Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Chemical Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4,740 Full-Text Articles 6,572 Authors 1,069,262 Downloads 54 Institutions

All Articles in Chemical Engineering

Faceted Search

4,740 full-text articles. Page 1 of 89.

Applicability Of Fluidized Bed Reactor In Recalcitrant Compound Degradation Through Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman 2014 SelectedWorks

Applicability Of Fluidized Bed Reactor In Recalcitrant Compound Degradation Through Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for ...


Scale-Up Methodology For Bench-Scale Slurry Photocatalytic Reactors Using Combined Irradiation And Kinetic Modelling, Patricio J. Valades Pelayo 2014 Western University

Scale-Up Methodology For Bench-Scale Slurry Photocatalytic Reactors Using Combined Irradiation And Kinetic Modelling, Patricio J. Valades Pelayo

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study focuses on developing a predictive methodology to scale-up a slurry annular photoreactor using a TiO2 Degussa P25 from the bench-scale to a pilot-plant scale. The bench-scale photoreactor is a Photo-CREC-Water II, a 2.65 L internally-irradiated slurry annular photocatalytic reactor. The pilot-plant scale photoreactor is a Photo-CREC Water Solar Simulator, a 9.8 L pilot-plant photoreactor, externally irradiated by eight lamps.

The adopted methodology allows the independent validation of radiative and kinetic models avoiding cross-correlation issues. The proposed approach involves two Monte Carlo methods, to model the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) inside each photoreactor. With this ...


Kinetic Experimental And Modeling Studies On Iron-Based Catalysts Promoted With Lanthana For The High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction Characterized With Operando Uv-Visible Spectroscopy And For The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Basseem Bishara Hallac 2014 Brigham Young University

Kinetic Experimental And Modeling Studies On Iron-Based Catalysts Promoted With Lanthana For The High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction Characterized With Operando Uv-Visible Spectroscopy And For The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Basseem Bishara Hallac

All Theses and Dissertations

The structural and functional roles of lanthana in unsupported iron-based catalysts for the high-temperature water-gas shift reaction and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were investigated. The performance of the catalysts with varying lanthana contents was based on their activity, selectivity, and stability. With regard to the former reaction, extent of reduction of the iron in Fe2O3/Cr2O3/CuO/La2O3 water-gas shift catalysts is a key parameter that was characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy. Minor addition of lanthana (<0.5 wt%) produces more active and stable catalysts apparently because it stabilizes the iron-chromium spinel, increases the surface area of the reduced catalysts, enhances the reduction of hematite to the magnetite active phase, and facilitates the adsorption of CO on the surface of the catalyst modeled by an adsorptive Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Statistical 95% confidence contour plots of the adsorption equilibrium constants show that water adsorbs more strongly than CO, which inhibits the reaction rate. A calibration curve that correlates the oxidation state of surface iron domains to normalized absorbance of visible light was successfully generated and applied to the water-gas shift catalysts. UV-visible studies indicated higher extent of reduction for surface Fe domains for the catalysts promoted with 1 wt% of lanthana and showed potential to be a more convenient technique for surface chemistry studies than X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Lanthana addition to iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts enhances the olefin-to-paraffin ratio, but decreases their activity, stability, and selectivity to liquid hydrocarbons. Adding lanthana at the expense of potassium reduces the water-gas shift selectivity and enhances the activity and stability of the catalysts. Finally, a model that simulates heat and mass transfer limitations on the particle scale for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction applicable at lab-scale suggests optimal operating and design conditions of 256°C, 30 bar, and 80 mirons are recommended for higher selectivity to liquid hydrocarbons. The model considers pressure drop, deactivation, pore diffusion, film heat transfer, and internal heat transfer when solving for the optimal conditions, and maps them as functions of design variables. This model can be up-scaled to provide guidance for optimal design of commercial-size reactors.


Diffusion And Adsorption Coefficients Of Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gas Chromatography Capillary Columns, Gabriela Navarro Tovar 2014 Western University

Diffusion And Adsorption Coefficients Of Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gas Chromatography Capillary Columns, Gabriela Navarro Tovar

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study focuses on a mathematical description of aromatic species elution peaks from a gas chromatographic BPX5 capillary column. Using the chromatographic peaks, statistical moments are calculated for toluene, naphthalene, phenol and 2-naphthol. This thesis reports two modelling approaches involving laminar gas flow, distribution coefficients (Ks) and diffusion coefficients in the stationary phase (Ds).

Firstly, a model with equilibrium adsorption is considered to describe symmetric peaks for toluene and naphthalene. Moreover, a model with non-equilibrium adsorption is proposed to describe asymmetric peaks of phenol and 2-napthol. In addition to the Ks and Ds parameters, this model ...


Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, ARIS PURWANTO, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, Aris Purwanto, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Polylactic acid (PLA) is becoming an increasingly important biopolymer for packaging applications. PLA brittleness limits its applicability. This study evaluated PLA properties with increasing amounts of added polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of cast films was determined using the newly available Dynamic Accumulation (DA) method. Arrhenius temperature sensitivity of OTR and polymer Permeability was also determined. Permeability of neat PLA is 4.848 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa; hence, 4.84 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa, 4.07 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa and 5.42 ml mm (STP)/m2 ...


Electrochemically Active Biofilm Assisted Synthesis Of Ag@Ceo2 Nanocomposites For Antimicrobial Activity, Photocatalysis And Photoelectrodes, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, S. A. Ansari, J. H. Lee, M. O. Ansari, J Lee, M. H. Cho 2014 SelectedWorks

Electrochemically Active Biofilm Assisted Synthesis Of Ag@Ceo2 Nanocomposites For Antimicrobial Activity, Photocatalysis And Photoelectrodes, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, S. A. Ansari, J. H. Lee, M. O. Ansari, J Lee, M. H. Cho

Dr. Mohammad Mansoob Khan

Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a biogenic and green approach using electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a reducing tool. The as-synthesized Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites were characterized and used in antimicrobial, visible light photocatalytic and photoelectrode studies. The Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites showed effective and efficient bactericidal activities and survival test against Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The as-synthesized Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites also exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue than pure CeO2. A photocatalytic investigation showed that the Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites possessed excellent visible light photocatalytic activities compared to pure CeO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ...


Chemical Beneficiation Of Phosphate Rock, Fathi Habashi 2014 SelectedWorks

Chemical Beneficiation Of Phosphate Rock, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Phosphate producers could eliminate flotation plants and waste by adopting well-established hydrometallurgical processes and using dilute nitric or hydrochloric acid to leach phosphate from rock.


A New Process To Upgrade Ilmenite To Synthetic Rutile, Fathi Habashi 2014 SelectedWorks

A New Process To Upgrade Ilmenite To Synthetic Rutile, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Ilmenite occurs in black sand at the mouth of great rivers as in India, or as massive deposits like in Quebec Province in Canada. It is unsuitable for processing into pigment or for metal production because of its high iron content and its low grade. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods have been developed to cope with this problem which resulted in the production of two commercial products that became known as synthetic rutile and Sorelslag. Attempts are also underway to produce TiO2 pigment directly from ilmenite. This report presents a newly developed process called the Magpie process, which enables the production ...


Reductive Depolymerization Of Kraft Lignin For Chemicals And Fuels Using Formic Acid As A In-Situ Hydrogen Source, Shanhua Huang 2014 Western University

Reductive Depolymerization Of Kraft Lignin For Chemicals And Fuels Using Formic Acid As A In-Situ Hydrogen Source, Shanhua Huang

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis work, formic acid (FA) proved to be an effective in-situ hydrogen donor for the reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin (KL). At the optimum conditions without catalysts, i.e., 300 oC, 1 h, 18.6 wt.% substrate concentration, 50/50 (v/v) water-ethanol medium at a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 0.7, KL (Mw ~10,000 g/mol) was effectively de-polymerized, producing de-polymerized lignin (DL, Mw 1, 270 g/mol) at a yield of ~90 wt.% and wt.% yield of solid residue (SR). The effects of heterogeneous catalysts on KL reductive de-polymerization in 50/50 ...


An Economic Analysis Of Small-Scale Biodiesel Production: Implementation Of Ethyl Ester Production In A Job Shop Setting, Scott Haase, Benjamin Craig 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

An Economic Analysis Of Small-Scale Biodiesel Production: Implementation Of Ethyl Ester Production In A Job Shop Setting, Scott Haase, Benjamin Craig

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Biodiesel is becoming a demanded consumer automotive alternative fuel used in diesel vehicles today. An emerging trend is toward small-scale biodiesel production performed by the final consumer. A limited source of commercially available production systems exists and has resulted in many systems being designed and built by the user. Preliminary research conducted by the authors has shown biodiesel to be the least-cost alternative to petroleum diesel after as few as 8 months of system use. This study examines the economic viability of building and producing biodiesel using a small-scale production system versus buying consumer petroleum diesel. During production, measurements were ...


Degradation And Biological Assessment Of Aqueous Micropollutant Mixtures, Sura M.H. Ali 2014 Western University

Degradation And Biological Assessment Of Aqueous Micropollutant Mixtures, Sura M.H. Ali

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Presence of micropollutants in water is a global concern because of their ability to potentially cause adverse effects in organisms at concentrations as low as a few ng/L, particularly when present as a component of complex mixture. Most of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) are not removed well in traditional wastewater treatment processes and enter the environment and spread throughout the water ecosystem. Depending on the properties of the micropollutants and the biology of the receiving species, they may bioaccumulate, metabolize or cause adverse effects. These effects may translate into alterations on ...


Factors Affecting Bed Agglomeration In Bubbling Fluidized Bed Biomass Boilers, Alejandro Montes 2014 Western University

Factors Affecting Bed Agglomeration In Bubbling Fluidized Bed Biomass Boilers, Alejandro Montes

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Agglomeration of bed materials at high temperature is one of the most important and challenging problems for fluidized-bed biomass boilers for thermal/power generation. Inorganic alkali components from the fuel can be problematic as they form low-melting alkali compounds. In the present study, the critical amount of liquid (molten ash in real biomass boiler operations) that would result in severe bed agglomeration and defluidization was studied in two small pilot-scales bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) rigs, one operated at room temperature using glycerol-water to simulate molten ash and the other operated at elevated temperatures using low melting-point salt (KOH) to simulate ...


Solid-Phase Extraction As Sample Preparation For Bioassay-Based Micropollutant Quantification, Chen Feng 2014 Western University

Solid-Phase Extraction As Sample Preparation For Bioassay-Based Micropollutant Quantification, Chen Feng

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Solid phase extraction (SPE) using chemically bonded silica particles or small particles of an organic polymer resin, is being studied extensively for extraction of polar or non-polar compounds from various water matrices. This study focused on the evaluation of the performance of three commercial cartridges belonging to three different groups: reversed-phase, mixed-mode anion exchanger and mixed-mode cation exchanger. In the first stage of research, the performance of three cartridges was compared by extracting four antibiotics with different physic-chemical properties from water samples. The results obtained from column sorption experiments were plotted into breakthrough curves and batch equilibrium experiments results were ...


Tissue Engineering Scaffolds With Enhanced Oxygen Delivery Using A Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex, Tierney GB Deluzio 2014 Western University

Tissue Engineering Scaffolds With Enhanced Oxygen Delivery Using A Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex, Tierney Gb Deluzio

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The development of a strategy to improve oxygen delivery to cells seeded on scaffolds is essential for the success of tissue engineering applications. The focus of this work was to explore the application of cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD:ICs) with perfluorocarbons as oxygen carriers. CD:ICs were prepared from alpha-cyclodextrin and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene via co-precipitation, paste mixing, and dry mixing complexation techniques. Characterization indicated that paste mixing at a 2:1 host:guest ratio was the most effective method for complexation between the parent molecules. The CD:ICs were then successfully incorporated in 3D fibrous mats via electrospinning with poly(carbonate ...


Surfactant Assisted Dispersion Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes In Polyvinylpyrrolidone Solutions, Tennison Yu 2014 Western University

Surfactant Assisted Dispersion Of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes In Polyvinylpyrrolidone Solutions, Tennison Yu

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Obtaining stable aqueous dispersions is one of the main challenges hindering a widespread and effective use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in many applications. Although it has been recognized that their versatility makes them an extremely attractive material, the unique molecular structure that gives SWNTs their unmatched electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties is also responsible for strong van der Waals interactions. This, combined with extremely high aspect ratios and flexibility, causes SWNTs to adhere strongly into tightly bundled ropes. In these bundles, SWNTs are not as useful as their linearized unbundled equivalents. Thus, in order to take advantage of their ...


Engineering Biosensors For Short-Chain Alcohols, Yu Xia 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Engineering Biosensors For Short-Chain Alcohols, Yu Xia

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Biofuel is a promising substitute for fossil fuel and the research of biofuel production has been extensively conducted during the recent years. Great efforts have been made to create many types of the fuel production hosts. However, effective approaches for high specificity and high throughput screening of the fuel production strains are still lacking. The cellular stress response is one universal defense mechanism when a microbial cell is exposed to an unfavorable substance or environment. It triggers a series of downstream responses when a cell senses certain chemicals. Transcriptional factors are widely used in living organisms to regulate gene expression ...


Laser-Assisted Surface Modification Of Hybrid Hydrogels To Prevent Bacterial Contamination And Protein Fouling, Guobang Huang 2014 Western University

Laser-Assisted Surface Modification Of Hybrid Hydrogels To Prevent Bacterial Contamination And Protein Fouling, Guobang Huang

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Silicone hydrogels have been extensively studied in the fields of contact lenses, tissue engineering, and drug delivery due to their good biocompatibility, high oxygen permeability, and proper light transmission. However, their applications in biomedical devices are limited by protein adsorption and bacterial contamination because of the hydrophobic surface of silicone, which will cause more irreversible protein adsorption. Several physical methods can be applied to create a hydrophilic surface on hydrogels, such as spin coating, physical vapor deposition, dip coating, drop casting, etc. Compared to the conventional methods, the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is suitable to produce biopolymer/polymer ...


Makha – A New Hybrid Stochastic Optimization Method For Phase Equilibrium Calculations, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Ahmed M. Khalil, Ragab K. Abdel-Magied 2014 SelectedWorks

Makha – A New Hybrid Stochastic Optimization Method For Phase Equilibrium Calculations, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Ahmed M. Khalil, Ragab K. Abdel-Magied

Seif-Eddeen K Fateen

No abstract provided.


Enhancement Of Biohydrogen Production From Co-Fermentation Of Glucose, Starch, And Cellulose, Medhavi Gupta 2014 Western University

Enhancement Of Biohydrogen Production From Co-Fermentation Of Glucose, Starch, And Cellulose, Medhavi Gupta

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this study was to assess the synergistic effects of co-fermentation of glucose, starch, and cellulose using anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) on the biohydrogen (H2) production and the associated microbial communities. At initial pH of 5.5 and mesophilic temperature of 37 ºC, the H2 yields were greater by an average of 27 ± 4% in all the different co-substrate conditions compared to the mono-substrate conditions, which affirmed that co-fermentation of different substrates improved the hydrogen potential. The sensitivity of mesophilic ADS to a temperature shock was also investigated. Unacclimatized mesophilic ADS responded well to a temperature ...


The Kinetics Of A Palladium Precursor – Tobacco Mosaic Virus Reaction, Adi Banerjee, Mayo Adigun, Michael T. Harris 2014 Purdue University

The Kinetics Of A Palladium Precursor – Tobacco Mosaic Virus Reaction, Adi Banerjee, Mayo Adigun, Michael T. Harris

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There have been numerous developments in the field of production of metallic nanoparticles using biotemplates such as the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Past research has looked at the conditions required to maximise nanoparticle formation. This study of the kinetics of a nanomaterial synthesis reaction using a biotemplate would elucidate the understanding of the controlled growth of nanoparticles, which can be applied in the fabrication of photocatalysts, electrical nanocircuits and solar cells. This study specifically focuses on the reaction between a palladium precursor and the TMV without an external reducing agent, where the palladium ion concentration is measured over time using ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress