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Medical Toxicology Commons

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Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta

Biotechnology Theses

Inhalation of cadmium (Cd) has been an environmental health concern with the increase in industrial activities and smoking. Cd exposure is known to affect several organs such as lungs, kidneys, and liver. In this study, we wanted to understand if Cd inhalation exposure can affect the lungs and other organs in the body. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by all living cells and are known to carry toxicants between organs. We investigated whether Cd exposure could affect exosome biogenesis and their composition. Cd exposure did not affect the viability of A549, a lung epithelial cell line and macrophages derived from ...


Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik 2022 Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh

Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of cisplatin-induced toxicities on biochemical and pathological parameters such as body, liver, and kidney weights, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) in white Swiss albino mice.

Methods: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on body, liver, and kidney weights were evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Blood biochemical levels such as BUN, creatinine, and ALT levels were determined by an auto-hemolyzer using commercial diagnostic kits. Blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) were counted under a microscope by a hemocytometer.

Results: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on body ...


The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez 2022 University of Southern Maine

The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez

Thinking Matters Symposium

In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with ...


Acetaminophen, A Therapeutic Or An Extremely Toxic Remedy – A Review, Genica Caragea, Oana Avram, Andreea Pauna, Andreea Cristina Costea, Miruna Tudosie 2022 Military Medical Research Center Bucharest

Acetaminophen, A Therapeutic Or An Extremely Toxic Remedy – A Review, Genica Caragea, Oana Avram, Andreea Pauna, Andreea Cristina Costea, Miruna Tudosie

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

When a new coronavirus appeared in the late 2019, identified as the cause of several cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Paracetamol was initially reported to be the preferable antipyretic medication, choice which was detrimental to the use of other drugs. People have resorted to buying large stocks of Paracetamol and some have used it in large doses, regardless of the consequences. However, the Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) overdose remains the leading cause of death or transplantation due to acute liver failure in many parts of the world. This review aims at presenting the pharmacokinetics, the clinical signs, and the risk factors for ...


Correction To: The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-The 2019 Annual Report., Meghan B Spyres, Lynn A Farrugia, A Min Kang, Kim Aldy, Diane P Calello, Sharan L Campleman, Shao Li, Gillian A. Beauchamp MD, Timothy Wiegand, Paul M Wax, Jeffery Brent 2022 Banner - University Medical Center

Correction To: The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-The 2019 Annual Report., Meghan B Spyres, Lynn A Farrugia, A Min Kang, Kim Aldy, Diane P Calello, Sharan L Campleman, Shao Li, Gillian A. Beauchamp Md, Timothy Wiegand, Paul M Wax, Jeffery Brent

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Role Of Arsenic Exposure And Mirna-186 In Skin Tumorigenesis And Chromosomal Instability., Angeliki Lykoudi 2021 University of Louisville

Assessing The Role Of Arsenic Exposure And Mirna-186 In Skin Tumorigenesis And Chromosomal Instability., Angeliki Lykoudi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water is a global health issue, affecting more than 200 million people. Arsenic is a group I human carcinogen and causes chromosomal instability (CIN). Arsenic exposure is the second most cause of skin cancer after UV radiation. MiR-186 is overexpressed in arsenic-induced squamous cell carcinoma relative to premalignant hyperkeratosis. Predicted targets of miR-186 are cell cycle regulators. Thus, we hypothesize that miR-186 overexpression drives malignant transformation of HaCaT cells by induction of CIN. Stable clones of HaCaT transfected with pEP-miR-186 expression vector or empty vector were maintained under puromycin selection were exposed to 0 or ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody 2021 Utah State University

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated ...


Radioresistance In Prostate Cancer: Focus On The Interplay Between Nf-Κb And Sod, Sameera Kumar, Daret St. Clair 2021 Fox Chase Cancer Center

Radioresistance In Prostate Cancer: Focus On The Interplay Between Nf-Κb And Sod, Sameera Kumar, Daret St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Prostate cancer occurs frequently in men and can often lead to death. Many cancers, including prostate cancer, can be initiated by oxidative insult caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The superoxide dismutase family removes the oxygen-derived reactive oxygen species, and increased superoxide dismutase activity can often be protective against prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can be treated in a variety of ways, including surgery, androgen deprivation therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The clinical trajectory of prostate cancer varies from patient to patient, but more aggressive tumors often tend to be radioresistant. This is often due to the free-radical and ...


Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma Precipitated By Homeopathic Eyedrops Containing Atropa Belladonna., Mallorie L Huff, Derek J. Fikse DO, Ryan M Surmaitis DO, Marna R. Greenberg DO, MPH, FACEP 2021 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma Precipitated By Homeopathic Eyedrops Containing Atropa Belladonna., Mallorie L Huff, Derek J. Fikse Do, Ryan M Surmaitis Do, Marna R. Greenberg Do, Mph, Facep

Department of Emergency Medicine

Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening condition that may lead to blindness. This is a case report of a woman who presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute angle closure glaucoma following use of an over-the-counter (OTC) homeopathic eye drop containing atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade). A 55-year-old woman presented to the ED with a 5-day history of left eye redness, swelling, tearing, and foreign-body sensation that had acutely worsened in the last two days. Her exam revealed mild left conjunctival injection with watery tearing and a hazy appearance of her left cornea. Fluorescein staining was negative, while tonometry ...


Untargeted Lipidomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Demonstrates Differentially Abundant Lipid Classes In Cancer Vs. Non-Cancer Tissue, Joshua M. Mitchell, Robert M. Flight, Hunter N. B. Moseley 2021 University of Kentucky

Untargeted Lipidomics Of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Demonstrates Differentially Abundant Lipid Classes In Cancer Vs. Non-Cancer Tissue, Joshua M. Mitchell, Robert M. Flight, Hunter N. B. Moseley

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) represents 85% of newly diagnosed lung cancers. In this study, we utilized our untargeted assignment tool Small Molecule Isotope Resolved Formula Enumerator (SMIRFE) and ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry to examine lipid profile differences between paired cancerous and non-cancerous lung tissue samples from 86 patients with suspected stage I or IIA primary NSCLC. Correlation and co-occurrence analysis revealed significant lipid profile differences between cancer and non-cancer samples. Further analysis of machine-learned lipid categories for the differentially abundant molecular formulas identified a high abundance sterol ...


The Effects Of Environmental Copper Exposure On The Behavior And Morphology Of Developing Zebrafish, Christina Kaucic 2021 Purdue University

The Effects Of Environmental Copper Exposure On The Behavior And Morphology Of Developing Zebrafish, Christina Kaucic

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Toxicological Exposures In Covid-19 Patients, Alexandra M. Amaducci DO, Kim Aldy DO, Sharan L Campleman Phd, MPH, DABT, Shao Li MPH, Alison Meyn MPH, Stephanie Abston RN, BSN, Meghan B Spyres MD, Paul M Wax MD, FACMT, Jeffery Brent MD, PhD 2021 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Toxicological Exposures In Covid-19 Patients, Alexandra M. Amaducci Do, Kim Aldy Do, Sharan L Campleman Phd, Mph, Dabt, Shao Li Mph, Alison Meyn Mph, Stephanie Abston Rn, Bsn, Meghan B Spyres Md, Paul M Wax Md, Facmt, Jeffery Brent Md, Phd

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL LABORATORY AND FOOD HYGIENE, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The aim of this study was to identify potentially toxic contaminants in milk powder. Powdered milk contains a range of toxic and non-toxic substances that are present in a wide variety, also having very different origins. A number of seven milk powder samples from different producers sold on the Romanian market were analyzed, the samples that were collected from the original packaging: P1, P 2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. The concentration of the following elements was analyzed using the X-ray (XRF) fluorescence method: potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and aluminum (Al). The vast majority of ...


Mental Health Or Cardiac Health. Is There A Reason To Choose? Cardiac Arrhythmias Induced By Atomoxetine And Methylphenidate, Gabriel Cismaru, Viorel Lupu 2021 IULIU HATIEGANU UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, 5TH DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, CARDIOLOGY REHABILITATION, CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA

Mental Health Or Cardiac Health. Is There A Reason To Choose? Cardiac Arrhythmias Induced By Atomoxetine And Methylphenidate, Gabriel Cismaru, Viorel Lupu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The current treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity consists mainly in the administration of Straterra (Atomoxetine) Concerta and Ritalin (Methylphenidate). The FDA warned that the products might increase systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and lead to ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmic events and sudden cardiac death were described in adults with preexistent heart disease. However, studies on children have failed to demonstrate a clear association between the arrhythmic events and these drugs, as demonstrated in adults. What should the attitude of the pediatric psychiatrist be towards the administration of these products? What examination should be made by the psychiatrist ...


Cellular Origins Of Egfr-Driven Lung Cancer Cells Determine Sensitivity To Therapy, Fan Chen, Jinpeng Liu, Robert M. Flight, Kassandra J. Naughton, Alexsandr Lukyanchuk, Abigail R Edgin, Xiulong Song, Haikuo Zhang, Kwok-Kin Wong, Hunter N. B. Moseley, Chi Wang, Christine F. Brainson 2021 University of Kentucky

Cellular Origins Of Egfr-Driven Lung Cancer Cells Determine Sensitivity To Therapy, Fan Chen, Jinpeng Liu, Robert M. Flight, Kassandra J. Naughton, Alexsandr Lukyanchuk, Abigail R Edgin, Xiulong Song, Haikuo Zhang, Kwok-Kin Wong, Hunter N. B. Moseley, Chi Wang, Christine F. Brainson

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is one of the major precision medicine treatment options for lung adenocarcinoma. Due to common development of drug resistance to first- and second-generation TKIs, third-generation inhibitors, including osimertinib and rociletinib, have been developed. A model of EGFR-driven lung cancer and a method to develop tumors of distinct epigenetic states through 3D organotypic cultures are described here. It is discovered that activation of the EGFR T790M/L858R mutation in lung epithelial cells can drive lung cancers with alveolar or bronchiolar features, which can originate from alveolar type 2 (AT2 ...


Rorα Suppresses Cancer-Associated Inflammation By Repressing Respiratory Complex I-Dependent Ros Generation, Wei Mao, Gaofeng Xiong, Yuanyuan Wu, Chi Wang, Daret St. Clair, Jai-Da Li, Ren Xu 2021 University of Kentucky

Rorα Suppresses Cancer-Associated Inflammation By Repressing Respiratory Complex I-Dependent Ros Generation, Wei Mao, Gaofeng Xiong, Yuanyuan Wu, Chi Wang, Daret St. Clair, Jai-Da Li, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Breast cancer development is associated with macrophage infiltration and differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. Our previous study highlights the crucial function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in enhancing macrophage infiltration during the disruption of mammary tissue polarity. However, the regulation of ROS and ROS-associated macrophage infiltration in breast cancer has not been fully determined. Previous studies identified retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) as a potential tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. In the present study, we showed that retinoid orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) significantly decreased ROS levels and inhibited ROS-mediated cytokine expression in breast cancer cells. RORα expression ...


Sars-Cov-2 Seroprevalence And Drug Use In Trauma Patients From Six Sites In The United States [Preprint], Tran B. Ngo, Mark J. Neavyn, Jeffrey T. Lai, Kavita M. Babu 2021 National Institutes of Health

Sars-Cov-2 Seroprevalence And Drug Use In Trauma Patients From Six Sites In The United States [Preprint], Tran B. Ngo, Mark J. Neavyn, Jeffrey T. Lai, Kavita M. Babu

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

In comparison to the general patient population, trauma patients show higher level detections of bloodborne infectious diseases, such as Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In comparison to bloodborne pathogens, the prevalence of respiratory infections such as SARS-CoV-2 and how that relates with other variables, such as drug usage and trauma type, is currently unknown in trauma populations. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and antibody isotype profile in 2,542 trauma patients from six Level-1 trauma centers between April and October of 2020 during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that the seroprevalence in trauma victims 18-44 years ...


Decreased Kidney Mitochondrial Content And Pgc-1Α Following Repeated Low-Dose Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury., Andrew Joseph Orwick 2021 University of Louisville

Decreased Kidney Mitochondrial Content And Pgc-1Α Following Repeated Low-Dose Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury., Andrew Joseph Orwick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cisplatin is highly effective and one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of a number of different solid organ tumors. Unfortunately, the dose-limiting nephrotoxicity occurs in up to 30% of patients, which requires alterations to treatment regimens that are often less effective. The kidney’s function is to provide fluid homeostasis, and this is an energy-intensive process. Proper renal function is dependent on functional mitochondria. PGC-1α regulates mitochondrial number, respiratory capacity, and mitochondrial proteins in proximal tubule cells. We delivered low-dose cisplatin to mice via intraperitoneal injections once a week for 4 weeks. The mice were ...


Investigation Of Postmortem Methamphetamine Cases Submitted To The New York City Office Of Chief Medical Examiner, Isaiah Jewell 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Investigation Of Postmortem Methamphetamine Cases Submitted To The New York City Office Of Chief Medical Examiner, Isaiah Jewell

Student Theses

Methamphetamine (N-methylamphetamine) is a central nervous system stimulant (CNS) and sympathomimetic drug with a high addiction potential. In the United States, there has been a significant increase in the presence of methamphetamine in recent years, specifically in the Northeastern region of the country. The New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner (NYC-OCME) postmortem methamphetamine casework from 2018 and 2019 was analyzed and revealed that the presence of the drug increased drastically within a span of one year, jumping from 65 cases in 2018 to 99 cases in 2019. Males were overwhelmingly responsible for much of the casework, taking up ...


Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville

Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

A 72-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of diarrhea after having tested positive for COVID-19 two days prior. He initially had minimal respiratory complaints, but was eventually transferred to the intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. In addition to dexamethasone, remdesivir, and antibiotics, the patient was treated with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor that was recently granted emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. He had an extensive and complicated hospital course and had to be placed on mechanical ventilation, ultimately undergoing tracheostomy. After ...


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