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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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Physical Activity And Sarcopenic Obesity: Definition, Assessment, Prevalence And Mechanism, Duck-Chul Lee, Robin P. Shook, Clemens Drenowatz, Steven N. Blair 2016 Iowa State University

Physical Activity And Sarcopenic Obesity: Definition, Assessment, Prevalence And Mechanism, Duck-Chul Lee, Robin P. Shook, Clemens Drenowatz, Steven N. Blair

Kinesiology Publications

Sarcopenic obesity is the coexistance of sarcopenia and obesity. Modern sarcopenia definition includes low muscle mass, weak muscle strength (handgrip strength) and poor physical function (slow walking), although the clinical definition of each varies worldwide. The cut-points for low muscle mass for men and women using appendicular lean mass divided by height (kg/m2) are ≤7.0 and ≤5.4 in Asians, and ≤7.23 and ≤5.67 in Caucasians, respectively. The cut-points for weak handgrip strength (kg) for men and women areAsians, andCaucasians, respectively. The cut-point for slow walking is ≤0.8 m/s in men and women. Current ...


Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen

Emmanuel O. Agu

Running is a popular physical activity that improves physical and mental wellbeing. Unfortunately, up-to- date information about runners’ performance and psychological wellbeing is limited. Many questions remain unanswered, such as how far and how fast runners typically run, their preferred running times and frequencies, how long new runners persist before dropping out, and what factors cause runners to quit. Without hard data, establishing patterns of runner behavior and mitigating the challenges they face are difficult. Collecting data manually from large numbers of runners for research studies is costly and time consuming. Emerging Social Networking Services (SNS) and fitness tracking devices ...


A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu

Emmanuel O. Agu

A sedentary lifestyle involves irregular or no physical activity. In this kind of lifestyle, people’s activities do not increase their energy expenditure substantially above resting levels. Long periods of sitting, lying, watching television, playing video games, and using the computer are typical examples. Energy expenditures at 1.0-1.5 Metabolic Equivalent Units (METs) are considered sedentary behaviors. A recent study of sedentary lifestyles found that the length of sedentary times is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In this study, we developed a smartphone application called “On11”, which continuously tracks and ...


Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen

Masters Theses

Effects of varus knee alignment on the internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in walking has been widely studied. KAM has been shown to be closely associated with the development of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the importance of the knee alignment, no studies have explored its effects on knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varus knee alignment and using a toe-cage on the knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. Eleven participants in each of the varus and neutral groups participated in the study. The participants performed in ...


Antibiotic-Like Actions Of Vitamin D, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD, Josh Hendrix, Adam Short, Sammy Hodroge 2015 Marshall University

Antibiotic-Like Actions Of Vitamin D, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd, Josh Hendrix, Adam Short, Sammy Hodroge

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that has expanding importance for a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. A multitude of studies have highlighted that vitamin D acts not only in bone and calcium homeostasis but is critically important for human immunity. The discovery that the storage form of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) can be locally converted to the active form (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3) in immune cells, epithelial cells and numerous other non-renal tissues highlights the importance of maintaining sufficient stores. When responding to a specific external stimulus, like bacterial invasion, intracrine synthesis of active vitamin D has the ability to ...


The Relationship Of Spasticity And Impairments In Force Regulation And Neuromuscular Fatigue Post Stroke, Reivian Berrios Barillas 2015 Marquette University

The Relationship Of Spasticity And Impairments In Force Regulation And Neuromuscular Fatigue Post Stroke, Reivian Berrios Barillas

Dissertations (1934 -)

Hyperreflexia that causes muscle spasticity may contribute to limitations in force regulation and walking ability post stroke. Additionally, neuromuscular fatigue may reduce force regulation, which is important because fatigue can assist to strengthen muscles that control walking. Hyperreflexia may be caused by cortical disinhibition that allows Ia afferents to amplify excitatory synaptic inputs to motoneuron pools. Cortical disinhibition is presumably caused by stroke-related motor cortex damage. Although, other excitatory synaptic sources to motoneurons contribute to motor control, hyperreflexia may be one contributor that affects stroke survivors. However, hyperreflexia is reported infrequently to effect force regulation post stroke. The goal was ...


An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton 2015 Liberty University

An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton

The Kabod

Typically affecting males ranging from 20 to 24 years of age, Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder that is characterized by an acute loss of central vision. Although a heritable disease, LHON does not follow the patterns of classical Mendelian genetics. In fact, one of the most striking characteristics of LHON is that the disease is virtually always inherited maternally. Unlike most genetic disorders that result from a mutation in genomic DNA, LHON is caused by a mutation in the genetic information of mitochondria (mtDNA). Currently there is no treatment for LHON. Despite this, pharmaceutical interventions and ...


A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce 2015 The University of Western Ontario

A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis affects 13-20% of Canadians with the majority being under 65years of age. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is of great concern in young athletes following knee injury. Current research attempts at modeling the disease fall short. This study aimed to incorporate two important aspects of injury, the nature of the injury and the post-injury standard of care in humans, to a model of PTOA in mice. The study validated a non-invasive protocol to elicit an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at varying loading speeds addressing the closed capsule nature of an ACL injury that occurs in humans. Secondly, we proposed a ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve 2015 Purdue University

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


Effects Of Pelvis Impact Angle And Hip Muscle Forces On Hip Fracture Risk During A Fall Using An Advanced Hip Impact Simulator, Woochol J. Choi, Stephen N. Robinovitch 2015 Chapman University

Effects Of Pelvis Impact Angle And Hip Muscle Forces On Hip Fracture Risk During A Fall Using An Advanced Hip Impact Simulator, Woochol J. Choi, Stephen N. Robinovitch

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

"Over 90% of hip fractures in older adults are caused by falls [1]. Whether a given fall will cause hip fracture depends on bone strength, and on the impact force and stress applied to the bone during impact [2]. Improved understanding is required on how peak bone stresses during a fall depend on the mechanics of a fall, and on the state of contraction at the moment of impact of the muscles spanning the hip. Recently, Choi et al showed that, for lateral impact to the hip, peak stresses decrease with increases in hip abductor muscle force [3]. In the ...


Influence Of Pelvis Impact Angle During A Fall: On The Protective Benefit Of Hip Protectors, Woochol J. Choi, Stephen N. Robinovitch 2015 Chapman University

Influence Of Pelvis Impact Angle During A Fall: On The Protective Benefit Of Hip Protectors, Woochol J. Choi, Stephen N. Robinovitch

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

"Over 90% of hip fractures are due to falls [1]. Laboratory measures have shown that wearable hip protectors reduce impact forces to the proximal femur during a simulated sideways fall on the hip [2, 3]. However, clinical evidence suggests that hip fractures still occur when hip protectors are worn [4]. Furthermore, while falls in real life result in a variety of impact configurations, biomechanical tests to date have focused only on lateral impact to the pelvis. In the current study, we examined how the force reduction provided by wearable hip protectors is affected by pelvis impact configuration during simulated sideways ...


The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In The Tendon-Bone Insertion, Ryan M. Marinovich 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In The Tendon-Bone Insertion, Ryan M. Marinovich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tendons and ligaments insert into bone through a transitional tissue termed the enthesis which is susceptible to injury and difficult to repair. Entheses contain a region of calcified fibrocartilage (CFC), however mineral-associated proteins in this tissue remain poorly characterized. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a phosphoprotein associated with mineralizing tissues. In these studies BSP was identified in the CFC of entheses by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the entheses of Bsp-/- mice indicate abnormalities in the CFC. Compared to controls, the CFC of the quadriceps tendon enthesis is 28% and 41 % longer in 15 week and 14 month old Bsp-/- mice, respectively. MicroCT ...


The Ctcf Chromatin Organizer Is Required For Hindlimb Development, Katherine L. Rabicki 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Ctcf Chromatin Organizer Is Required For Hindlimb Development, Katherine L. Rabicki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mutations in chromatin organizer CTCF were identified in patients with intellectual disability and skeletal defects. Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of CTCF in murine limb mesenchyme results in apoptosis in the forelimb. The role of CTCF in the hindlimb, however, is unknown. My objective was to investigate effects of CTCF deletion on chondrogenesis and skeletal development in the hindlimb. In vitro wild-type micromass cultures demonstrate that chondrocyte gene expression is delayed in the hindlimb when compared to forelimbs. Embryonic CtcfFl/Fl;Prx1Cre mice were investigated, and qRT-PCR and histology were performed on limb buds and long bones. Results show ...


Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough 2015 Marshall University

Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough

Paulette S. Wehner

Despite advances in treatment, age-related cardiac dysfunction still remains a leading cause of cardiovascular death. Recent data have suggested that increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis may be involved in the pathological remodeling of heart. Here, we examine the effects of aging on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in 6-, 30-, and 36-month-old Fischer344xBrown Norway F1 hybrid rats (F344XBN). Compared with 6-month hearts, aged hearts exhibited increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling–positive nuclei, caspase-3 activation, caspase-dependent cleavage of α-fodrin and diminished phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Thr 308). These age-dependent increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were associated with alterations in the composition of the ...


Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough 2015 Marshall University

Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough

Kevin M Rice

Despite advances in treatment, age-related cardiac dysfunction still remains a leading cause of cardiovascular death. Recent data have suggested that increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis may be involved in the pathological remodeling of heart. Here, we examine the effects of aging on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in 6-, 30-, and 36-month-old Fischer344xBrown Norway F1 hybrid rats (F344XBN). Compared with 6-month hearts, aged hearts exhibited increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling–positive nuclei, caspase-3 activation, caspase-dependent cleavage of α-fodrin and diminished phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Thr 308). These age-dependent increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were associated with alterations in the composition of the ...


Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough 2015 Marshall University

Possible Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Age-Related Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In The F344xbn Rat Heart, Sunil Kakarla, Kevin Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Satyanarayana Paturi, Miaozong Wu, Madhukar Kolli, Saba Keshavarzian, Kamran Manzoor, Paulette Wehner, Eric Blough

Eric Blough

Despite advances in treatment, age-related cardiac dysfunction still remains a leading cause of cardiovascular death. Recent data have suggested that increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis may be involved in the pathological remodeling of heart. Here, we examine the effects of aging on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in 6-, 30-, and 36-month-old Fischer344xBrown Norway F1 hybrid rats (F344XBN). Compared with 6-month hearts, aged hearts exhibited increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling–positive nuclei, caspase-3 activation, caspase-dependent cleavage of α-fodrin and diminished phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt (Thr 308). These age-dependent increases in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were associated with alterations in the composition of the ...


No Enhancement Of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention By Post-Practice Caffeine Administration, Sara Hussain, Kelly J Cole 2015 University of Iowa

No Enhancement Of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention By Post-Practice Caffeine Administration, Sara Hussain, Kelly J Cole

Department of Health and Human Physiology Publications

Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects ...


Postnatal Regulation Of Bone Growth By Muscle Igf-1, HyeYoon Helen Choi 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Postnatal Regulation Of Bone Growth By Muscle Igf-1, Hyeyoon Helen Choi

Dental Theses

Interplay between muscle and bone is known to play an important role in growth modifications. Muscle loading from muscle hypertrophy promotes adjacent bone growth via Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Yet, in the absence of muscle hypertrophy, bone growth is not completely aborted indicating potential direct muscle paracrine role of muscle IGF-1 on bone. Maximizing growth potential and enhancing bone growth in mature bone in craniofacial skeleton is a significant benefit in orthodontic treatment. In this study, potential anabolic effect of muscle IGF-1 on post-natal mandibular growth is investigated. Methods: Four wild-type (WT) mice each at age of 6 weeks and ...


Nutrient Excess And Ampk Downregulation In Incubated Skeletal Muscle And Muscle Of Glucose Infused Rats, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Thomas W. Balon, Rudy J. Valentine, Robert Petrocelli, Vera Schultz, Amana Brandon, Gregory J. Cooney, Edward W. Kraegen, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha 2015 Boston University

Nutrient Excess And Ampk Downregulation In Incubated Skeletal Muscle And Muscle Of Glucose Infused Rats, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Thomas W. Balon, Rudy J. Valentine, Robert Petrocelli, Vera Schultz, Amana Brandon, Gregory J. Cooney, Edward W. Kraegen, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha

Kinesiology Publications

We have previously shown that incubation for 1h with excess glucose or leucine causes insulin resistance in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To examine the events that precede and follow these changes, studies were performed in rat EDL incubated with elevated levels of glucose or leucine for 30min-2h. Incubation in high glucose (25mM) or leucine (100μM) significantly diminished AMPK activity by 50% within 30min, with further decreases occurring at 1 and 2h. The initial decrease in activity at 30min coincided with a significant increase in muscle glycogen. The subsequent decreases at 1h were ...


Diabetic Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Dysfunction, Meghan A. Piccinin 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Diabetic Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Dysfunction, Meghan A. Piccinin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ii Abstract Abstract Defects in the proliferation, differentiation, and activity of bone marrow (BM)-derived vasculogenic/vascular stem cells (VSCs) have been observed in diabetes and contribute to the development of vascular complications. Diabetes leads to enhanced bone marrow adipogenesis, altering the composition of the BM stem cell (SC) niche and potentially disrupting the normal functioning of resident VSCs. Here, I establish that adipocytes have a negative influence on SC survival in culture. I also show that adipocytes and osteoblasts are responsible for the creation of distinct extracellular microenvironments, with unique expression patterns of several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors with ...


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