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Leveraging Single Cell Technologies For The Characterization And Treatment Of Refractory Pancreatic Cancer, Maria Monberg 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Leveraging Single Cell Technologies For The Characterization And Treatment Of Refractory Pancreatic Cancer, Maria Monberg

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer, and the advent of multimodal single-cell technologies has helped uncover heterogeneity in a high-throughput manner in different cancers across varied contexts at an unprecedented resolution. In an effort to improve precision medicine approaches in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a highly lethal malignancy with a mere 11% 5-year survival rate, this dissertation focuses on first questioning the assumptions of the most basic models used to study PDAC via multimodal single-cell characterization methods at multiple levels of biological organization (scCNVseq and snATACseq for DNA assays, scRNAseq for transcriptomics, and paired protein assays such as multiplexed immunofluorescence ...


Biophysical Insight Into The Sars-Cov2 Spike–Ace2 Interaction And Its Modulation By Hepcidin Through A Multifaceted Computational Approach, Hamid Hadi-Alijanvand, Luisa Di Paola, Guang Hu, David M. Leitner, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Peixin Sun, Humanath Poudel, Alessandro Giuliani 2022 Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Iran

Biophysical Insight Into The Sars-Cov2 Spike–Ace2 Interaction And Its Modulation By Hepcidin Through A Multifaceted Computational Approach, Hamid Hadi-Alijanvand, Luisa Di Paola, Guang Hu, David M. Leitner, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Peixin Sun, Humanath Poudel, Alessandro Giuliani

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

At the center of the SARS-CoV2 infection, the spike protein and its interaction with the human receptor ACE2 play a central role in the molecular machinery of SARS-CoV2 infection of human cells. Vaccine therapies are a valuable barrier to the worst effects of the virus and to its diffusion, but the need of purposed drugs is emerging as a core target of the fight against COVID19. In this respect, the repurposing of drugs has already led to discovery of drugs thought to reduce the effects of the cytokine storm, but still a drug targeting the spike protein, in the infection ...


A Case Report On Causes Of Covid-19 Induced Psychosis And Treatments, Jennifer Pires, Steven Sarner 2022 Rowan University

A Case Report On Causes Of Covid-19 Induced Psychosis And Treatments, Jennifer Pires, Steven Sarner

Stratford Campus Research Day

COVID-19 is a viral infection that is caused by an RNA virus in a subfamily of Coronaviridae named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV 2). The family also includes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) which have previously been shown to cause respiratory symptoms and psychosis with immunoreactivity to IgG.


Injection Options For Non-Surgical Knee Pain Patients: A Quality Improvement Project, alicia emery 2022 East Tennessee State University

Injection Options For Non-Surgical Knee Pain Patients: A Quality Improvement Project, Alicia Emery

Epsilon Sigma at-Large Research Conference

Purpose: In an Orthopedic office in Northeast Tennessee clinical decision making about injection options for non-surgical candidates with knee osteoarthritis is unclear.

Aims: This quality improvement project will develop a clinical guideline so that providers know criteria for choosing optimal knee alternative treatments for non-surgical knee patients.

Outcome measures: An expert panel gave feedback and advice on the information presented for the injection types of Platelet Rich Plasma, Corticosteroids, Amniotic Allograft and Hyaluronic Acid. They edited the guideline then sent the edits back to be complied and edited using the Delphi method.

Process and Methods: The expert feedback was then ...


Jnk And Nf-Κb Cell Signaling Pathways In Cardiovascular Disease Present Potential Targets For Curcumin Therapy, Mary Richfield 2022 Liberty University

Jnk And Nf-Κb Cell Signaling Pathways In Cardiovascular Disease Present Potential Targets For Curcumin Therapy, Mary Richfield

Senior Honors Theses

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a compound derived from the rhizomes of Curcumin longa that has been long used for medicinal purposes. Curcumin alleviates the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of curcumin therapy is under active research. The NF-κB and JNK pathways are two that curcumin interacts with to block inflammatory processes, apoptosis, and fibrotic tissue remodeling to prevent the pathologies of cardiovascular disease. While curcumin has demonstrated powerful mediation of cardiovascular disease, its bioavailability in body tissues is limited due to the instability and hydrophobicity of its structure. Further work is underway to stabilize curcumin ...


The Effect Of Creatine On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Peyton Kimmel, Caitlyn Henry, Angela Asirvatham 2022 Misericordia University

The Effect Of Creatine On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Peyton Kimmel, Caitlyn Henry, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2022

Creatine is an important component of the high-energy phosphate transfer to regulate cellular levels of ATP. The functions of creatine supplementation are well studied in the muscular and skeletal system, however the impact of creatine in the nervous system, specifically Schwann cells, is relatively unknown. Schwann cell growth in vitro is facilitated by heregulin, a neuron secreted growth factor, and forskolin, a pharmacological agent that activates cAMP. In peripheral nervous system injuries, recovery time is based around Schwann cell’s ability to proliferate and differentiate, and it is unknown what role creatine plays in this process. It was hypothesized that ...


Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Despite the yearly global impact of influenza B viruses (IBVs), limited host range has been a hurdle to developing a readily accessible small animal disease model for vaccine studies. Mouseadapting IBV can produce highly pathogenic viruses through serial lung passaging in mice. Previous studies have highlighted amino acid changes throughout the viral genome correlating with increased pathogenicity, but no consensus mutations have been determined. We aimed to show that growth system can play a role in mouse-adapted IBV lethality. Two Yamagata-lineage IBVs were serially passaged 10 times in mouse lungs before expansion in embryonated eggs or Madin–Darby canine kidney ...


Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Several influenza pandemics have occurred in the past century, one of which emerged in 1957 from a zoonotic transmission of H2N2 from an avian reservoir into humans. This pandemic caused 2–4 million deaths and circulated until 1968. Since the disappearance of H2N2 from human populations, there has been waning immunity against H2, and this subtype is not currently incorporated into seasonal vaccines. However, H2 influenza remains a pandemic threat due to consistent circulation in avian reservoirs. Here, we describe a method of pandemic preparedness by creating an adenoviral-vectored centralized consensus vaccine design against human H2 influenza. We also assessed ...


The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz

Virology Papers

The use of skin virome offers a unique approach for human identification purposes in instances where a viable and statistically relevant human DNA profile is unavailable. The skin virome may act as an alternative DNA profile and/or an additional form of probative genetic material. To date, no study has attempted to investigate the human virome over a time series across various physical locations of the body to identify its diagnostic potential as a tool for human identification. For this study, we set out to evaluate the stability, diversity, and individualization of the human skin virome. An additional goal was ...


Activation Of Crtc2/Creb1 In Skeletal Muscle Enhances Weight Loss During Intermittent Fasting, Nelson E Bruno, Jerome C Nwachukwu, David C Hughes, Sathish Srinivasan, Richard Hawkins, David Sturgill, Gordon L Hager, Stephen Hurst, Shey-Shing Sheu, Sue C Bodine, Michael D Conkright, Kendall W Nettles 2021 The Scripps Research Institute

Activation Of Crtc2/Creb1 In Skeletal Muscle Enhances Weight Loss During Intermittent Fasting, Nelson E Bruno, Jerome C Nwachukwu, David C Hughes, Sathish Srinivasan, Richard Hawkins, David Sturgill, Gordon L Hager, Stephen Hurst, Shey-Shing Sheu, Sue C Bodine, Michael D Conkright, Kendall W Nettles

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The Creb-Regulated Transcriptional Coactivator (Crtc) family of transcriptional coregulators drive Creb1-mediated transcription effects on metabolism in many tissues, but the in vivo effects of Crtc2/Creb1 transcription on skeletal muscle metabolism are not known. Skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of Crtc2 (Crtc2 mice) induced greater mitochondrial activity, metabolic flux capacity for both carbohydrates and fats, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and increased oxidative capacity, supported by upregulation of key metabolic genes. Crtc2 overexpression led to greater weight loss during alternate day fasting (ADF), selective loss of fat rather than lean mass, maintenance of higher energy expenditure during the fast and reduced ...


Autophagy In Major Human Diseases, Daniel J. Klionsky, Eric H. Baehrecke, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Federico Pietrocola 2021 University of Michigan

Autophagy In Major Human Diseases, Daniel J. Klionsky, Eric H. Baehrecke, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Federico Pietrocola

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Autophagy is a core molecular pathway for the preservation of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Pharmacological and genetic interventions impairing autophagy responses promote or aggravate disease in a plethora of experimental models. Consistently, mutations in autophagy-related processes cause severe human pathologies. Here, we review and discuss preclinical data linking autophagy dysfunction to the pathogenesis of major human disorders including cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, pulmonary, renal, infectious, musculoskeletal, and ocular disorders.


Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei 2021 Portland State University

Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei

University Honors Theses

Trained immunity is long-term innate immune memory induced by a primary stimulus, which leads to hyper-inflammation upon secondary stimulation with a homologous or heterologous ligand. Trained immunity is mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of the target cell and leads to modification of gene expression and cellular function. Classically, trained immunity is initiated by β-glucans, an inflammatory molecule found on the exterior of fungal species. Interestingly, our lab has recently described that dietary fatty acids can initiate trained immunity, working through similar pathways as β-glucans. Specifically, our data show that a pre-treatment with a specific dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA ...


Effect Of Lactoferrin To Increase Drug Permeability Of Primary Pulmonary Mycobacterial Granulomas, Thao Nguyen, Thao KT Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Effect Of Lactoferrin To Increase Drug Permeability Of Primary Pulmonary Mycobacterial Granulomas, Thao Nguyen, Thao Kt Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Despite extensive research and worldwide eradication efforts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major infectious pathogen to the human population with about 10 million cases of infection per year globally. The host-pathogen interaction, pulmonary granuloma formation, and Mtb adaptions result in increased complexity of the disease. Granulomas are formed by active immune responses generated during Mtb infection, and serve to contain and limit bacterial dissemination. The major mycobacterial surface mycolic acid, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), functions in multiple ways to enhance immune cell recruitment of sites of infection, to induce inflammation and granulomatous responses, and to initiate survival strategies for ...


Metabolic-Epigenetic Regulation Of Macrophage Polarization., Jordan T. Noe 2021 University of Louisville

Metabolic-Epigenetic Regulation Of Macrophage Polarization., Jordan T. Noe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tumor-associated macrophages polarized to an M2 phenotype (M2-TAMs) promote neo-angiogenesis, tumor-stromal matrix remodeling, and immuno-evasion, which, collectively, contribute to immunotherapeutic resistance and reduced cancer patient survival. Highly glycolytic “Warburg” cancer cells produce lactate that independently drives naïve M0→immunosuppressive M2 (M0→M2) macrophage polarization, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The atypical cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a fundamental underlying requirement for immunosuppressive M2 macrophage polarization. Still, it is unknown whether a molecular link exists between lactate-supported and MIF-dependent M2 macrophage polarization. Using a combination of gene expression assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and metabolomic analyses, we identified ...


Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 (Pasc): Association With Inflammation And Autoimmunity, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Fnu Deepti, Javaria Anwer MBBS, Rafael Fernandez-Botran 2021 University of Louisville

Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 (Pasc): Association With Inflammation And Autoimmunity, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Fnu Deepti, Javaria Anwer Mbbs, Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

It has become increasingly evident that a high percentage of patients that recover from acute COVID-19 infection continue to suffer from a variety of persistent symptoms even months after viral clearance, the most common ones being fatigue, dyspnea, anosmia, dysgeusia, cognitive dysfunction, and psychological problems, including anxiety and depression. This syndrome, known as Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), can severely affect the life quality and represents an important health care concern. The exact causes for the symptoms observed in patients with PASC remain to be adequately characterized, but are likely to be associated with multiple factors, including residual disease and ...


Bcr Affinity Influences T-B Interactions And B Cell Development In Secondary Lymphoid Organs, Alec J. Wishnie, Tzippora Chwat-Edelstein, Mary Attaway, Bao Q. Vuong 2021 CUNY Graduate Center

Bcr Affinity Influences T-B Interactions And B Cell Development In Secondary Lymphoid Organs, Alec J. Wishnie, Tzippora Chwat-Edelstein, Mary Attaway, Bao Q. Vuong

Publications and Research

B cells produce high-affinity immunoglobulins (Igs), or antibodies, to eliminate foreign pathogens. Mature, naïve B cells expressing an antigen-specific cell surface Ig, or B cell receptor (BCR), are directed toward either an extrafollicular (EF) or germinal center (GC) response upon antigen binding. B cell interactions with CD4+ pre-T follicular helper (pre- Tfh) cells at the T-B border and effector Tfh cells in the B cell follicle and GC control B cell development in response to antigen. Here, we review recent studies demonstrating the role of B cell receptor (BCR) affinity in modulating T-B interactions and the subsequent differentiation of B ...


Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu 2021 Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu

Virology Papers

Human cerebral organoid (CO) is a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that recapitulates the developing human brain. While CO has proved an invaluable tool for studying neurological disorders in a more clinically relevant matter, there have still been several shortcomings including CO variability and reproducibility as well as lack of or underrepresentation of certain cell types typically found in the brain. As the technology to generate COs has continued to improve, more efficient and streamlined protocols have addressed some of these issues. Here we present a novel scalable and simplified system to generate microglia-containing CO (MCO). We characterize the cell ...


Synphilin-1 And Its Effects On Pathogenesis Of Parkinson’S Disease, Mirghani Mohamed 2021 University of Connecticut

Synphilin-1 And Its Effects On Pathogenesis Of Parkinson’S Disease, Mirghani Mohamed

Honors Scholar Theses

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative and movement disorder primarily caused by the degradation of dopaminergic neurons. Known markers of neurodegeneration in PD are Lewy Bodies, which are fibrillar aggregates that are found in the brains of PD patients. Lewy Bodies can accumulate from specific mutations in the SNCA gene that codes for alpha-synuclein, a protein enriched in presynaptic neurons. A mutated SNCA gene can cause conformational aggregates of alpha-synuclein to form toxic species mediating neuronal death. Research into alpha-synuclein has led to the discovery of a binding partner known as synphilin-1 that is also found in protein ...


Identification Of Effectors Of Synergistic Lethality In Candida Albicans-Staphylococcus Aureus Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infection, Olivia Adele Todd 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Identification Of Effectors Of Synergistic Lethality In Candida Albicans-Staphylococcus Aureus Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infection, Olivia Adele Todd

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, are among the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections and cause severe morbidity and mortality. Moreover, they are frequently coisolated from central venous catheters and deep-seated infections, including intra-abdominal sepsis. Relatively little is known about the complex interactions and signaling events that occur between microbes and even less so how microbial “cross-talk” shapes human health and disease.

Using a murine model of polymicrobial intra-abdominal infection (IAI), we have previously shown that coinfection with C. albicans and S. aureus leads to synergistic lethality whereas monomicrobial infection is nonlethal ...


Analysis Of Single Cell Rna-Seq Data Revealed Interferon Gamma Signaling Alteration In Severe Covid Patients, Ahmed Elbaz 2021 American University in Cairo

Analysis Of Single Cell Rna-Seq Data Revealed Interferon Gamma Signaling Alteration In Severe Covid Patients, Ahmed Elbaz

Theses and Dissertations

Background: SARS-COV2 virus detected in December 2019, and was considered a pandemic in March 2020 by the WHO. Symptoms range from asymptomatic to life threatening ones. Studying cell-cell interactions in patients' blood samples may lead to novel diagnosis and treatment approaches.

Aim: This study aims to analyze single-cell RNA sequencing data to identify differences in cell-cell communications between healthy and COVID patients and differentially expressed T-cells genes that contributed to immune system antiviral activity.

Materials and methods: Single-Cell RNA sequencing data from seven COVID patients and five healthy individuals were collected from (GEO accession GSE155673). Cell types were identified and ...


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