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Technology For Obtaining Biologically Active Substanses From Buds And Immature Fruits Of The Capparis Spinosa Plant, Ruzali A. BOTIROV, Gavkhar E. SAIDOVA, Dilnoza K. MUTALOVA, Alimdjan Z. SADIKOV, Shamansur Sh. SAGDULLAEV 2024 Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Technology For Obtaining Biologically Active Substanses From Buds And Immature Fruits Of The Capparis Spinosa Plant, Ruzali A. Botirov, Gavkhar E. Saidova, Dilnoza K. Mutalova, Alimdjan Z. Sadikov, Shamansur Sh. Sagdullaev

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The purpose of the study is to create a technology for the rational production of the substance POP from the extract of buds and unripe fruits of the plant Capparis spinosa L. A low-toxic (LD50 7600 - 10800 mg/kg) substance extracted from the buds and unripe fruits of Capparis spinosa, mainly containing water-soluble polysaccharides, proteins and flavonoids (PBP) has been found to have analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. It has a similar effect to Levadopa, which is recommended for the prevention of Parkinson's disease. The article presents the results of studies conducted on the technology for obtaining the substance PBP, …


The Study Of The Extraction Process Of Astragalus Turkestanus, Abdulaziz A. JANIBEKOV, G'ayrat B. SOTIMOV, Kamila R. ALLAMBERGENOVA, Iroda F. QULSOATOVA, Fazliddin S. JALILOV 2024 Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Tashkent, Uzbekistan;Alfraganus university, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

The Study Of The Extraction Process Of Astragalus Turkestanus, Abdulaziz A. Janibekov, G'Ayrat B. Sotimov, Kamila R. Allambergenova, Iroda F. Qulsoatova, Fazliddin S. Jalilov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The purpose of this study is to obtain an extract of Astragalus turkestanus with a high content of biologically active substances and the lowest content of associated substances. The factors influencing the process of extracting biologically active substances from the aerial parts of Astragalus turkestanus have been studied. It was established that the selective extractant is 70% ethyl alcohol, the optimal degree of grinding of the raw material is no more than 3-5 mm, the process temperature is 20-25 ºС, it was extracted five times, while the time required for the first phase contact was 5 hours, the second - …


Enhancing Water Sustainability In North Africa: Literature Review And Synthesis Of Current Knowledge Gaps In Sudan, Osman M. A. Adam, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Derek M. Heeren, Troy E. Gilmore 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Enhancing Water Sustainability In North Africa: Literature Review And Synthesis Of Current Knowledge Gaps In Sudan, Osman M. A. Adam, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Derek M. Heeren, Troy E. Gilmore

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Conference Presentations and White Papers

This study delves into the critical role of groundwater in addressing global water challenges, with a focus on the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) in North Africa. Groundwater constitutes a source of potable water, irrigation, and industrial use, especially in arid regions where surface water is limited. We analyzed the status of water quantity, withdrawals, recharge, and geological characteristics in the NSAS, specifically in Sudan, Egypt, Libya, and Chad. Though the NSAS is largely an untapped resource, we evaluated various scenarios to determine the quantity of cropland that can be sustainably irrigated. The NSAS is located in an arid region, …


Assessing Soil Properties For Optimized Irrigation Development In Sudan, Northern Africa, Suhib Hamid, Derek M. Heeren, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Saleh Taghvaeian, Randall S. Ritzema 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Assessing Soil Properties For Optimized Irrigation Development In Sudan, Northern Africa, Suhib Hamid, Derek M. Heeren, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Saleh Taghvaeian, Randall S. Ritzema

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Conference Presentations and White Papers

Sustainable irrigation methods maximize agricultural productivity in Northern African countries like Sudan. This project evaluates soil properties to develop optimized irrigation strategies for Sudan's arid and semi-arid climate. Assessing soil characteristics such as texture, infiltration rates, and nutrient content informs the selection of modern irrigation systems. Data from 3,192 locations, collected using GPS and ring infiltrometers for infiltration rates, alongside laboratory analyses for soil properties, were employed. A ranking system determined suitable irrigation systems for specific soil classes, considering factors like slope, wind, crop tolerance, available water capacity (AWC), drainage, germination, capital cost, labor cost, maintenance, and evapotranspiration (ET). The …


Design And Development Of A Pineapple Peeling Machine, Dare E. Ibiyeye, Oluwatoyin O. Olunloyo, Oluwatosin A. Adesida, Taiye R. Afolabi, Abisayo O. Akala, Funmilayo B. Okanlawon 2024 Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jericho, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria, 200284

Design And Development Of A Pineapple Peeling Machine, Dare E. Ibiyeye, Oluwatoyin O. Olunloyo, Oluwatosin A. Adesida, Taiye R. Afolabi, Abisayo O. Akala, Funmilayo B. Okanlawon

Journal of Bioresource Management

The objective of this research aimed to design, modify and develop a manually operated cost effective pineapple peeling and coring machine with a reduced time of operation, easy to operate and maintain. The material of construction is stainless steel. The designed pineapple peeling and coring machine has two cylindrical cutting blades which simultaneously removes pineapple skin and core. Other components included; spring coring plate, core remover, and spring loaded handle. The peeling operation includes; cutting of crown and bottom of pineapple with a knife, placing pineapple on coring plate and applying pressure to spring loaded handle downward over the pineapple …


Fabrication Of A Low-Cost Drum Seeder For Paddy, Muhammad Rashed Al Mamun, Md Rejaul Karim, Md Towfiqur Rahman, Md Janibul Alam Soeb, Md Imranul Alam 2024 Sylhet Agricultural University

Fabrication Of A Low-Cost Drum Seeder For Paddy, Muhammad Rashed Al Mamun, Md Rejaul Karim, Md Towfiqur Rahman, Md Janibul Alam Soeb, Md Imranul Alam

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Rice is a staple food crop. Bangladesh produces it extensively which raised the nation into the fourth-largest rice-grower in the world. Transplanting or direct seeding is a major task in rice cultivation where the manual transplanting method requires a huge labor cost which is beyond control in a peak season. Although mechanical rice transplanters become popularization land preparation and seedling rising as a pre transplanting task is costly and labor-intensive. On the other hand, manual broadcasting and machine seeding direct method still exist due to the above method’s problem. Considering spacing accuracies for intercultural operation, drum seeders are an easy …


Implementation And Efficiency Of Electric Motors In Lygus Bug Vacuums For Strawberries, Adam J. Rantz 2024 California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo

Implementation And Efficiency Of Electric Motors In Lygus Bug Vacuums For Strawberries, Adam J. Rantz

Master's Theses

Further automation of the agricultural industry and an increase in organic fruit production are needed to address labor shortage and increased demand. The move to an autonomous bug vacuum is easier if the equipment is electric, and not powered by a tractor’s PTO (power take-off) shaft. The main objective of this project was to design a set of lygus bug vacuums to go on a robot that meets industry standards while using electric power instead of hydraulic. The frame of the vacuum was designed using the industry standard. While hydraulic systems have been a very effective power source for vacuums …


Identification Of Compounds That Cause Axonal Dieback Without Cytotoxicity In Dorsal Root Ganglia Explants And Intervertebral Disc Cells With Potential To Treat Pain Via Denervation, Fei San Lee, Uyen N. Nguyen, Eliza J. Munns, Rebecca A. Wachs 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of Compounds That Cause Axonal Dieback Without Cytotoxicity In Dorsal Root Ganglia Explants And Intervertebral Disc Cells With Potential To Treat Pain Via Denervation, Fei San Lee, Uyen N. Nguyen, Eliza J. Munns, Rebecca A. Wachs

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Low back pain, knee osteoarthritis, and cancer patients suffer from chronic pain. Aberrant nerve growth into intervertebral disc, knee, and tumors, are common pathologies that lead to these chronic pain conditions. Axonal dieback induced by capsaicin (Caps) denervation has been FDA-approved to treat painful neuropathies and knee osteoarthritis but with shortterm efficacy and discomfort. Herein, we propose to evaluate pyridoxine (Pyr), vincristine sulfate (Vcr) and ionomycin (Imy) as axonal dieback compounds for denervation with potential to alleviate pain. Previous literature suggests Pyr, Vcr, and Imy can cause undesired axonal degeneration, but no previous work has evaluated axonal dieback and cytotoxicity …


An Assessment Of Methane Cracking Technologies For Hydrogen Production And Reduction Of Greenhouse Gases, Alisa E. Pjetrovic 2024 University of Texas at Arlington

An Assessment Of Methane Cracking Technologies For Hydrogen Production And Reduction Of Greenhouse Gases, Alisa E. Pjetrovic

2024 Spring Honors Capstone Projects

Methane reformation and methane pyrolysis involve separating, or cracking, the components of methane, leading to the production of hydrogen gas, and in the case of pyrolysis, solid carbon. Because methane is known as a leading cause of climate change, these technologies are gaining attention as the global community moves to address methane as a greenhouse gas. This study aims to assess, through a systematic literature review, the current state-of-the-art methane cracking technologies based on seven technology criteria: hydrogen production capability, environmental impact, value of carbon produced, reaction stability, operating temperature requirements, energy requirements, and Technology Readiness Level (TRL). This study …


Microwave Emission Model Parameter Tuning For Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval Using Uav-Mounted Dual Polarization L-Band Radiometer, Santiago Hoyos Echeverri 2024 University of Texas at El Paso

Microwave Emission Model Parameter Tuning For Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval Using Uav-Mounted Dual Polarization L-Band Radiometer, Santiago Hoyos Echeverri

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Surface soil moisture retrieval from L-band brightness temperature has been developed for the past decades due to multiple beneficial characteristics of 1-2 GHz frequency bands for remote sensing of the environment. Numerous microwave emission models have been proposed for tower and satellite-based operations with successful retrieval of surface soil moisture and vegetation water content. As a result of the development of cost-effective and low-mass microwave L-band radiometers such as the Portable L-band Radiometer (PoLRa), surface soil moisture surveying traditionally developed by satellite missions SMOS and SMAP can now be developed at local scales, bringing these operations to commercial small unmanned …


Irt-Based Irrigation Scheduling And Dry Bean Crop Water Productivity Under Different Irrigation Scenarios In The Nebraska High Plains, Angie Gradiz 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Irt-Based Irrigation Scheduling And Dry Bean Crop Water Productivity Under Different Irrigation Scenarios In The Nebraska High Plains, Angie Gradiz

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations and Theses

Irrigation plays a critical role for crop production in western Nebraska of the United States, where crop evapotranspiration often exceeds in-season precipitation. This study investigated the impacts of different irrigation treatments on yield and key physiological parameters of dry edible beans grown in semi-arid western Nebraska during the 2022-2023 growing seasons. Seven irrigation levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 150%) of the fully irrigated treatment (FIT), were applied using a Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) Linear-Move Sprinkler System. Additionally, an eighth treatment was scheduled based on measurement from infrared radiometry thermometers (IRT) to evaluate the performance of the two-source energy …


Design And Develop Lignin Based Recyclable Copolymers For Hydrophobic Coatings, Di Xie 2024 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Design And Develop Lignin Based Recyclable Copolymers For Hydrophobic Coatings, Di Xie

Doctoral Dissertations

Due to the abundance, renewability, biodegradability, overall hydrophobicity, good compatibility with cellulose, and anti-UV/oxidant abilities, lignin has great application potentials in hydrophobic coatings on cellulose-based substrates. However, lignin's structural heterogeneity and rigidity challenge its value-added utilization. Herein, Kraft lignin (KL), from paper mills, is fractionated into more homogeneous fractions (FL), nanosized into lignin micro-nanospheres (LMNS), chemically modified and copolymerized with other constituents to fabricate hydrophobic coating materials with improved coating performances.

To investigate structure-property relationships of lignin-based copolymers, solvent fractionation is conducted to obtain FLs with different molecular weight (MW) and hydroxyl (OH) contents to prepare copolymers by integrating with …


Design Of Small-Scale Milk Processing Facility, Luke Bond, Robert Stenzel, Ry Steffen, John Van Nieuwenhuyse, Rossana Villa-Rojas, Terry Howell Jr., Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Forrest Kievit 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Design Of Small-Scale Milk Processing Facility, Luke Bond, Robert Stenzel, Ry Steffen, John Van Nieuwenhuyse, Rossana Villa-Rojas, Terry Howell Jr., Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Forrest Kievit

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Masters Project Reports

This project was intended to investigate the feasibility of a proposed modular dairy processing facility collocated with a small dairy on the University of Nebraska–Lincoln’s Innovation Campus. Priority was placed upon cost savings for equipment to be used in processing. Process flow diagrams, floor plans, production schedules, risk assessments, and plans for wastewater treatment were all developed to address the needs of the plant should it be built. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to evaluate the timeline for breaking even financially, resulting in the potential for a payback period of 4.5 years. The 4.5-year payback period was based on …


Next-Generation Crop Monitoring Technologies: Case Studies About Edge Image Processing For Crop Monitoring And Soil Water Property Modeling Via Above-Ground Sensors, Nipuna Chamara 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Next-Generation Crop Monitoring Technologies: Case Studies About Edge Image Processing For Crop Monitoring And Soil Water Property Modeling Via Above-Ground Sensors, Nipuna Chamara

Dissertations and Doctoral Documents from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2023–

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. Internet of Things (IoT) technology has advanced rapidly during the last decade. Merging these two technologies has immense potential in several industries, including agriculture.

We have identified several research gaps in utilizing IoT technology in agriculture. One problem was the digital divide between rural, unconnected, or limited connected areas and urban areas for utilizing images for decision-making, which has advanced with the growth of AI. Another area for improvement was the farmers' demotivation to use in-situ soil moisture sensors for irrigation decision-making due to inherited installation difficulties. As Nebraska …


Information Model Based On Parameters Of A Combined Soil Preparation Until For Planting, Azmuddin Sadriddinov, Anvar Abdazimov, Faxraddin Mavlanov, Hursand Madrakhim ugli Rakhimov 2024 Tashkent State Technical University, Tashkent city, DSc, Professor, sadriddinovazmuddin@gmail.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-2345-6789;

Information Model Based On Parameters Of A Combined Soil Preparation Until For Planting, Azmuddin Sadriddinov, Anvar Abdazimov, Faxraddin Mavlanov, Hursand Madrakhim Ugli Rakhimov

Technical science and innovation

The article describes in detail the development of a combined pre-sowing machine as a result of the literature analysis of the scientific research conducted on pre-sowing tillage machines and its use and working process. In addition, the article provides scientifically based information about the factors affecting the leveler-softener and previous work on their improvement. The current state of tillage before planting in Uzbekistan and the size of the tilled fields are studied and tabulated. In order to optimize the parameters of the developed machine and minimize costs, as well as to increase its efficiency, it is devoted to the creation …


Modernization Of Water Flow Measurement In Open Irrigation Systems Using The Slope-Area Method, R.M. Aliev, Djalilov Anvar 2024 Tashkent State Transport University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Adilxujaev 1 str. E-mail: silara@mail.ru;

Modernization Of Water Flow Measurement In Open Irrigation Systems Using The Slope-Area Method, R.M. Aliev, Djalilov Anvar

Chemical Technology, Control and Management

This article describes two methods for determining water flow in open irrigation systems: “speed - area” and “slope - area”. The authors considered the problem of its modernization using the existing method for determining water flow “slope - area” in open irrigation systems. The essence of the issue is the remote transfer of parameters necessary for calculating water flow in open irrigation systems and improving the means of their processing. In scientific studies conducted by the authors, the required hydraulic parameters were studied using the “slope - area” and “speed - area” water flow methods. Based on experimentally obtained data, …


Kinetics-Based Inference Of Environment-Dependent Microbial Interactions And Their Dynamic Variation, Hyun-Seob Song, Na-Rae Lee, Aimee K. Kessell, Hugh C. McCullough, Seo-Young Park, Kang Zhou, Dong-Yup Lee 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kinetics-Based Inference Of Environment-Dependent Microbial Interactions And Their Dynamic Variation, Hyun-Seob Song, Na-Rae Lee, Aimee K. Kessell, Hugh C. Mccullough, Seo-Young Park, Kang Zhou, Dong-Yup Lee

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Microbial communities in nature are dynamically evolving as member species change their interactions subject to environmental variations. Accounting for such context-dependent dynamic variations in interspecies interactions is critical for predictive ecological modeling. In the absence of generalizable theoretical foundations, we lack a fundamental understanding of how microbial interactions are driven by environmental factors, significantly limiting our capability to predict and engineer community dynamics and function. To address this issue, we propose a novel theoretical framework that allows us to represent interspecies interactions as an explicit function of environmental variables (such as substrate concentrations) by combining growth kinetics and a generalized …


Image Filtering To Improve Maize Tassel Detection Accuracy Using Machine Learning Algorithms, Eric Rodene, Gayara Demini Fernando, Ved Piyush, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable, Souparno Ghosh, Jinliang Yang 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Image Filtering To Improve Maize Tassel Detection Accuracy Using Machine Learning Algorithms, Eric Rodene, Gayara Demini Fernando, Ved Piyush, Yufeng Ge, James C. Schnable, Souparno Ghosh, Jinliang Yang

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based imagery has become widely used to collect timeseries agronomic data, which are then incorporated into plant breeding programs to enhance crop improvements. To make efficient analysis possible, in this study, by leveraging an aerial photography dataset for a field trial of 233 different inbred lines from the maize diversity panel, we developed machine learning methods for obtaining automated tassel counts at the plot level. We employed both an object-based counting-by-detection (CBD) approach and a density-based counting-by-regression (CBR) approach. Using an image segmentation method that removes most of the pixels not associated with the plant tassels, the …


Will Saf Turbocharge The Corn Ethanol Market?, Richard Perrin, Lilyan Fulginiti, Felipe Miranda de Souza Almeida 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Will Saf Turbocharge The Corn Ethanol Market?, Richard Perrin, Lilyan Fulginiti, Felipe Miranda De Souza Almeida

Cornhusker Economics

The long-run outlook for the corn ethanol industry is questionable, due to a transition to electric and hybrid vehicles. One source of hope for the long run is the potential demand for producing Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF). SAF is a key component in the United States Aviation Climate Action Plan, a path to net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the aviation industry by 2050. Demand for ethanol for SAF offers hope to the ethanol industry, but it depends a great deal on policy decisions that are being made now. Here we sketch out this story.

Based on the information available …


Composting Reduces The Risks Of Resistome In Beef Cattle Manure At The Transcriptional Level, Yuepeng Sun, Zachery R. Staley, Bryan Woodbury, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Xu Li 2024 Inner Mongolia University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Composting Reduces The Risks Of Resistome In Beef Cattle Manure At The Transcriptional Level, Yuepeng Sun, Zachery R. Staley, Bryan Woodbury, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Xu Li

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Transcriptomic evidence is needed to determine whether composting is more effective than conventional stockpiling in mitigating the risk of resistome in livestock manure. The objective of this study is to compare composting and stockpiling for their effectiveness in reducing the risk of antibiotic resistance in beef cattle manure. Samples collected from the center and the surface of full-size manure stockpiling and composting piles were subject to metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses. While the distinctions in resistome between stockpiled and composted manure were not evident at the DNA level, the advantages of composting over stockpiling were evident at the transcriptomic level in …


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