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Rural School Wastewater Treatment System, Parker J. Dulin, Payton M. Smith, James W. Swart 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Rural School Wastewater Treatment System, Parker J. Dulin, Payton M. Smith, James W. Swart

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Abe Fermentation From Low Cost Substrates, Kai Gao 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Abe Fermentation From Low Cost Substrates, Kai Gao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The high cost of substrate and product inhibition in the fermentation broth remains two major problems associated with bio-butanol production. This thesis aims to solve these problems by examining abundant lignocellulosic biomass as potential feedstocks and exploring novel substrates such as carbohydrates derived from microalgae for ABE fermentation. The commonly observed toxic effect after pretreatment of lignocelluslosic biomass was removed by resin adsorption, where the resin could also serve as an in-situ butanol recvoery devices.

Corn cobs (an agricultural waste), switchgrass (an energy crop) and phragmites (an invasive plant in North America) were investigated as substrates for ABE fermentation by ...


Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz 2016 University of Maine

Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz

Jonathan Rubin

This paper estimates the renewable energy potential of Maine’s forest resources, and how much energy these resources could potentially provide the state. Using the most recent state-specific data available, and a methodology similar to the Billion Tons Report, we find that ethanol production from Maine’s forest residues could potentially provide 18% of Maine’s transportation (gasoline) fuels with a fermentation wood to ethanol process. Making Fischer-Tropsch diesel (F-T diesel) using forest residues can replace 39% of Maine’s petro-diesel consumption. Actual levels of biofuels that can be produced will depend on conversion factors and forestry residue removals that ...


Exploring Regional And Telecoupled Land Use Change Impacts From Environmental Shocks, Kevin Hill, Liz Wachs, Brady Hardiman, David Yu, Shweta Singh 2016 Purdue University

Exploring Regional And Telecoupled Land Use Change Impacts From Environmental Shocks, Kevin Hill, Liz Wachs, Brady Hardiman, David Yu, Shweta Singh

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Natural disasters or environmental shocks have the potential to disrupt local agricultural systems as well as distant agricultural systems through cascading effects. In this work we selected two distinct environmental shocks and traced their cascading effects on land use change. Quantifying cascading effects is a salient issue because climate change forecasts indicate an increase in frequency and intensity of global environmental shocks. This study incorporated the concept of telecoupled systems involving interrelating ecological, economic and political/social components. A telecoupled framework involving cascading effects was implemented using three approaches. The first approach involved using bilateral agricultural trade matrix data to ...


Gdd(Growth Degree Day) Module For Vinsense Visual Analytics System, Pradeep K. Lam, David Ebert , PhD, Jiawei Zhang 2016 Purdue University - West Lafayette

Gdd(Growth Degree Day) Module For Vinsense Visual Analytics System, Pradeep K. Lam, David Ebert , Phd, Jiawei Zhang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Limited resources and increasing costs require vineyards to develop optimized methods of planting, growing, and harvesting crops in order to ensure max yield and stay competitive in the marketplace. Data from sensors planted within the soil paired with weather reports and observation data from farmers could help develop competitive farming strategies. While automatic computation models are usually a black box that cannot explain how the input data are transformed into output, the farmers require an approach that allows them to interactively manipulate and supervise the computation process. The VinSense project was developed for this purpose. In this paper, we focus ...


Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon 2016 Purdue University

Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are synthetic molecules that exhibit an interesting property of inverse temperature phase transition; they exist as soluble monomers at low temperatures and form insoluble aggregates at higher temperatures. The transition temperature depends on the pH, salt concentration, and the amino acid sequence of the ELP. This unique and reversible behavior, along with their high biocompatibility has made them a strategic tool for various biomedical applications. However, their hydrophobic properties also make them a prime candidate for biofuel production. As high levels of many commercially important organic solvents are toxic to the cells that make them, ELPs can ...


Increasing Maize Tolerance To Drought And Flood With Seed Coating Treatments, Jacob E. Bennett, Achint Sanghi, R. P. Kingsly Ambrose 2016 Purdue University

Increasing Maize Tolerance To Drought And Flood With Seed Coating Treatments, Jacob E. Bennett, Achint Sanghi, R. P. Kingsly Ambrose

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The lack of irrigation in regions prone to drought, and flooding due to high rainfall or lack of drainage affects seed viability and the subsequent germination and crop establishment. Seed treatment in the form of coatings shows promise as an effective method to preserve the viability of corn (Zea mays) seeds in drought and flood conditions. Chemical formulations may help improve the seed corn vigor under these stressed conditions. This study examined the efficacy of β-aminobutyric acid [BABA] and N-isopropylacrylamide [NIPA] in inducing drought resistance, as well as the ability of lanolin and linseed oil to provide flood tolerance for ...


Plant Phenotyping On Mobile Devices, Ziling Chen, Jian Jin, Zhihang Song, Jialei Wang 2016 Purdue University

Plant Phenotyping On Mobile Devices, Ziling Chen, Jian Jin, Zhihang Song, Jialei Wang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Plants phenotyping is a fast and non-destructive method to obtain the physiological features of plants, compared with the expensive and time costing chemical analysis with plant sampling. Through plant phenotyping, scientists and farmers can tell plant health status more accurately compared to visual inspection, thus avoid the waste in time and resources and even to predict the productivity. However, the size and price of current plant phenotyping equipment restrict them from being widely applied at a farmer’s household level. Everyday field operation is barely achieved because of the availability of easy-to-carry and cost-effective equipment such as hyper-spectrum cameras, infrared ...


Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Pesticide application is an integral part of crop production and ground-based agricultural boom sprayers are used extensively to apply pesticides to the crop canopy or soil surface across millions of acres in the United States. Efficient application is necessary to minimize costs and limit adverse environmental impacts. Errors in flow rate and system pressure measurements may cause as-applied maps to incorrectly indicate application rates and could negatively affect downstream data processing or analysis. The goals of this study were to provide quantified measurements on the effects of nozzle setup errors on spray pattern uniformity and evaluate how laboratory patternator data ...


Influence Of Application Technology On Foliar Fungicide Efficacy On Cercospora Sojina Infected Soybean, Shawn Alan Butler 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Influence Of Application Technology On Foliar Fungicide Efficacy On Cercospora Sojina Infected Soybean, Shawn Alan Butler

Masters Theses

Due to the constant concern with off-target contamination and application technology requirements associated with future herbicide-tolerant crops, the use of drift-reduction nozzle technology (DRT) may increase. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of coarse droplets generated by drift-reduction nozzles on foliar fungicide efficacy and residual in soybean infected by frogeye leaf spot caused by Cercospora sojina. No differences in disease control, soybean yield, spray retention, and residual when applying Quadris Top SB, a premix of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole, using nozzles that produce either a medium or ultra coarse droplet spectrum were determined.

Due to the ...


The Impacts Of Biopolymer-Ionic Liquid Interactions On The Utilization Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Jing Wang 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Impacts Of Biopolymer-Ionic Liquid Interactions On The Utilization Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Jing Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

In the bioenergy field, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass has been mainly attributed to lignin. Many ionic liquid (IL) pretreatments were performed to maximize the removal of lignin. However, those methods seriously degraded lignin and hemicellulose, and could generate lignin or hemicellulose for developing an integrated biorefinery that utilizes efficiently the whole biomass. To fulfill the requirements of the integrated biorefineries, this dissertation explored the interactions between biopolymers and IL for a better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock. By removing a large portion of hemicellulose, through an autohydrolysis, this physical and chemical barrier for IL diffusion was dismantled and ...


Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen 2016 Iowa State University

Farm Energy: Energy Consumption For Row Crop Production, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer, Dana Petersen

John E. Sawyer

This publication provides an overview of farm energy use related to corn and soybean production in Iowa. Three areas of row crop production--field operations, fertilizer and pesticide application, and artificial drying--are used to illustrate on-farm energy consumption.


Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen 2016 Iowa State University

Farm Energy: Energy Conservation In Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, John E. Sawyer, H. Mark Hanna, Dana Petersen

John E. Sawyer

Optimum corn yields require nitrogen fertilization in most crop rotations, but the energy consumed during the production of nitrogen fertilizer is considerable. Learn more about maximizing economic, environmental, and energy returns for nitrogen and other fertilizers.


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky 2016 Iowa State University

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Crop Production And Nitrate-Nitrogen Leaching With Subsurface Drainage, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nutrient losses from row-crop land can cause nonpoint source water quality problems and “impaired waters.” Nitrogen (N) losses due to nitrate (NO3) leaching cause drinking water problems and possibly increase hypoxia (low oxygen) problems in the Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus (P) losses can cause eutrophication problems in surface waters (lakes, streams, and reservoirs) in Iowa where algal blooms decrease oxygen, kill fish, and result in murky and bad tasting water. The U.S. EPA and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources are developing nutrient criteria/standards and implementation plans to address TMDL’s (Total Maximum Daily Load) and to improve ...


Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky 2016 Iowa State University

Fertilizer And Swine Manure Management Systems: Impacts On Agronomic And Environmental Soil Phosphorus Tests And On Phosphorus Loss With Subsurface Drainage, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Jeremy Klatt, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, James L. Baker, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Manure or fertilizer can be used to supply the phosphorus (P) needs of crops. However, excess P application increases the risk of P loss from fields and of water quality impairment through increased algae growth. Poor water quality in many Iowa lakes has prompted questions about the impact of P management practices on P loss from fields and the effectiveness of using agronomic soil tests for environmental purposes.


Annual Swine Manure Applications To Soybean Under Corn-Soybean Rotation, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino 2016 University of Agriculture Faisalabad

Annual Swine Manure Applications To Soybean Under Corn-Soybean Rotation, Allah Bakhsh, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

The response of a corn-soybean rotation system receiving fall manure application to both corn and soybean is not well understood in terms of its impact on nitrate leaching to subsurface drainage water and crop yields. This field study was conducted from 2001 through 2005 with the key objective of determining the effects of manure application to both corn and soybean on NO3-N concentrations in subsurface drainage water and corn-soybean yields. The study was conducted on 0.4 ha plots instrumented with state-of-the-art subsurface drainage monitoring systems at the Iowa State University research center, Nashua, Iowa. Nitrogen application rates from liquid ...


Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

Application Checkpoints For Fall Ammonia, H. Mark Hanna, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

Depending on postharvest field conditions, some producers will soon be considering anhydrous ammonia application. Using fall labor to apply fertilizer can be attractive but needs to be balanced with the potential for nutrient loss. To avoid conversion of anhydrous ammonia from ammonium to more leachable forms of nitrogen, application should be delayed until average soil temperature is below 50°F and trending lower. Measure the 4-inch soil temperature at near 10 a.m. or 7 p.m. or check Iowa State University's county soil temperatures and forecast.


Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Swine Manure Applications On Nitrate And Phosphorus In Subsurface Drainage Water, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, James L. Baker, Carl H. Pederson, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First, manure from swine production facilities can have serious impacts on the quality of ground water resources. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, pollution of water resources from nutrients supplied by manure to croplands will help set parameters for developing public policies on the management of manure.


Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Swine Manure Application On Water Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Carl H. Pederson, Matthew J. Helmers, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

Nonpoint source nutrient pollution related to land application of manures is recognized as an important environmental and social issue for several reasons. First,swine manure application to land can impact water quality. Second, several states are in the process of creating laws and/or regulations to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from manure to soil and water resources. Third, the quality of water resources will help set parameters for developing public policies on management of manure.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna 2016 Iowa State University

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

william edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


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