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Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Lindsay E. Hatch, Wentai Luo, James F. Pankow, Robert J. Yokelson, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Kelley Barsanti 2015 Portland State University

Identification And Quantification Of Gaseous Organic Compounds Emitted From Biomass Burning Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Lindsay E. Hatch, Wentai Luo, James F. Pankow, Robert J. Yokelson, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Kelley Barsanti

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME- 4) and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography– time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–ToFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC–ToFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 708 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated ...


Pervaporation: A Novel Process For Ethanol Separation Using Fermentation, Innovative Research Publications IRP India, Sanjay H. Amaley, R. S. Sapkal, V. S. Sapkal 2015 Innovative Research Publications

Pervaporation: A Novel Process For Ethanol Separation Using Fermentation, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, Sanjay H. Amaley, R. S. Sapkal, V. S. Sapkal

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

Various separation processes were used in the chemical industry along with their corresponding separating agents. The separation processes play a critical role in various chemical process industries, including the removal of impurities from raw materials, purification of products, separation of recycle streams, and removal of contaminants from air and effluents. Hence it can be intensified by integrating of existing and new unit operations, it offers a huge increase in efficiency and controllability, thereby saving a lot of raw materials and energy, reducing waste production, increasing yield and quality and improving production safety. This review, deals on the development and implementation ...


Development And Study Of Measurement Methods For Jets And Bogging In A Fluidized Bed, Majid Hamidi 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Development And Study Of Measurement Methods For Jets And Bogging In A Fluidized Bed, Majid Hamidi

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the Fluid Coking process, if the local concentration of liquid is very high, particles may stick together which can eventually result in process upset because of poor fluidization or even defluidization, a condition commonly known in industry as "bogging".

Using a capacitance sensor, the void distribution in a bed of coke particles can be visualized. The voidage fluctuations caused by gas bubbles have been shown to change dramatically as the bed becomes bogged. Therefore, capacitance sensors should be able to predict the bogging condition in fluid cokers.

The first part of the thesis focused on designing noiseless capacitance sensors ...


Cluster Fluid Dynamics In Down Flow Reactors: Experimental And Modeling Study, Angel Virgilio Lanza Soto 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Cluster Fluid Dynamics In Down Flow Reactors: Experimental And Modeling Study, Angel Virgilio Lanza Soto

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gas–solid concurrent downers possess unique features when compared to other gas–solid systems. Establishing their fluid dynamic properties requires both experimental measurements of gas-solid flow properties and computational modeling.

Measuring gas-solid flow properties such as cluster solid concentrations, individual cluster slip velocities, and cluster sizes, involves the use of specialized optical equipment, as well as a rigorous data analysis methodology. In addition, the modeling of the fluid dynamics of gas-solid flows in downer units offers special challenges such as establishing a proper drag model, cluster configuration and sizes, sphericity, boundary conditions, among other issues.

In this PhD dissertation, the ...


Separation Of The Petroleum System, Ali Ibrahim Neamah 2015 Western Michigan University

Separation Of The Petroleum System, Ali Ibrahim Neamah

The Hilltop Review

This study discusses the overall process of crude oil separation as well as the necessary equipment used in the process. Also discussed and analyzed are potential issues seen in the crude oil extraction process. Reasons why these operation problems may occur are analyzed as well as treatment options for such occurring issues are discussed for employees and students alike. This research is based off of personal involvement at the Nasiriyah Degassing Station located in Dhi Qar, Iraq.


Effective Gravimetric Characterization For Lignocellulosic Biomass: Comparison Of Naoh-H2o2 And Ca(Oh)2-H2o2 Oxidation Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse, Innovative Research Publications IRP India, A.O. Ayeni, O. A. Adeeyo, A. Ayoola 2015 Innovative Research Publications

Effective Gravimetric Characterization For Lignocellulosic Biomass: Comparison Of Naoh-H2o2 And Ca(Oh)2-H2o2 Oxidation Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, A.O. Ayeni, O. A. Adeeyo, A. Ayoola

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

In this study, alkaline peroxide oxidation pretreatment was evaluated for sugarcane bagasse, a lignocellulosic biomass. By comparing the effects of NaOHH2O2 and Ca(OH)2 on pretreatments at specified reaction time periods (3, 6, 9, and 12 h) and reaction temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90 h), optimum responses in term of cellulose content, hemicellulose solubilization, and lignin removal were established. Optimum pretreatment conditions of 80 oC reaction temperature, 3 h reaction time, and 30 mL/L of water hydrogen peroxide concentration (1%H2O2) solubilized 69.5%(w/w) hemicellulose for the sodium hydroxide peroxide (SHP) pretreatments, 75.8%(w ...


Amine-Pillared Nanosheet Adsorbents For Co2 Capture Applications, Hui Jiang 2015 Northeastern University

Amine-Pillared Nanosheet Adsorbents For Co2 Capture Applications, Hui Jiang

Chemical Engineering Master's Theses

Amine-functionalized solid adsorbents have gained attention within the last decade for their application in carbon dioxide capture, due to their many advantages such as low energy cost for regeneration, tunable structure, elimination of corrosion problems, and additional advantages. However, one of the challenges facing this technology is to accomplish both high CO2 capture capacity along with high CO2 diffusion rates concurrently. Current amine-based solid sorbents such as porous materials similar to SBA-15 have large pores diffusion entering molecules; however, the pores become clogged upon amine inclusion.

To meet this challenge, our group's solution involves the creation of ...


Modeling Of Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Of Systems Relevant For Biodiesel Production Using Backtracking Search Optimization, A. Merzougui, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, A. Hasseine, D. Laiadi, N. Labed 2015 University of Biskra

Modeling Of Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Of Systems Relevant For Biodiesel Production Using Backtracking Search Optimization, A. Merzougui, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, A. Hasseine, D. Laiadi, N. Labed

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

In this paper, the liquid–liquid equilibrium of thirty ternary systems relevant for biodiesel production was modeled using the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations and the Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm (BSOA). Performance of this new optimization method for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) parameter estimation, with and without the application of the closure equations, has been analyzed and compared with those obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA) and harmony search algorithm (HAS). Results on the estimation of the interaction parameters of local composition models showed that BSOA with the closure equations can provide promising results in tested biofuel systems. The use of closure ...


Nonlinear Parameter Estimation Of E-Nrtl Model For Quaternary Ammonium Ionic Liquids Using Cuckoo Search, Jose Enrique Jaime-Leal, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Vaibhav Bhargava, Seif E.K. Fateen 2015 Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes

Nonlinear Parameter Estimation Of E-Nrtl Model For Quaternary Ammonium Ionic Liquids Using Cuckoo Search, Jose Enrique Jaime-Leal, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Vaibhav Bhargava, Seif E.K. Fateen

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

This study introduces the bio-inspired computation method namely Cuckoo Search (CS) as a parameter estimation method for modeling the mean activity coefficients of quaternary ammonium aqueous ionic liquids using the e-NRTL model. CS has not been used before to address this particular parameter estimation problem. Our calculations showed that the CS method was robust to perform the data modeling of this thermodynamic property of ionic liquids and that it can offer a global success rate of  90% for solving this challenging thermodynamic problem. CS offers a better performance than those obtained using other stochastic optimization methods such as simulated annealing ...


Analysis Of Synergistic And Antagonistic Adsorption Of Heavy Metals And Acid Blue 25 On Activated Carbon From Ternary Systems, Rigoberto Tovar-Gomez, Ma. del Rosario Moreno-Virgen, Jaime Moreno-Perez, Virginia Hernandez-Montoya, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Carlos Duran-Valle 2015 Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes

Analysis Of Synergistic And Antagonistic Adsorption Of Heavy Metals And Acid Blue 25 On Activated Carbon From Ternary Systems, Rigoberto Tovar-Gomez, Ma. Del Rosario Moreno-Virgen, Jaime Moreno-Perez, Virginia Hernandez-Montoya, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Carlos Duran-Valle

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

This article reports the antagonistic and synergistic adsorption involved in the multicomponent removal of acid blue 25 dye (AB25) and heavy metal ions (Zn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+) from ternary systems using an activated carbon modified with wastes of egg shell. Adsorption experiments were performed in ternary mixtures: Zn2+Ni2+ AB25, Ni2+Cd2+ AB25 and Zn2+Cd2+ AB25 where Taguchi experimental designs have been used to study the adsorbent performance and to identify the antagonistic and synergistic adsorption caused by the simultaneous presence of these water pollutants. Results indicated that these systems may show both competitive and synergistic adsorption. Dye AB25 enhanced ...


Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper 2015 Clemson University

Microanalysis Of Polymer Chain Diffusion In Heat Seals, Russell Cooper

All Theses

Heat sealing is an integral method for the closure and protection of packaging. Previous work has shown that seal strength is developed by the interdiffusion of polymer chains within heat seals. Heat seals were made between two dissimilar materials. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) was heat sealed to ionomer. Diffusion within the EAA-ionomer heat seals was estimated. The diffusion estimates were then related to resulting seal strength in the EAA-ionomer sealant system. Heated tooling sealing was utilized to make heat seals at 40 psi (275.79 kPa), 0.5 seconds, and a range of temperatures between 180˚F (82.22˚C ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Chemically Functionalized Shape Memory Nanofoams For Unattended Sensing Applications, Anna Paola Soliani 2015 Clemson University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Chemically Functionalized Shape Memory Nanofoams For Unattended Sensing Applications, Anna Paola Soliani

All Dissertations

The work in this dissertation is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of novel materials for off-line unattended sensing: shape-memory grafted nanofoams. The fabrication process and characterization of highly efficient, polymeric nanosensor element with the ability to selectively detect analytes and retain memory of specific exposure events is reported. These shape memory nanofoams could potentially act as efficient and highly sensitive coatings for evanescent waveguide-based optical monitoring systems. On exposure to specific analytes, the polymeric coatings locally change their internal structure irreversibly at the nanolevel, affecting the local optical properties such as refractive index. Currently, enrichment polymer layers (EPLs) are ...


Thermally Responsive Polymer Electrolytes For Inherently Safe Electrochemical Energy Storage, Jesse Kelly 2015 Clemson University

Thermally Responsive Polymer Electrolytes For Inherently Safe Electrochemical Energy Storage, Jesse Kelly

All Dissertations

Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in ...


Performance Evaluation Of Natural Iron-Rich Sandy Soil As A Low-Cost Adsorbent For Removal Of Lead From Water, Yee Sern Ng, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Mohd Ali Hashim 2015 University of Malaya

Performance Evaluation Of Natural Iron-Rich Sandy Soil As A Low-Cost Adsorbent For Removal Of Lead From Water, Yee Sern Ng, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Mohd Ali Hashim

Ng Yee-Sern

Technical feasibility of natural iron-rich sandy soil as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of lead from water was investigated . The soil, which had an iron content of 3,719 mg/kg, was collected from Hulu Langat, Malaysia, and was used for adsorption studies without any surface modification through chemical treatment. The effects of pH, solution: soil ratio and initial lead concentration on the adsorption efficiency were studied using response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken experimental design. The results showed that pH of the solution had the highest impact on the adsorption efficiency whereby adsorption efficiency of 97% could be ...


Neural Newtork Modeling Of Heavy Metal Sorption On Lignocellulosic Biomasses: Effect Of Metallic Ion Properties And Sorbent Characteristics, Didilia I. Mendoza-Castillo, Nellie Villalobos-Ortega, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Juan Carlos Tapia-Picazo 2015 Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes

Neural Newtork Modeling Of Heavy Metal Sorption On Lignocellulosic Biomasses: Effect Of Metallic Ion Properties And Sorbent Characteristics, Didilia I. Mendoza-Castillo, Nellie Villalobos-Ortega, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet, Juan Carlos Tapia-Picazo

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

This study reports the application of a neural network approach for modeling and analyzing the sorption performance of different lignocellulosic wastes, namely jacaranda fruit, plum kernels and nutshell, for the removal of heavy metal ions (Pb2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) from aqueous solutions. This ANNs model was used to determine the relevance and importance of both sorbent and pollutant characteristics on the metal sorption kinetics and isotherms. Results of this study highlighted the role of acidic functional groups, lignin composition of tested biomasses, and the pollutant molecular weight in the sorption of heavy metals. The nutshell biomass showed the best ...


Process Alternatives For Biobutanol Purification: Design And Optimization, Eduardo Sánchez-Ramírez, Juan José Quiroz-Ramírez, Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández, Salvador Hérnandez, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet 2015 Universidad de Guanajuato

Process Alternatives For Biobutanol Purification: Design And Optimization, Eduardo Sánchez-Ramírez, Juan José Quiroz-Ramírez, Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández, Salvador Hérnandez, Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet

Biobutanol is primarily used as a solvent or component in surface coatings. It has characteristics similar to petroleum fuel and is considered as a superior biofuel to ethanol. Biobutanol is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than ethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. Development of technologies for biobutanol production by fermentation has resulted in higher final biobutanol concentrations, less fermentation by-products and higher volumetric productivities during fermentation, together with less energy intensive separation and purification techniques. These new technological developments have the potential to provide a production process for biobutanol that is economically viable in comparison to ...


Simultaneous Optimization And Heat Integration Framework Based On Rigorous Process Simulations, Yang Chen, John C. Eslick, Ignacio E. Grossmann, David C. Miller 2015 Carnegie Mellon University

Simultaneous Optimization And Heat Integration Framework Based On Rigorous Process Simulations, Yang Chen, John C. Eslick, Ignacio E. Grossmann, David C. Miller

Department of Chemical Engineering

This paper introduces a novel simultaneous optimization and heat integration approach, which can be used directly with the rigorous models in process simulators. In this approach, the overall process is optimized utilizing external derivative-free optimizers, which interact directly with the process simulation. The heat integration subproblem is formulated as an LP model and solved simultaneously during optimization of the flowsheet to update the minimum utility and heat exchanger area targets. A piecewise linear approximation for the composite curve is applied to obtain more accurate heat integration results. This paper describes the application of this simultaneous approach for three cases: a ...


Inżynieria Chemiczna Lab., Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2015 Wroclaw University of Technology

Inżynieria Chemiczna Lab., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Applicability Of Fluidized Bed Reactor In Recalcitrant Compound Degradation Through Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman 2014 University of Malaya

Applicability Of Fluidized Bed Reactor In Recalcitrant Compound Degradation Through Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for ...


Treatment Of Synthetic Oil Sands Tailing Water With Activated Carbon, Alfredo Martinez Iglesias 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Treatment Of Synthetic Oil Sands Tailing Water With Activated Carbon, Alfredo Martinez Iglesias

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The extraction of bitumen from the Canadian tar sands has thus far generated approximately 840 billion liters of oil sands process affected water (OSPW) that is currently being stored in containment ponds. OSPW is known to be acutely toxic to various organisms, due to the presence of naphthenic acids (NAs). The scale and sheer volume of OSPW being stored in tailing ponds have generated serious public concerns. Many emerging technologies have been investigated as treatment options for OSPW reclamation. This work studied the feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) to adsorb several naphthenic acids in a model solution of ...


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