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Novel Carbon-Supported Transition Metal Phosphide Catalysts For Hydrodeoxygenation Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil, Cheng Guo 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Novel Carbon-Supported Transition Metal Phosphide Catalysts For Hydrodeoxygenation Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil, Cheng Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is considered to be the most promising route to upgrade pyrolysis oil to liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this research was to explore inexpensive supported metal oxides/metal phosphide catalysts for the upgrading of pyrolysis oil into advanced drop-in hydrocarbon liquid fuels by HDO.

The first stage of this thesis project investigates a series of molybdenum oxides/phosphide catalysts on different supports that were prepared in-house, such as Al2O3, activated carbon (AC), MgAl2O4 and Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16. The HDO activity of these catalysts were investigated ...


Quantification Of Variable Rate Irrigation Benefits And Spatial Variability In Root Zone Water Holding Capacity, Tsz Him Lo 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Quantification Of Variable Rate Irrigation Benefits And Spatial Variability In Root Zone Water Holding Capacity, Tsz Him Lo

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Variable rate irrigation (VRI) investment decisions require field-specific knowledge of benefits. The objective of this research was to help producers and consultants consider and quantify potential benefits of VRI. First, a conceptual model was developed for evaluating the public and/or private gain from adopting VRI where irrigation water supply is non-restrictive. Potential benefits were classified into three categories and were attributed to ten reasons. In the Central Plains at current prices, a small improvement in corn (maize) yield would make a large contribution to VRI profitability. Second, the potential irrigation withdrawal reduction from adapting VRI to spatial heterogeneity of ...


Dietary Strategies For Mitigation Of Methane Production By Growing And Finishing Cattle, Anna C. Pesta 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Strategies For Mitigation Of Methane Production By Growing And Finishing Cattle, Anna C. Pesta

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Interest in reducing methane (CH4) emissions by cattle has increased recently. Loss of feed energy as CH4 represents both an environmental concern and an energetic loss to the animal. Manipulation of dietary composition has proven to be an effective mitigation strategy. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of several dietary characteristics on CH4 production in growing and finishing cattle, and to develop a novel, non-invasive method for quantifying emissions from animals in a production setting. Short-term gaseous emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and the CH4:CO2 was used ...


Modeling Water Quality For Switchgrass Crop Production: Implications For Bioenergy Sustainability In East Tennessee, Zachariah Tzvi Seiden 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Modeling Water Quality For Switchgrass Crop Production: Implications For Bioenergy Sustainability In East Tennessee, Zachariah Tzvi Seiden

Masters Theses

With passing of the US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, there has been considerable research conducted on the sustainability of bioenergy crop production in the United States; switchgrass has shown particular potential for bioenergy production in East Tennessee. Many studies evaluating the environmental impact switchgrass has on runoff and water quality use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for watershed modeling. Because SWAT is a lumped watershed model, it evaluates the result of hydrological processes for each hydrologic response unit (HRU), without accounting for the physical interactions between these HRUs. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP ...


Conservation Of Energy Using Variable Frequency Drive For Center Pivot Irrigation Systems In Nebraska, Dilshad Brar 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Conservation Of Energy Using Variable Frequency Drive For Center Pivot Irrigation Systems In Nebraska, Dilshad Brar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The study introduces a novel approach to lower the operating pivot point pressure by varying the motor speed with the help of variable frequency drive (VFD) in contrast to the commonly used fixed speed approach. By varying the speed of motor, the required minimum pivot point pressure can be provided at any required flow rate. This was investigated through a GIS-assisted simulation on 100 randomly selected pivots located in 10 Nebraska counties using high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets. Center pivot irrigation systems are usually equipped with corner watering attachments like end guns and corner extensions to irrigate additional ...


Response Of Drought Tolerant And Conventional Corn To Limited Irrigation, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm, J. D. Holman 2015 Kansas State University

Response Of Drought Tolerant And Conventional Corn To Limited Irrigation, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm, J. D. Holman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

With declining water levels in the Ogallala aquifer, many wells cannot supply peak irrigation water needs for corn. Emerging drought-tolerant (DT) corn hybrids could help farmers maintain yield with limited capacity wells. A knowledge gap exists comparing transgenic DT and conventional corn hybrids in yield response to water level. The purpose of this study was to compare yield, yield components, water productivity, and irrigation water use efficiency response of DT corn with cspB (DKC 6267 DGVT- 2PRO) transgene trait and conventional corn hybrid (DKC 62-98 VT2PRO) with similar maturity to full and limited irrigation. Preliminary results from the 2014 growing ...


Irrigation Scheduling Based On Soil Moisture Sensors And Evapotranspiration, J. Aguilar, D. Rogers, I. Kisekka 2015 Kansas State University

Irrigation Scheduling Based On Soil Moisture Sensors And Evapotranspiration, J. Aguilar, D. Rogers, I. Kisekka

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Irrigation scheduling is crucial to effectively manage water resources and optimize profitability of an irrigated operation. Tools that can be customized to a field’s characteristics can greatly facilitate irrigation scheduling decisions. Soil moisture sensors and the evapotranspiration (ET)-based KanSched are two of the tools that could be implemented in an irrigated farm. Focusing on the installation of soil moisture sensors, demonstration set-ups were established at the Southwest Research-Extension Center plots in Garden City, Kansas, and in a producer’s field, each with three types of moisture sensors at different depths. Among others, this project validates the importance of ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Understanding Microbial Communities With Metagenome Assembly (Accompanied By Ipython Notebook Tutorial), Adina C. Howe, Patrick S. G. Chain 2015 Iowa State University

Challenges And Opportunities In Understanding Microbial Communities With Metagenome Assembly (Accompanied By Ipython Notebook Tutorial), Adina C. Howe, Patrick S. G. Chain

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Metagenomic investigations hold great promise for informing the genetics, physiology, and ecology of environmental microorganisms. Current challenges for metagenomic analysis are related to our ability to connect the dots between sequencing reads, their population of origin, and their encoding functions. Assembly-based methods reduce dataset size by extending overlapping reads into larger contiguous sequences (contigs), providing contextual information for genetic sequences that does not rely on existing references. These methods, however, tend to be computationally intensive and are again challenged by sequencing errors as well as by genomic repeats While numerous tools have been developed based on these methodological concepts, they ...


Competence Evaluation Of Mycodiesel Production By Oleaginous Fungal Strains: Mucor Circinelloides And Gliocladium Roseum, Sandip S. Magdum, Gauri P. Minde, Upendra S. Adhyapak, V. Kalyanraman 2015 Pune university

Competence Evaluation Of Mycodiesel Production By Oleaginous Fungal Strains: Mucor Circinelloides And Gliocladium Roseum, Sandip S. Magdum, Gauri P. Minde, Upendra S. Adhyapak, V. Kalyanraman

Sandip S. Magdum

Comparing with lesser algal growth rate for biofuel production along with many constraints, fungal route should be analyzed for its capability of biodiesel or mycodiesel production. The two fungal strains namely, Mucor circinelloides (MTCC1297) and Gliocladium roseum (MTCC6474) were analyzed for laboratory scale mycodiesel production. The M. circinelloides and G. roseum were able to produce biomass of 0.404 mg VSS/mg sucrose and 0.642 mg VSS/ mg sucrose with the mycodiesel content of 20.69% (w/w) and 11.37% (w/w) respectively. Furthermore, qualitative analysis of the oil contents by GC-MS were identified the presence of Tetradecanoic ...


Corn Stover Nutrient Removal Estimates For Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, John Kovar, Stuart J. Birrell 2015 United States Department of Agriculture

Corn Stover Nutrient Removal Estimates For Central Iowa, Usa, Douglas Karlen, John Kovar, Stuart J. Birrell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

One of the most frequent producer-asked questions to those persons striving to secure sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock supplies for Iowa’s new bioenergy conversion or other bio-product facilities is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my stover?” Our objective is to summarize six years of field research from central Iowa, U.S.A. where more than 600, 1.5 m2 samples were collected by hand and divided into four plant fractions: vegetative material from the ear shank upward (top), vegetative material from approximately 10 cm above the soil surface to just below the ...


Physical And Chemical Properties Of Whole Stillage, Thin Stillage And Syrup, Yang Lu, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Whole Stillage, Thin Stillage And Syrup, Yang Lu, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The production of bio-based ethanol has been one of the fastest growing industries in the U.S. during the last decade. The generated co-products are currently fed to livestock. Whole stillage, thin stillage, and condensed distillers syrup are the major upstream materials used to produce coproduct feeds. The storability of whole stillage, thin stillage and syrup influences the economic and energetic balances of fuel ethanol production. But there are few investigations of the shelf life for those products, or how to measure these quantities. The objectives of this research were to test physical and chemical properties of whole stillage, thin ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Extruded Aquafeed, Chinwendu F. Ozoh, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Extruded Aquafeed, Chinwendu F. Ozoh, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The increasing world population has led to higher demand for protein source; Fish is a very good source of protein for humans. Hence, the need for more farmed fish. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production every year. It is also one of the sustainable and reliable growth market for manufactured feed. This study was carried out to optimize cost and environmental performance in the production of aquaculture feed for small scale producers. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) and Life-cycle assessment (LCA) were tools for the analysis. In this ...


Physical And Thermal Properties Of Chia, Kañiwa, Triticale And Farro As A Function Of Moisture Content, Rashid A. Suleiman, Kun Xie, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Physical And Thermal Properties Of Chia, Kañiwa, Triticale And Farro As A Function Of Moisture Content, Rashid A. Suleiman, Kun Xie, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The knowledge of physical and thermal properties in cereals, grains and oilseeds establishes an essential engineering tool for the design of equipment, storage structures, and processes. The physical properties and thermal properties for Chia, Kañiwa, Farro and Triticale grains were investigated at three levels of moisture content: 10 %, 15 % and 20 % (d.b). Physical properties determined where 1000 seed weight, seed dimensions, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, surface area, volume sphericity and aspect ratio. The result shows 1000 seed weight increased linearly with moisture content from 2.0 to 3.5 g for chai, 2.5 to 4.0 g ...


Agriculture Study Abroad Program To Poland, Jacek A. Koziel 2015 Iowa State University

Agriculture Study Abroad Program To Poland, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The Technology Travel Course (TSM 496) is an elective course that meets the university-wide international perspectives requirement. The course has a curricular home in the department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), Iowa State University (ISU). It enables instructors to develop and offer a study abroad program structured as a faculty-led trip abroad. This course is also an excellent opportunity for students to learn/compare technology concepts and applications in an international context that is encouraged by the ABE External Advisory Board. The objectives of this paper are to (1) Review the application of TSM 496 to Ag Study Abroad ...


Design And Experiment Of Differential Speed Snapping Rollers For Horizontal Roller Corn Harvester, Gang Wang, Honglei Jia, Lie Tang 2015 Jilin University

Design And Experiment Of Differential Speed Snapping Rollers For Horizontal Roller Corn Harvester, Gang Wang, Honglei Jia, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

This paper analyzed some conditions which cause grain breakage and grain loss during harvesting process of horizontal roller corn harvester. If the transmission rate between two snapping rollers can be changed, the grain breakage and grain loss can be solved at a certain level. So a pair of differential speed snapping rollers for horizontal roller corn harvester was designed, and the work effects between the constant speed snapping rollers and the differential speed snapping rollers were compared by using software CATIA and ADAMS, and found that the rolling speed of inner snapping roller is 500r/min, and the outer snapping ...


Assessment Of Lighting Needs By Laying Hens Via Preference Tests, H. Ma, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, B. Li, Timothy A. Shepherd, Ignacio Alvarez Castro 2015 China Agricultural University

Assessment Of Lighting Needs By Laying Hens Via Preference Tests, H. Ma, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, B. Li, Timothy A. Shepherd, Ignacio Alvarez Castro

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

This study was conducted to investigate hen’s needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 – 30 weeks of age) was tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding the data on time spent, feed intake, feeding time, and eggs laid at each light intensity and inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4 %) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.2 %) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.1 %) at 30 lux, and 1.5 h (10.3 %) at 100 lux under light condition; and that they spent 10.0 h under dark (<1 lux). Daily feed intake was 87.3 g/hen-day which was distributed as 24.8 g/hen (28.4 %) at <1 lux, 28.4 g/hen (32.5 %) at 5 lux, 13.8 g/hen (15.8 %) at 15 lux, 14.5 g/hen (16.6 %) at 30 lux, and 5.8 g/hen (6.7 %) at 100 lux. Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0 %; and most of the eggs were laid at <1 lux (61.9 % of total) which was significantly different from other light intensities (P < 0.05). The hens displayed a circadian photoperiod of 10 h darkness (<1 lux) and 14 h light or 14L:10D, which is different from the typical commercial practice of 16L:8D photoperiod. The light and dark periods were distributed intermittently thoughout the day, with time spent in the darkness being 25.0 ± 0.4 min per hour.


Infiltration Characteristics Of Swine Finishing And Gestation Buildings: Review And Quantification, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Carl J. Bern, Larry D. Jacobson, Brian Hetchler 2015 Iowa State University

Infiltration Characteristics Of Swine Finishing And Gestation Buildings: Review And Quantification, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Carl J. Bern, Larry D. Jacobson, Brian Hetchler

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Infiltration is an integral part of the ventilation system and process. Infiltration affects the quality of the barn environment and can also increase the winter heating cost. Precise data on infiltration is very important in the design of ventilation systems for animal barns. Many researchers have suggested that ASHRAE’s ‘crack’ method is not suitable for predicting infiltration of animal barns. Among the available methods, pressurization methods are commonly used in infiltration quantification and the power law model gives the best prediction of the infiltration rate. For this research project, 18 swine finishing rooms and three swine gestation rooms were ...


Environmental Effects And Economic Analysis Of Adhesives: A Review Of Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea), Minliang Yang, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Environmental Effects And Economic Analysis Of Adhesives: A Review Of Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea), Minliang Yang, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In this paper, adhesives made either from fossil fuels or biological sources were examined. The purpose of this review was to investigate the development, processing, and production of bio-adhesives, especially key information about environmental and economic impacts of these types of adhesives. Specifically, the literature was reviewed in terms of life cycle assessment (LCA) and techno-economic analysis (TEA) in order to evaluate the environmental effects, economic performance and potential market acceptance. Several key parameters for life cycle analysis will be compared, such as resource consumption, ecosystem quality and human health; As for TEA, capital costs, operational costs, and unit costs ...


Energy Consumption Of Corn Stover Size Reduction, Xiong Cao, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Energy Consumption Of Corn Stover Size Reduction, Xiong Cao, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Corn-based ethanol, the most common first generation biofuel in the US, plays an important role as a fossil fuels alternative. Second generation biofuels, which are mostly based on lignocellulosic biomass, have gained great attention in recent years. Size reduction of the lignocellulosic biomass is a key step to the efficiency of downstream processes (i.e., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation), which will affect the yield of ethanol significantly. However, size reduction consumes considerable energy itself, it is an expensive process and needs to be optimized. Some studies have been done on corn stover size reduction, but none of them have ...


Evaluation Of Multi-Row Covers And Support Structure For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brandon L. Carlson, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2015 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Multi-Row Covers And Support Structure For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brandon L. Carlson, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Covers excluding insects are an alternative to pesticide control on cantaloupe and squash. Tests evaluated support structure and two types of cover material (spunbond polypropylene and polyethylene mesh) during mid-summer field conditions.

Sagging cover material over time suggested limiting distance between single supports to 2 m or less. Tennis balls atop single supports avoided cover damage better than rebar caps. Spunbond polypropylene had more tears and damage than polyethylene mesh during use. Wire hoops centered over the row, spaced 2.3 m along the row avoided cover damage while keeping material off the crop.


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