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Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells ...


Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell‐derived membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular space. EVs encapsulate key proteins and mediate intercellular signalling pathways. Recently, primary cilia have been shown to release EVs under fluid‐shear flow, but many proteins encapsulated in these vesicles have never been identified. Primary cilia are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles that protrude from the apical surface of almost all human cells. Primary cilia also serve as compartments for signalling pathways, and their defects have been associated with a wide range of human genetic diseases called ciliopathies. To better understand the mechanism of ciliopathies, it is imperative ...


Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Over the past years, bone and adipose tissue have gained interest from researchers in the light of their secretory profiles, being able to produce active molecules, with the final effect of regulating energy homeostasis. Both adipocytes and osteoblasts originate in the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell and this common origin has been proposed as the core of the fat-bone relationship. The central nervous system might be the third player in this association, capable of integrating signals. Numerous adipose tissue secreted factors that influence energy homeostasis and bone have been described: leptin, adiponectin, lipocalin 2, and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6 ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canonical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences containing these potential GQ sequences suggested the existence of ...


Wjmsc-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicle Enhance T Cell Suppression Through Pd-L1, Meizhang Li, Rupal Soder, Sunil Abhyankar, Haitham Abdelhakim, Mitchell W. Braun, Camille V. Trinidad, Harsh B. Pathak, Ziyan Pessetto, Clayton Deighan, Siddhartha Ganguly, Buddhadeb Dawn, Joseph McGuirk, Neil Dunavin, Andrew K. Godwin 2021 University of Kansas Medical Center

Wjmsc-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicle Enhance T Cell Suppression Through Pd-L1, Meizhang Li, Rupal Soder, Sunil Abhyankar, Haitham Abdelhakim, Mitchell W. Braun, Camille V. Trinidad, Harsh B. Pathak, Ziyan Pessetto, Clayton Deighan, Siddhartha Ganguly, Buddhadeb Dawn, Joseph Mcguirk, Neil Dunavin, Andrew K. Godwin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles published by Wiley Periodicals, LLC on behalf of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles Both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their corresponding small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, commonly referred to as exosomes) share similar immunomodulatory properties that are potentially beneficial for the treatment of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD). We report that clinical grade Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs (WJMSCs) secrete sEVs enriched in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), an essential ligand for an inhibitory immune checkpoint. A rapid increase in circulating sEV-associated PD-L1 was observed in patients with aGvHD and was directly associated with ...


The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley McAlister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera 2021 Colorado State University, Fort Collins

The 20th Anniversary Meeting Of The Rocky Mountain Virology Association, Joel Rovnak, Laura A. St Clair, Carley Mcalister, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Jessica Smolenske, Randall J. Cohrs, Rushika Perera

Virology Papers

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and multiple devastating forest fires, the 2020 meeting of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association was held virtually. The three-day gathering featured talks describing recent advances in virology and prion research. The keynote presentation described the measles virus paradox of immune suppression and life-long immunity. Special invited speakers presented information concerning visualizing antiviral effector cell biology in mucosal tissues, uncovering the T-cell tropism of Epstein-Barr virus type 2, a history and current survey of coronavirus spike proteins, a summary of Zika virus vaccination and immunity, the innate immune response to flavivirus infections, a discussion concerning prion ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 Nebraska Center for Virology

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Strategies Targeting Hemagglutinin As A Universal Influenza Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Influenza virus has significant viral diversity, both through antigenic drift and shift, which makes development of a vaccine challenging. Current influenza vaccines are updated yearly to in- clude strains predicted to circulate in the upcoming influenza season, however this can lead to a mismatch which reduces vaccine efficacy. Several strategies targeting the most abundant and im- munogenic surface protein of influenza, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, have been explored. These strategies include stalk-directed, consensus-based, and computationally derived HA immunogens. In this review, we explore vaccine strategies which utilize novel antigen design of the HA protein to improve cross-reactive immunity for development ...


Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Zika Virus Infection Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakask K. Sahoo, Madison Kraus, Taylor Bruett, Arun S. Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection to a pregnant woman can be vertically transmitted to the fetus via the placenta leading to Congenital Zika syndrome. This is characterized by microcephaly, retinal defects, and intrauterine growth retardation. ZIKV induces placental trophoblast apoptosis leading to severe abnormalities in the growth and development of the fetus. However, the molecular mechanism behind ZIKV-induced apoptosis in placental trophoblasts remains unclear. We hypothesize that ZIKV infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the trophoblasts, and sustained ER stress results in apoptosis. HTR-8 (HTR-8/SVneo), a human normal immortalized trophoblast cell and human choriocarcinoma-derived cell lines (JEG-3 and JAR ...


Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114r Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved In The Synthesis Of Atypical N-Glycans, Eric Noel, Anna Notaro, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Cristina De Castro, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. All known chloroviruses and antigenic variants (or mutants) share a unique conserved central glycan core consisting of five sugars, except for antigenic mutant virus P1L6, which has four of the five sugars. A combination of ge- netic and structural analyses indicates that the protein coded by PBCV-1 gene a111/114r, conserved in all chloroviruses, is a glycosyltransferase with three putative domains of approximately 300 amino acids each. Here, in addition to in silico ...


Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime

Graduate Research Posters

Rationale: Exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation, such as during radiotherapy, can result in pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which has few treatment options. PF is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that form scar tissue, resulting in dyspnea, disruption of gas exchange, and even death. We and others have shown that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF lung tissue, and lung fibroblasts treated with TGF-β, exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis with increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and excess production of lactate, leading to reduced extracellular pH that activates latent TGF-β. Here, we ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln & Nebraska Center for Virology

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars- Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


A Biochemical Characterization Of The Fusion Proteins From Enveloped Rna Viruses, Chelsea T. Barrett 2021 University of Kentucky

A Biochemical Characterization Of The Fusion Proteins From Enveloped Rna Viruses, Chelsea T. Barrett

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Enveloped viruses must bind target cells and then fuse the viral membrane with a cell membrane to enter a host cell. These viruses use one or more surface glycoproteins to carry out these critical functions. The surface glycoprotein that carries out the fusion function, termed a fusion protein, is divided into three classes based on structural similarities. Some of the most studied human viral pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus, influenza, measles, and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), possess class I fusion proteins. Following synthesis, class I fusion proteins associate as non-covalently ...


Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Pathway Due To Preeclampsia: A Review, Firdous Ali 2021 The University of Akron

Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Pathway Due To Preeclampsia: A Review, Firdous Ali

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication that is characterized mainly by hypertension in the mother. The exact pathogenesis of preeclampsia is unknown, although the disease is attributed to a number of factors such as angiogenic factor levels and endothelial dysfunction. Presently, the control program for the disease involves the delivery of the fetus and the placenta. There is a need to develop novel therapies that would control preeclampsia from the moment it is diagnosed to minimize the effects on the mother and child. VEGF is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of the condition. The defect in one of its receptors ...


A Conceptual Proposal For The Epigenetically Causal Relationship Between Parental Ptsd And Inflammatory Disease In Post Hoc Offspring., Emma Griffith 2021 The University of Akron

A Conceptual Proposal For The Epigenetically Causal Relationship Between Parental Ptsd And Inflammatory Disease In Post Hoc Offspring., Emma Griffith

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Could a combat veteran's horrific experiences in early-2000s Afghanistan have a direct, biological impact his now-adult daughter's risk of a heart attack later in her life? This concept would have been unapologetically mocked a mere twenty years ago, and it has only been in the past decade that the new field of epigenetics has revealed a distinct possibility for this event to actually take place—for parents' experiences to profoundly influence the biology of their children. The major objective of this research project is to argue for the legitimacy of this theoretical phenomenon by discussing the latest data ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Immune Phenotype Of Patients With Stage Iv Metastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer., Sandra V Fernandez, Alexander W MacFarlane, Mowafaq Jillab, Maria F Arisi, Jennifer Yearley, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Yulan Gong, Kathy Q Cai, R Katherine Alpaugh, Massimo Cristofanilli, Kerry S Campbell 2020 Fox Chase Cancer Center

Immune Phenotype Of Patients With Stage Iv Metastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer., Sandra V Fernandez, Alexander W Macfarlane, Mowafaq Jillab, Maria F Arisi, Jennifer Yearley, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Yulan Gong, Kathy Q Cai, R Katherine Alpaugh, Massimo Cristofanilli, Kerry S Campbell

Student Papers & Posters

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare but aggressive carcinoma characterized by severe erythema and edema of the breast, with many patients presenting in advanced metastatic disease. The "inflammatory" nature is not due to classic immune-mediated inflammation, but instead results from tumor-mediated blockage of dermal lymphatic ducts. Previous work has shown that expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells can suppress T cell activation in triple-negative (TN) non-IBC breast cancer. In the present work, we investigated immune parameters in peripheral blood of metastatic IBC patients to determine whether cellular components of the immune system are altered, thereby contributing to pathogenesis ...


The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera 2020 Dominican University of California

The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera

Nursing | Senior Theses

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is indicated by red, patchy and scaly skin that can be painful when irritated. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk for a number of chronic diseases. Despite the expansion of treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis over the last decade, patients may still find that treatment strategies are not as successful, leaving them dissatisfied with their treatments. A relationship built upon trust between the nurse and the patient diagnosed with psoriasis may serve to help ensure optimal care. A comprehensive literature review was performed and found that best practices for patient management need to ...


Proteomic Analysis Of Platelet-Rich And Platelet-Poor Plasma, Olga Miroshnychenko, Robert J. Chalkley, Ryan D. Leib, Peter A. Everts, Jason L. Dragoo 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Proteomic Analysis Of Platelet-Rich And Platelet-Poor Plasma, Olga Miroshnychenko, Robert J. Chalkley, Ryan D. Leib, Peter A. Everts, Jason L. Dragoo

Publications and Research

Background

Autologous blood products, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are commercial products broadly used to accelerate healing of tissues after injuries. However, their content is not standardized and significantly varies in composition, which may lead to differences in clinical efficacy. Also, the underlying molecular mechanisms for therapeutic effects are not well understood.

Purpose

A proteomic study was performed to compare the composition of low leukocyte PRP, platelet poor plasma (PPP), and blood plasma. Pathway analysis of the proteomic data was performed to evaluate differences between plasma formulations at the molecular level. Low abundance regulatory proteins in plasma were identified and ...


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