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Simulated And Experimental Approaches To The Development Of Novel Test Phantoms For Radiofrequency Heating Of Implanted Medical Devices, Amgad M. Louka 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Simulated And Experimental Approaches To The Development Of Novel Test Phantoms For Radiofrequency Heating Of Implanted Medical Devices, Amgad M. Louka

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has cemented itself as the gold standard for imaging of soft tissues and is only increasing in popularity. Given the rising number of MRI scanners and medical device being implanted into patients, it is becoming increasingly likely that patients undergoing MRI will have an implanted medical device (IMD). The presence of an elongated metallic IMD inside a scanner could result in dangerous interactions with the radiofrequency fields during MRI, thus some of these IMDs preclude the patients from being scanned.

Orthopedic devices typically fall into this category due to their high potential for RF induced heating, …


Mesoscale Structure-Function Relationships In Mitochondrial Transcriptional Condensates, Marina Feric, Azadeh Sarfallah, Furqan Dar, Dmitry Temiakov, Rohit V. Pappu, Tom Misteli 2022 National Cancer Institute

Mesoscale Structure-Function Relationships In Mitochondrial Transcriptional Condensates, Marina Feric, Azadeh Sarfallah, Furqan Dar, Dmitry Temiakov, Rohit V. Pappu, Tom Misteli

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In live cells, phase separation is thought to organize macromolecules into membraneless structures known as biomolecular condensates. Here, we reconstituted transcription in condensates from purified mitochondrial components using optimized in vitro reaction conditions to probe the structure-function relationships of biomolecular condensates. We find that the core components of the mt-transcription machinery form multiphasic, viscoelastic condensates in vitro. Strikingly, the rates of condensate-mediated transcription are substantially lower than in solution. The condensate-mediated decrease in transcriptional rates is associated with the formation of vesicle-like structures that are driven by the production and accumulation of RNA during transcription. The generation of RNA alters …


Technical Adaptations For Cardiac Sodium Mri, Taylor L. Marcus 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Technical Adaptations For Cardiac Sodium Mri, Taylor L. Marcus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cardiac sodium (Na+) MRI has the potential to unveil relationships between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Unfortunately, this modality requires many technical adaptations before it’s possible to extract and compare image data between individuals. This study investigated whether cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG) gating could improve image quality, and whether a uniform phantom could increase signal uniformity if a surface coil is used to acquire the image. Healthy participants were imaged with a custom-built surface coil and 3.0-T MR system. Cardiac gated images presented with a decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but intensity correction significantly increased image signal …


Multi-Scale Computational Modeling Of Coronary Blood Flow: Application To Fractional Flow Reserve., Jermiah Joseph 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Multi-Scale Computational Modeling Of Coronary Blood Flow: Application To Fractional Flow Reserve., Jermiah Joseph

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Introduction. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is presently an invasive coronary clinical index. Non-invasive CT imaging combined with computational coronary flow modelling may reduce the patient’s burden of undergoing invasive testing.

Research statement. The ability to obtain information of the hemodynamic significance of detected lesions would streamline decision making in escalation to invasive angiography.

Methods. A reduced order (lumped parameter) model of the coronary vasculature was further developed. The model was used in the assessment of the roles of structure and function on the FFR. Sophisticated methods were used to elicit numerical

solutions. Further, CT imaging (n = …


Anatomical And Functional Lung Imaging With Volumetric Computed Tomography In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Heather Young 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Anatomical And Functional Lung Imaging With Volumetric Computed Tomography In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Heather Young

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers in Canada, and the leading cause of cancer deaths. A significant challenge in treating NSCLC is balancing aggressive treatment with the potentially severe side effects. In radiation therapy, the management of respiratory motion and the risks of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) pose significant challenges. 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) is an important part of motion management, but images often suffer from motion-induced artifacts. Volumetric CT scanners with wide axial field-of-view (aFOV) may reduce these artifacts and present an opportunity to advance CT-based functional lung imaging.

Chapter 2 presents a …


Atrial Fibrillation And Cognitive Decline: A Computational Hemodynamics Investigation, Timothy J. Hunter 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Atrial Fibrillation And Cognitive Decline: A Computational Hemodynamics Investigation, Timothy J. Hunter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent cardiac disease which has been associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. We hypothesize that atrial fibrillation leads to regional transient hypoperfusion events in the brain, and that geometric variations in the arterial structure called the Circle of Willis (CoW) play a role in these events.

Methods: A computational model was developed to simulate cerebral blood flow in six common variations of the CoW. Risk was assessed based on frequency of beat-wise regional hypoperfusion events during AF, and sensitivity analysis was performed with respect to this model output.

Results …


Rheological Characterization Of Blood-Mimicking Fluids For Use In Particle Image Velocimetry, Anorin S. Ali 2022 Western University

Rheological Characterization Of Blood-Mimicking Fluids For Use In Particle Image Velocimetry, Anorin S. Ali

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Blood-mimicking fluids (BMFs) are often used to investigate blood flow using physical replicas of vessels with cardiovascular disease. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used with silicone poly-dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) vascular models to visualize this flow. The challenge is creating a blood-mimicking fluid that matches the viscosity profile, viscoelasticity, and density of whole blood while also matching the refractive index (RI) of PDMS. Water-glycerol solutions are commonly used with sodium iodide (NaI) added to increase the RI without changing viscosity. However, NaI is expensive, stains easily, and turns fluids from optically clear to yellow in less than a day. Furthermore, without …


Ex-Smokers With And Without Copd: Investigating Ct Pulmonary Vascular, Airway, Pulmonary Artery And Aorta Measurements, Vedanth Desaigoudar, Paulina V. Wyszkiewicz, Alexander M. Matheson, Maksym Sharma, Marrissa J. McIntosh, Harkiran K. Kooner, David G. McCormack, Grace Parraga 2022 Western University

Ex-Smokers With And Without Copd: Investigating Ct Pulmonary Vascular, Airway, Pulmonary Artery And Aorta Measurements, Vedanth Desaigoudar, Paulina V. Wyszkiewicz, Alexander M. Matheson, Maksym Sharma, Marrissa J. Mcintosh, Harkiran K. Kooner, David G. Mccormack, Grace Parraga

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

RATIONALE: Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pressure in the pulmonary artery, and is a key contributor to worsening symptoms in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio (PA:Ao), measured using computed tomography (CT), is a biomarker of pulmonary hypertension; however, longitudinal changes in this measurement and its relationship to pulmonary vascular and airway structural changes is not well understood. Our objective was to investigate longitudinal changes in PA:Ao and its relationship with CT pulmonary vascular and airway abnormalities, airflow limitation and exercise-capacity.


Microvascular Regulation Between Two Hemodynamic Steady States In The Forearm And Forehead Using Wavelet Phase Coherence, Yuki Bao 2022 Western University

Microvascular Regulation Between Two Hemodynamic Steady States In The Forearm And Forehead Using Wavelet Phase Coherence, Yuki Bao

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Microvascular mechanisms that regulate the microcirculation can be observed within blood flow as coupled oscillations operating over a wide range of different frequencies and time scales. Abnormally discordant interactions between regulation mechanisms can cause derangement of microvascular flow patterns, which has been suggested to be indicative of increased cardiovascular disease risk. Based on the premise that interactions between microvascular mechanisms are key to understanding flow regulation and disease progression, wavelet-based phase coherence was used to characterize the relationship between cardiac, respiratory, myogenic, neurogenic, and metabolic regulation across different microvascular beds and physiological conditions.

Steady state cutaneous microvascular blood flow data …


In-Vitro Validation Of Intratumoral Modulation Therapy For Glioblastoma, Abdulla Elsaleh 2022 Western University

In-Vitro Validation Of Intratumoral Modulation Therapy For Glioblastoma, Abdulla Elsaleh

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Intratumoral modulation therapy (IMT) is a novel electrotherapy used to treat brain cancer tumours using electric fields applied directly to the tumours through implanted electrodes. Previous research has validated IMT's effectiveness and provided computer-simulated optimizations for IMT electric fields. This work validates these computer optimizations in-vitro, using a PCB construct to deliver electric fields, and bioluminescence imaging to assess cell viability.

We found electric field strength to correlate with cell viability, and found that rotating (phase-shifted) electric fields did not produce significant improvements in IMT efficacy. Future work will investigate different IMT frequencies and other parameters, while providing biological replicates …


Development Of Advanced Mr-Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy Methods For Head & Neck Cancers On The 1.5t Mr-Linac, Brigid McDonald 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Development Of Advanced Mr-Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy Methods For Head & Neck Cancers On The 1.5t Mr-Linac, Brigid Mcdonald

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The 1.5T hybrid MRI/linear accelerator (MR-linac) has recently been introduced into clinical practice and used for the treatment of head and neck cancers (HNC). This device enables on-line adaptive radiation therapy (ART) based on anatomical changes throughout treatment and variations in patient position. This novel technology also has the potential for advanced ART strategies such as dose-optimized ART, in which the treatment plan is optimized based on the accumulated dose over previous fractions, or biological image-guided ART, in which the plan is adapted based on individual tumor response as measured through quantitative imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The …


Software And Hardware-Based Tools For Improving Ultrasound Guided Prostate Brachytherapy, Nathan Orlando 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Software And Hardware-Based Tools For Improving Ultrasound Guided Prostate Brachytherapy, Nathan Orlando

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally invasive procedures for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, including biopsy and brachytherapy, rely on medical imaging such as two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for critical tasks such as target definition and diagnosis, treatment guidance, and treatment planning. Use of these imaging modalities introduces challenges including time-consuming manual prostate segmentation, poor needle tip visualization, and variable MR-US cognitive fusion. The objective of this thesis was to develop, validate, and implement software- and hardware-based tools specifically designed for minimally invasive prostate cancer procedures to overcome these challenges.

First, a deep learning-based automatic 3D …


Quantitative Mri And 3d-Printing For Monitoring Periprosthetic Joint Infection, Greg Hong 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Quantitative Mri And 3d-Printing For Monitoring Periprosthetic Joint Infection, Greg Hong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Joint replacements are becoming increasingly commonplace with over 130,000 joint arthroplasties being performed annually in Canada. Although joint replacement surgery is highly successful, implants do occasionally fail and need to be replaced via costly and difficult revision surgery. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has recently become the leading reason for revision of both hip and knee replacements, which is unfortunate because PJI is difficult to diagnose and treat effectively; diagnosis is made particularly difficult by the lack of established non-invasive (imaging) means of evaluating PJI. This thesis aims to demonstrate that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential for diagnosing and monitoring …


Examining The Association Between Brain Mri Measures At 7 Tesla And Cognition Following Covid-19 Infection, Helma Heidari 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Association Between Brain Mri Measures At 7 Tesla And Cognition Following Covid-19 Infection, Helma Heidari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The long-term neuropsychological, cognitive, and neurobiological effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) in survivors with milder symptoms are still poorly understood. In this thesis we evaluated cognitive and psychological changes approximately five weeks after a wide range of symptoms in COVID-19 illness and determined whether advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging measures within subcortical brain structures of the limbic system were related to neurological, respiratory, psychiatric, and gastric symptoms experienced during the acute phase of illness. Cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 45 participants who experienced neurological symptoms during the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. Participants also underwent …


Magnetic Resonance Systems Development For Point-Of-Care Mri Platforms, Eric J. Lessard 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Magnetic Resonance Systems Development For Point-Of-Care Mri Platforms, Eric J. Lessard

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic resonance imaging utilizes electromagnets to produce anatomical images in both clinical and research settings. In the race towards increasing performance head-optimized scanners have begun playing a significant role in providing high quality imaging of the head. However, they are implemented using smaller geometries and as such fail to allow entrance of the patient past their shoulders. This is overcome by designing asymmetric gradient coils which have their imaging region located towards one end of the gradient coil, as opposed to the geometric center, allowing brain imaging. There exists interest in compact configurations which allow imaging further into the cervical …


Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging For Characterization Of Synovitis In First Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis, Carla du Toit 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging For Characterization Of Synovitis In First Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis, Carla Du Toit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

First carpometacarpal osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of OA and is a significant source of pain and disability for patients. Discrepancies between traditional imaging modalities and patient reported outcomes have led galvanized researchers to developing objective point of care based imaging tools for assessing OA progression and treatment response. This thesis aims to describe the development and validation of a semi-submerged mechanical three-dimensional ultrasound device against magnetic resonance imaging. The validation of the 3D US device was conducted on a series of imaging phantoms, as well as ten CMC1 OA patients. Two-raters manually segmented areas of synovial …


Cost-Effective Non-Destructive Testing Of Biomedical Components Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing, Santiago Fabian Cobos 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Cost-Effective Non-Destructive Testing Of Biomedical Components Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing, Santiago Fabian Cobos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biocompatible titanium-alloys can be used to fabricate patient-specific medical components using additive manufacturing (AM). These novel components have the potential to improve clinical outcomes in various medical scenarios. However, AM introduces stability and repeatability concerns, which are potential roadblocks for its widespread use in the medical sector. Micro-CT imaging for non-destructive testing (NDT) is an effective solution for post-manufacturing quality control of these components. Unfortunately, current micro-CT NDT scanners require expensive infrastructure and hardware, which translates into prohibitively expensive routine NDT. Furthermore, the limited dynamic-range of these scanners can cause severe image artifacts that may compromise the diagnostic value of …


Seizure Prediction In Epilepsy Patients, Gary Dean Cravens 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Seizure Prediction In Epilepsy Patients, Gary Dean Cravens

NSU REACH and IPE Day

Purpose/Objective: Characterize rigorously the preictal period in epilepsy patients to improve the development of seizure prediction techniques. Background/Rationale: 30% of epilepsy patients are not well-controlled on medications and would benefit immensely from reliable seizure prediction. Methods/Methodology: Computational model consisting of in-silico Hodgkin-Huxley neurons arranged in a small-world topology using the Watts-Strogatz algorithm is used to generate synthetic electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals. ECoG data from 18 epilepsy patients is used to validate the model. Unsupervised machine learning is used with both patient and synthetic data to identify potential electrophysiologic biomarkers of the preictal period. Results/Findings: The model has shown states corresponding to …


Delineation Of Ascending Aortic Medial Degeneration Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Justin A. Ching-Johnson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Delineation Of Ascending Aortic Medial Degeneration Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Justin A. Ching-Johnson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) are a life-threatening dilation of the thoracic aorta that can lead to catastrophic dissection or rupture. In TAAs, the structure of the aortic wall is perturbed. Current imaging approaches assess lumen dimensions but lack the ability to delineate aortic wall architecture, a key determinant of aortic integrity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI modality which can reveal tissue microstructure through diffusion characteristics. In this thesis I investigated the potential for DTI to evaluate TAA architecture. A porcine model of aortic wall degeneration was developed, and DTI scans were performed on healthy and degenerated porcine ascending …


Ultrasound 96 Probe Device Protocol For Cancer Cell Treatment, Aisling Field, Brijesh K. Tiwari, James F. Curtin, Julie R M Mondala, Janith Wanigasekara 2022 Technological University Dublin

Ultrasound 96 Probe Device Protocol For Cancer Cell Treatment, Aisling Field, Brijesh K. Tiwari, James F. Curtin, Julie R M Mondala, Janith Wanigasekara

Articles

Ultrasound is a sound wave with frequencies ranging between 20 kHz and 20 MHz. Ultrasound is able to temporarily and repeatedly open the BBB safely and enhance chemotherapeutic delivery without adverse effects. This novel technique in drug delivery benefits from the powerful ability of ultrasound to produce cavitation activity. Cavitation is the generation and activity of gas-filled bubbles in a medium exposed to ultrasound. As the pressure wave passes through the media, gas bubbles expand at low pressure and contract at high pressure. This leads to oscillation which produces a circulating fluid flow known as microstreaming around the bubble with …


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