond effluent samples were collected from commercial beef production operations in Nebraska during spring 2016. Equal portions of samples from each cooperating farm were composited and then aliquoted ...


High Throughput Phenotyping Of Sorghum For The Study Of Growth Rate, Water Use Efficiency, And Chemical Composition, Piyush Pandey 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

High Throughput Phenotyping Of Sorghum For The Study Of Growth Rate, Water Use Efficiency, And Chemical Composition, Piyush Pandey

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Plant phenotyping using digital images has increased the throughput of the trait measurement process, and it is considered to be a potential solution to the problem of the phenotyping bottleneck. In this study, RGB images were used to study relative growth rate (RGR) and water use efficiency (WUE) of a diverse panel of 300 sorghum plants of 30 genotypes, and hyperspectral images were used for chemical analysis of macronutrients and cell wall composition. Half of the plants from each genotype were subjected to drought stress, while the other half were left unstressed. Quadratic models were used to estimate the shoot ...


Performance Assessment Of Electromagnetic Soil Water Sensors In Different Soil Textural, Temperature, And Salinity Conditions, Jasreman Singh 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Performance Assessment Of Electromagnetic Soil Water Sensors In Different Soil Textural, Temperature, And Salinity Conditions, Jasreman Singh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Determination of accurate and continuous measurements of volumetric water content (θv) is extremely valuable for irrigation management and other agronomic decisions. Lately, electromagnetic (EM) sensors are being widely used to monitor θv continuously which also offer the benefits of ease of installation, fewer regulatory and safety concerns, and cost effectiveness. However, the accuracy of parameters [soil temperature, electrical conductivity (ECa), dielectric permittivity (εra), and θv] reported by EM sensors need to be evaluated for them to be utilized for agricultural water management. In the current study, the accuracy of a wide range of EM sensors ...


A Risk-Based Method For Estimating The Carbon Sequestration Budget For A Mixed Hardwood Forest, Erin Cooper 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Risk-Based Method For Estimating The Carbon Sequestration Budget For A Mixed Hardwood Forest, Erin Cooper

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere have risen from approximately 310 ppm in the 1950’s to over 400 ppm as of 2015. This rise in CO2 has likely resulted in the observed warming trend of the earth’s atmosphere in the same time frame, causing significant concern in the scientific community. Several mitigation strategies have arisen to combat the upward trend of CO2 emissions in recent decades, among them being carbon sequestration- the process of capturing CO2 from the atmosphere and holding it for an extended period of time. This study used the U ...


Microalgae Vs Macroalgae As A Feedstock, Elmin Rahic, James Killpack, Chris Weldon 2017 Iowa State University

Microalgae Vs Macroalgae As A Feedstock, Elmin Rahic, James Killpack, Chris Weldon

TSM 325 Biorenewable Systems Posters

As global demands for alternative energy sources rise along with GHG emissions, humans are looking at all options to improve upon our fuel dependence. Recently, researchers have been developing methods of utilizing algae to assist in meeting energy needs. The idea of using algae as a feedstock is growing in popularity as they have a very fast growth rate and hold a higher percent of oil (30-70%) than most other forms of biomass.


Biorenewables The Answer For Growing Fuel Demand In India, Anshuman Dash, Ashwin Bharadwaj, Jake Bauer, Sam Petefish 2017 Iowa State University

Biorenewables The Answer For Growing Fuel Demand In India, Anshuman Dash, Ashwin Bharadwaj, Jake Bauer, Sam Petefish

TSM 325 Biorenewable Systems Posters

With growing fuel demand in India, biorenewables need to be used to answer the rising energy demands. As of 2013 India has an energy demand of 5.7% in the world. It is predicted that by 2040 India’s demand for energy will increase by over 40%• Predictions show that biorenewable demand in India will fall because of availability of fossil fuels, coal, and nuclear energy.


Setback Distance Requirements For Removal Of Swine Slurry Constituents In Runoff, John E. Gilley, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Kent Eskridge, Xu Li, Amy M. Schmidt, Daniel D. Snow 2017 Adjunct Professor, Biological Systems Engineering

Setback Distance Requirements For Removal Of Swine Slurry Constituents In Runoff, John E. Gilley, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt, Kent Eskridge, Xu Li, Amy M. Schmidt, Daniel D. Snow

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The use of setback distances for manure application on cropland areas adjacent to surface water bodies could serve a function similar to vegetative filter strips. However, little information currently exists to identify the setback distances necessary to effectively reduce the transport of contaminants in runoff. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of setback distance and runoff rate on concentrations of selected constituents in runoff following land application of swine slurry to a no-till cropland area in southeast Nebraska. The study site had a residue cover of 7.73 Mg ha-1 and a slope gradient of 4 ...


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