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Smooth Muscle Stiffness Sensitivity Is Driven By Soluble And Insoluble Ecm Chemistry, William G. Herrick, Shruti Rattan, Thuy V. Nguyen, Michael S. Grunwald, Christopher W. Barney, Alfred J. Crosby, Shelly Peyton 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Smooth Muscle Stiffness Sensitivity Is Driven By Soluble And Insoluble Ecm Chemistry, William G. Herrick, Shruti Rattan, Thuy V. Nguyen, Michael S. Grunwald, Christopher W. Barney, Alfred J. Crosby, Shelly Peyton

Shelly Peyton

Smooth muscle cell (SMC) invasion into plaques and subsequent proliferation is a major factor in the progression of atherosclerosis. During disease progression, SMCs experience major changes in their microenvironment, such as what integrin-binding sites are exposed, the portfolio of soluble factors available, and the elasticity and modulus of the surrounding vessel wall. We have developed a hydrogel biomaterial platform to examine the combined effect of these changes on SMC phenotype. We were particularly interested in how the chemical microenvironment affected the ability of SMCs to sense and respond to modulus. To our surprise, we observed that integrin binding and soluble ...


Peg-Phosphorylcholine Hydrogels As Tunable And Versatile Platforms For Mechanobiology, William G. Herrick, Thuy V. Nguyen, Marianne Sleiman, Samantha McRae, Todd Emrick, Shelly Peyton 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Peg-Phosphorylcholine Hydrogels As Tunable And Versatile Platforms For Mechanobiology, William G. Herrick, Thuy V. Nguyen, Marianne Sleiman, Samantha Mcrae, Todd Emrick, Shelly Peyton

Shelly Peyton

We report here the synthesis of a new class of hydrogels with an extremely wide range of mechanical properties suitable for cell studies. Mechanobiology has emerged as an important field in bioengineering, in part due to the development of synthetic polymer gels and fibrous protein biomaterials to control and quantify how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces in their microenvironment. To address the problem of limited availability of biomaterials, in terms of both mechanical range and optical clarity, we have prepared hydrogels that combine poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and phosphorylcholine (PC) zwitterions. Our goal was to create a hydrogel ...


The Predictive Link Between Matrix And Metastasis, Lauren E. Barney, Lauren Jansen, S. R. Polio, Sualyneth Galarza, Maureen E. Lynch, Shelly Peyton 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Predictive Link Between Matrix And Metastasis, Lauren E. Barney, Lauren Jansen, S. R. Polio, Sualyneth Galarza, Maureen E. Lynch, Shelly Peyton

Shelly Peyton

Cancer spread (metastasis) is responsible for 90% of cancer-related fatalities. Informing patient treatment to prevent metastasis, or kill all cancer cells in a patient's body before it becomes metastatic is extremely powerful. However, aggressive treatment for all non-metastatic patients is detrimental, both for quality of life concerns, and the risk of kidney or liver-related toxicity. Knowing when and where a patient has metastatic risk could revolutionize patient treatment and care. In this review, we attempt to summarize the key work of engineers and quantitative biologists in developing strategies and model systems to predict metastasis, with a particular focus on ...


Mechanics Of Intact Bone Marrow, Lauren Jansen, Nathan P. Birch, Jessica D. Schiffman, Alfred J. Crosby, Shelly Peyton 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanics Of Intact Bone Marrow, Lauren Jansen, Nathan P. Birch, Jessica D. Schiffman, Alfred J. Crosby, Shelly Peyton

Shelly Peyton

The current knowledge of bone marrow mechanics is limited to its viscous properties, neglecting the elastic contribution of the extracellular matrix. To get a more complete view of the mechanics of marrow, we characterized intact yellow porcine bone marrow using three different, but complementary techniques: rheology, indentation, and cavitation. Our analysis shows that bone marrow is elastic, and has a large amount of intra- and inter-sample heterogeneity, with an effective Young’s modulus ranging from 0.25-24.7 kPa at physiological temperature. Each testing method was consistent across matched tissue samples, and each provided unique benefits depending on user needs ...


A Student-Created, Open Access, Living Textbook, Sualyneth Galarza, Sarah L. Perry, Shelly Peyton 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Student-Created, Open Access, Living Textbook, Sualyneth Galarza, Sarah L. Perry, Shelly Peyton

Shelly Peyton

Textbooks are expensive, updated infrequently, and rarely used effectively by students. We discuss here a way for students to create the textbook for the course, helping them feel ownership over the course material. This Wiki-based, student-created textbook is online free for use, widely accessible by all, and editable during the course of and as topics evolve. This type of textbook format is particularly well suited to upper-level electives on topics that are rapidly emerging. We have nucleated a student created textbook here, fully online and open access, for two upper elective courses in chemical engineering. Wikis offer an easy-to-learn platform ...


Development Of Starch-Polyvinyl Alcohol (Pva) Biodegradable Film: Effect Of Cross-Linking Agent And Antimicrobials On Film Characteristics, Aniket Satish More, Chandani Sen, Madhusweta Das 2017 Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Development Of Starch-Polyvinyl Alcohol (Pva) Biodegradable Film: Effect Of Cross-Linking Agent And Antimicrobials On Film Characteristics, Aniket Satish More, Chandani Sen, Madhusweta Das

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

To satisfy the need of developing eco-friendly flexible antimicrobial packaging film with minimum use of synthetic chemical ingredients, the present study examined the efficacy of citric acid (CA) as cross-linking agent and essential oils (EOs), viz., cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and oregano essential oil (OEO) as natural antimicrobials in corn starch-polyvinyl alcohol (CS-PVA) film. Compared to film prepared from filmogenic solution (FS) containing 75 kg CS+8.75 kg PVA+24.6 kg glycerol per m3 FS, film additionally containing CA at 0.07 kg/kg CS indicated 95% higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 27% lower water vapor ...


Ion Trap Mass Analyzer Apparatus, Methods, And Systems Utilizing One Or More Multiple Potential Ion Guide (Mpig) Electrodes, Curtiss Hanson 2017 Selected Works

Ion Trap Mass Analyzer Apparatus, Methods, And Systems Utilizing One Or More Multiple Potential Ion Guide (Mpig) Electrodes, Curtiss Hanson

Curtiss D. Hanson

In one aspect of the invention, an ion trap mass analyzer includes a variable- or multi-potential type ion guide (MPIG) assembly which has been pre-configured to produce a parabolic-type potential field. Each MPIG electrode has a resistive coating of designed characteristics. In one example the coating varies in thickness long the length of an underlying uniform substrate. The MPIG assembly can be a single MPIG electrode or an array of a plurality of MPIG electrodes. An array can facilitate delocalization for improved performance. This chemical modification of a uniform underlying substrate promotes cheaper and flexible instruments. The modified MPIG electrodes ...


Combined Model Predictive Control And Scheduling With Dominant Time Constant Compensation, Logan Beal, Junho Park, Damon Petersen, Sean C. Warnick, John Hedengren 2017 Brigham Young University

Combined Model Predictive Control And Scheduling With Dominant Time Constant Compensation, Logan Beal, Junho Park, Damon Petersen, Sean C. Warnick, John Hedengren

All Faculty Publications

Linear model predictive control is extended to both control and optimize a product grade schedule. The proposed methods are time-scaling of the linear dynamics based on throughput rates and grade-based objectives for product scheduling based on a mathematical program with complementarity constraints. The linear model is adjusted with a residence time approximation to time-scale the dynamics based on throughput. Although nonlinear models directly account for changing dynamics, the model form is restricted to linear differential equations to enable fast online cycle times for large-scale and real-time systems. This method of extending a linear time-invariant model for scheduling is designed for ...


Efficiency Of Solar Cell Design And Materials, Grant VonderHaar 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Efficiency Of Solar Cell Design And Materials, Grant Vonderhaar

S&T’s Peer to Peer

Fossil fuels have dominated the energy world ever since their introduction in the Industrial Revolution, and the world has grown more dependent on them in the Postmodern Era. However, the limited amount of fossil fuels in the world poses a problem for future generations; solar energy is the solution to this potential future energy crisis. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of solar panel materials so that solar panels can be refined until they can replace fossil fuels entirely. In this study, I have researched designs for solar cells and determined the most efficient design ...


Advancement Of Oxygen Biosensor In Escherichia Coli, Caitlin Meiser 2017 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Advancement Of Oxygen Biosensor In Escherichia Coli, Caitlin Meiser

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Microbial biosensors can be used to provide information about the cells’ environment in large-scale fermentations. In this project an oxygen sensitive biosensor is being developed in Escherichia coli to determine what kind of conditions cells are growing in: aerobic or anaerobic. This project specifically studies expression from the fumarate and nitrate reductase (FNR) promoter (PFNR) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In fluorescence experiments, the expression levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to quantify the effectiveness of the PFNR in the DH5α, MG1655 and BL21 strains of E. coli. The negative control of the experiments, which are ...


Ab Initio Study Of Molecular Interactions In Cellulose Iα, Ajitha Devarajan, Sergiy Markutsya, Monica H. Lamm, Xiaolin Cheng, Jeremy C. Smith, John Ysrael Baluyut, Yana Kholod, Mark S. Gordon, Theresa Lynn Windus 2017 Iowa State University

Ab Initio Study Of Molecular Interactions In Cellulose Iα, Ajitha Devarajan, Sergiy Markutsya, Monica H. Lamm, Xiaolin Cheng, Jeremy C. Smith, John Ysrael Baluyut, Yana Kholod, Mark S. Gordon, Theresa Lynn Windus

Monica H. Lamm

Biomass recalcitrance, the resistance of cellulosic biomass to degradation, is due in part to the stability of the hydrogen bond network and stacking forces between the polysaccharide chains in cellulose microfibers. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method at the correlated Møller–Plesset second order perturbation level of theory was used on a model of the crystalline cellulose Iα core with a total of 144 glucose units. These computations show that the intersheet chain interactions are stronger than the intrasheet chain interactions for the crystalline structure, while they are more similar to each other for a relaxed structure. An FMO chain ...


An Adaptable Pentaloop Defines A Robust Neomycin-B Rna Aptamer With Conditional Ligand-Bound Structures, Muslum Ilgu, D. Bruce Fulton, Ragothaman M. Yennamalli, Monica H. Lamm, Taner Z. Sen, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton 2017 Iowa State University

An Adaptable Pentaloop Defines A Robust Neomycin-B Rna Aptamer With Conditional Ligand-Bound Structures, Muslum Ilgu, D. Bruce Fulton, Ragothaman M. Yennamalli, Monica H. Lamm, Taner Z. Sen, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Monica H. Lamm

Aptamers can be highly specific for their targets, which implies precise molecular recognition between aptamer and target. However, as small polymers, their structures are more subject to environmental conditions than the more constrained longer RNAs such as those that constitute the ribosome. To understand the balance between structural and environmental factors in establishing ligand specificity of aptamers, we examined the RNA aptamer (NEO1A) previously reported as specific for neomycin-B. We show that NEO1A can recognize other aminoglycosides with similar affinities as for neomycin-B and its aminoglycoside specificity is strongly influenced by ionic strength and buffer composition. NMR and 2-aminopurine (2AP ...


Computational And Experimental Analyses Converge To Reveal A Coherent Yet Malleable Aptamer Structure That Controls Chemical Reactivity, Tianjiao Wang, Julie A. Hoy, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton 2017 Iowa State University

Computational And Experimental Analyses Converge To Reveal A Coherent Yet Malleable Aptamer Structure That Controls Chemical Reactivity, Tianjiao Wang, Julie A. Hoy, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Monica H. Lamm

As short nucleic acids, aptamers in solution are believed to be structurally flexible. Consistent with this view, most aptamers examined for this property have been shown to bind their target molecules by mechanisms that can be described as “induced fit”. But, it is not known to what extent this structural flexibility affects the integrity of the target−aptamer interaction. Using the malachite green aptamer (MGA) as a model system, we show that the MGA can protect its bound target, malachite green (MG), from oxidation over several days. Protection is reversed by an oligonucleotide complementary to the MGA binding pocket. Computational ...


Diagenesis And Formation Stress In Fracture Conductivity Of Shaly Rocks; Experimental-Modelling Approach In Co2-Rock Interactions, Abiola Olukola Olabode 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Diagenesis And Formation Stress In Fracture Conductivity Of Shaly Rocks; Experimental-Modelling Approach In Co2-Rock Interactions, Abiola Olukola Olabode

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In large scale subsurface injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) as obtainable in carbon sequestration programs and in environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing processes (using supercritical CO2), long term rock-fluid interaction can affect reservoir and seal rocks properties which are essential in monitoring the progress of these operations. The mineralogical components of sedimentary rocks are geochemically active particularly under enormous earth stresses, which generate high pressure and temperature conditions in the subsurface. While geomechanical properties such as rock stiffness, Poisson’s ratio and fracture geometry largely govern fluid flow characteristics in deep fractured formations, the effect of mineralization can lead ...


Effects Of Lignin As A Stabilizer Or Antioxidant In Polyolefins, Afsana S. Kabir 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Lignin As A Stabilizer Or Antioxidant In Polyolefins, Afsana S. Kabir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignin, a major component of biomass, is an attractive alternative to hindered phenol-based antioxidants for polymers due to its renewable nature and naturally occurring hindered phenolic structure. In this study, for the first time, lignin de-polymerization was explored as a promising approach to improve the reactivity of the lignin-based antioxidants for polymers (polyethylene, PE and polypropylene, PP). A proprietary hydrolytic de-polymerization process was utilized to increase the antioxidant activity of two types of technical lignin: kraft lignin, KL (a by-product from the pulp and paper industry) and hydrolysis lignin, HL (a by-product from the pre-treatment processes in cellulosic ethanol plants ...


Treatment Of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Using Activated And Surface Modified Petroleum Coke For Organic Compounds Recovery, Hojatallah Seyedy Niasar 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Treatment Of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Using Activated And Surface Modified Petroleum Coke For Organic Compounds Recovery, Hojatallah Seyedy Niasar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Each day large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are being produced during the extraction of bitumen in oil sands industry in northern Alberta. OSPW contains different polyaromatic hydrocarbons which not only are the major source of toxicity in OSPW, but also create operational problems such as corrosion of the equipment during bitumen recovery process. Therefore, these compounds need to be removed prior to the recycle of the OSPW. In this research, petroleum coke (PC) as an abundant, inexpensive adsorbent was selected as an adsorbent for recovery of chemicals from OSPW. The surface area and adsorption capacity of PC ...


Experimental Study And Modeling Of Smart Loss Circulation Materials; Advantages And Promises, Ahmed Khaled Abdelmaksoud Mansour 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Experimental Study And Modeling Of Smart Loss Circulation Materials; Advantages And Promises, Ahmed Khaled Abdelmaksoud Mansour

LSU Master's Theses

Lost circulation occurs when mud or cement is lost to the formation while drilling. Lost circulation has been a huge problem and may cause heavy financial costs in the form of lost rig time, mud fluid and in severe cases, well blowout with serious environmental and safety consequences. Despite extensive advances in the last couple of decades, lost circulation materials used today still have disadvantages such as damaging production zones, plugging drilling tools or failing to seal the fractures. Here, we propose a new class of smart expandable lost circulation material (LCM) to remotely control the expanding force and functionality ...


Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals: Production And Application, Isabela Reiniati 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals: Production And Application, Isabela Reiniati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of culture conditions on the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Komagataeibacter xylinus (K. xylinus), to assess the feasibility of tailoring the surface properties of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNs) through the culture conditions, and to use the BCNs in an aqueous system for drug adsorption application. BC fibers production improved with increased agitation rates in a stirred tank bioreactor resulting in yields of 0.54 and 1.13 g of BC per litre at agitation rates of 500 rpm and 700 rpm, respectively. Separation and purification of bacterial cellulose were ...


Bubble Dynamics And Bed Expansion For Single-Component And Binary Gas-Solid Fluidization Systems, Bowen Han 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Bubble Dynamics And Bed Expansion For Single-Component And Binary Gas-Solid Fluidization Systems, Bowen Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gas-solid fluidized beds are widely used in industrial dry coal preparation to separate waste from coal (still a primarily important energy source worldwide). It is the density difference between coal and the waste that enables the separation. Experiments were carried out in a two dimensional gas-solid fluidized bed. Filtered air at room temperature was used as the fluidizing gas, while magnetite, sand (two types) and FCC catalyst particles belonging to Geldart groups A and B were used as bed particles. Image processing and Matlab were applied for bubble size and velocity measurements. Bubble properties and bed expansion in fluidized beds ...


Crystal Engineering Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients With Low Aqueous Solubility And Bioavailability, Jenna M. Skieneh 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Crystal Engineering Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients With Low Aqueous Solubility And Bioavailability, Jenna M. Skieneh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Approximately 75% of new molecular entities approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the pharmaceutical industry are found to have poor aqueous solubility. This undesirable attribute leads to consequences such as higher doses required to reach therapeutic levels, greater vulnerability to food effects, lesser fraction absorbed in the small intestine and damage to the environment due to increased quantity of excretion. The addition of an excipient (i.e. a FDA approved inactive ingredient) to the molecular structure of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) through intermolecular bonding is of growing interest because the properties of the API ...


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