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Beyond Mitragynine: Composition Survey And Stability Assessment Of Kratom Tea Ordered Via Food Delivery Platforms In Bangkok, Thailand, Yuta Tokuda, Apinya Tubtimrattana, Nat Tansrisawad, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Parath Thirati 2024 Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University

Beyond Mitragynine: Composition Survey And Stability Assessment Of Kratom Tea Ordered Via Food Delivery Platforms In Bangkok, Thailand, Yuta Tokuda, Apinya Tubtimrattana, Nat Tansrisawad, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Parath Thirati

Chulalongkorn Medical Journal

Background: Kratom is a native tree to Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have long been used medicinally and recreationally due to their stimulative and opioid-like effects attributed to high endogenous levels of mitragynine and related alkaloids. Kratom is widely consumed as tea and is now publicly sold, including on food delivery platforms, after recent decriminalization despite selling of kratom products being still considered illegal by other acts.

Objectives: To assess the formulas of kratom teas sold on Thai food delivery platform together with their consistency and the stability of refrigerated teas.

Methods: Kratom alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, and additive contents of …


Assessment Of Potentially Toxic And Mineral Elements In Paddy Soils And Their Uptake By Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) With Associated Health Hazards In District Malakand, Pakistan, Asghar Khan, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Munib Ahmed Shafique, Qaisar Khan, Ghulam Saddiq 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Assessment Of Potentially Toxic And Mineral Elements In Paddy Soils And Their Uptake By Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) With Associated Health Hazards In District Malakand, Pakistan, Asghar Khan, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Munib Ahmed Shafique, Qaisar Khan, Ghulam Saddiq

Journal Articles

Rice, a primary food source in many countries of the world accumulate potentially harmful elements which pose a significant health hazard to consumers. The current study aimed to evaluate potentially toxic and mineral elements in both paddy soils and rice grains associated with allied health risks in Malakand, Pakistan. Rice plants with intact root soil were randomly collected from paddy fields and analyzed for mineral and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP‒OES). Through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment models, the daily intake of PTEs with allied health risks from consumption of rice were estimated …


Utilizing Primary Human Airway Mucociliary Tissue Cultures To Model Ramifications Of Chronic E-Cigarette Usage., Vincent J Manna, Shannon Dwyer, Vanessa Pizutelli, Salvatore J Caradonna 2024 Rowan University

Utilizing Primary Human Airway Mucociliary Tissue Cultures To Model Ramifications Of Chronic E-Cigarette Usage., Vincent J Manna, Shannon Dwyer, Vanessa Pizutelli, Salvatore J Caradonna

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Electronic cigarettes are battery powered devices that use a vape-liquid to produce a vapor that is inhaled. A consequence of the rise in e-cigarette usage was the 2019 emergence of a vaping-induced respiratory disease denoted as 'e-cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injury' (EVALI). One of the suspected causes of EVALI is Vitamin E Acetate (VEA), which was found to be a diluent in certain illicit vape-pens, whereas nicotine is commonly diluted in equal parts propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin (PG:VG). The prevalent use of e-cigarettes and the emergence of a novel illness has made understanding how e-cigarette vapors affect our …


Avaren-Fc, A Novel Immunotherapeutic, Recruits Nk Cells In B16f10 Melanoma Tumor Tissue, Sreevatsa Vemuri, Katarina Mayer, Nobuyuki Matoba 2024 University of Louisville

Avaren-Fc, A Novel Immunotherapeutic, Recruits Nk Cells In B16f10 Melanoma Tumor Tissue, Sreevatsa Vemuri, Katarina Mayer, Nobuyuki Matoba

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the US, with limited effective immunotherapeutic options available for patients. Avaren-Fc (AvFc) is a novel experimental immunotherapeutic agent with a unique “lectibody” property. It is capable of targeting cancer cells through the selective recognition of high mannose glycans, which are aberrantly overrepresented on the surface of malignant cells. AvFc can interact with circulating effector immune cells equipped with Fc receptors, such as natural killer (NK) cells to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and kill cancer cells. Previous work has shown that AvFc effectively induces ADCC activity against B16F10 cancer cells in vitro …


Investigation Of Heterocyclic Amines And N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genetic Polymorphism In The Dysregulation Of Hepatic Energy Homeostasis: A Gene-Environment Approach., Kennedy M Walls 2023 University of Louisville

Investigation Of Heterocyclic Amines And N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genetic Polymorphism In The Dysregulation Of Hepatic Energy Homeostasis: A Gene-Environment Approach., Kennedy M Walls

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagens generated when cooking meat for prolonged periods of time or until well-done. Recent epidemiological studies reported significant associations between dietary HCA exposure and insulin resistance and type II diabetes. However, no previous studies have examined if HCAs, independent of meat consumption, contributes to pathogenesis of insulin resistance or metabolic disease. It is well known that HCAs require hepatic bioactivation by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). NAT2 expresses a well-defined genetic polymorphism in humans that, depending on the combination of NAT2 alleles, correlate to rapid, intermediate, or slow acetylator phenotypes that exhibit differential …


Therapeutic Plasma Exchange To Alleviate Ventricular Tachycardia After Diphenhydramine Ingestion, Kaushal Dosani, Lejla Music Aplenc, Stephen Pfeiffer 2023 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange To Alleviate Ventricular Tachycardia After Diphenhydramine Ingestion, Kaushal Dosani, Lejla Music Aplenc, Stephen Pfeiffer

Research Days

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has adversely affected the mental health of children causing an increased incidence of suicide attempts. Diphenhydramine is a common household medication and is frequently ingested by children. Toxic doses of diphenhydramine can affect the cardiovascular and central nervous system. In the heart, diphenhydramine blocks fast sodium channels and potassium channels which can result in conduction abnormalities including sinus tachycardia, widening of QRS duration, ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes. Massive ingestion can cause severe cardiovascular collapse which may require ECMO support

Objectives/Goal: To describe a novel method of clearing highly protein-bound diphenhydramine molecules from circulation after …


Study Of The Potential Toxicity Of Adrenaline To Neurons, Using The Sh-Sy5y Human Cellular Model, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião, Kurt James Varner, José Alberto Duarte, Félix Carvalho 2023 Universidade do Porto

Study Of The Potential Toxicity Of Adrenaline To Neurons, Using The Sh-Sy5y Human Cellular Model, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião, Kurt James Varner, José Alberto Duarte, Félix Carvalho

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Prolonged overexposure to catecholamines causes toxicity, usually credited to continuous adrenoceptor stimulation, autoxidation, and the formation of reactive pro-oxidant species. Non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used to study the possible contribution of oxidative stress in adrenaline (ADR)-induced neurotoxicity, as a model to predict the toxicity of this catecholamine to peripheral nerves. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of ADR (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mM) and two cytotoxicity assays [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction] were performed at several time-points (24, 48, and 96h). The cytotoxicity of ADR was concentration-and time-dependent in both assays, since the lowest concentration …


The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward 2023 University of Connecticut

The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward

Honors Scholar Theses

Pesticides play an extremely complicated role in our everyday lives. From the water you use to make your coffee, to the breastmilk your neighbor provides for their child, to the lake your dog swims in, chemical pesticides or their byproducts have been found in nearly every corner of our lives. The chemicals used in synthetic herbicides, a subcategory of pesticides, have far reaching negative impacts on human health, biodiversity, and water quality. Despite there being numerous published studies on the relationships between pesticide exposures and health, there is still ongoing discord and controversy surrounding their role in our lives. After …


Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker

Doctoral Dissertations

Cigarette Smoke is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, accounting for over 480,000 annual deaths. Of these deaths, the most common cause of mortality in chronic smokers is cardiometabolic diseases. Likewise, a significant portion of smokers experience some form of cardiac, vascular, or metabolic dysfunction throughout their lifetime. More specifically, smoking is shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in these tissues, causing an increase in oxidative damage and poor overall health. However, despite the advances in the health outcomes related to cigarette smoke exposure, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in striated muscle and the vasculature remain …


Intrinsic Programmed Death Ligand 1 (Pd-L1) Role In Promoting Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) Progression, Duaa Salem Alkaabi 2023 United Arab Emirates University

Intrinsic Programmed Death Ligand 1 (Pd-L1) Role In Promoting Triple Negative Breast Cancer (Tnbc) Progression, Duaa Salem Alkaabi

Theses

This thesis is concerned with Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), which is characterized by lack of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors expression, making targeted drugs ineffective. TNBC has a high proliferative rate, which results in a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy, the primary treatment for metastatic breast cancer, is not an ideal choice due to its toxicity towards normal cells. Therefore, Cancer-targeted therapy has been developed to improve the specificity and strength of the immune system against cancer cells. PD-L1 is an immunosuppressive protein that inactivates T cells by binding to the inhibitory receptor PD-1. The clinical use of PD-L1 blockade agents …


Differential Transcriptional Alterations In Detoxification Genes In Parkinson’S Disease In Egypt, Nourhan Shebl 2023 American University in Cairo

Differential Transcriptional Alterations In Detoxification Genes In Parkinson’S Disease In Egypt, Nourhan Shebl

Theses and Dissertations

PD is the most common motor neurodegenerative disease worldwide. The underlying cause of PD is still unknow, owingthis to the complexity of the disease. Often, genetics and environmental factors are collaborating in the initiation of the disease. Despite the diversity of its genetical and environmental profiles, the Egyptian population is one of the mostunderrepresented population in terms of PD research. In this study, we investigated PD through various perspectives tohighlight the complexity of the disease in Egypt, taking into consideration the diversity of the Egyptian population. We recruited PD patients and reference controls from 4 governorates: Cairo, Giza, Alexandria, and …


High Body Mass Index Changes Peri-Tumor Adipose Tissue Which In Turn Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Cora Elizabeth Miracle 2023 Marshall University

High Body Mass Index Changes Peri-Tumor Adipose Tissue Which In Turn Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Cora Elizabeth Miracle

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, responsible for over half a million deaths each year. There are multiple risk factors associated with the development of cancer. Some of these risks include genetics, smoking, and most recently, obesity (Lewandowska et al., 2019) (De Pergola & Silvestris, 2013). Research has shown that obesity is linked to the promotion of fourteen different cancers, including aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients that are obese are more likely to develop cancer (Park et al., 2014). In addition, if the patient is obese at the time of a cancer diagnosis, they …


Prenatal Buprenorphine Exposure Reduces Expression Of Myelin Proteins In Neonatal Longs-Evans Rat, Christopher James Grahe 2023 Marshall University

Prenatal Buprenorphine Exposure Reduces Expression Of Myelin Proteins In Neonatal Longs-Evans Rat, Christopher James Grahe

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

In the USA and especially in WV, there has been a surge in the rise of opioid use disorder (OUD), and with it a rise in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). What makes this rise in NAS so unfortunate is that the Medications for OUD (MOUD) do not prevent the development of NAS. Although the relationship between MOUD and NAS is still unclear, it is thought that buprenorphine, one of the main substances used to treat OUD in pregnant women, may feed into the development of NAS, which may affect mental and physiological development and cause other health problems. Via understanding …


El Papel De La Actividad Colinérgica En El Sistema Visual, María Camila Bernal Herrera, Karla Andrea Hernández Martínez 2023 Universidad de La Salle - Colombia

El Papel De La Actividad Colinérgica En El Sistema Visual, María Camila Bernal Herrera, Karla Andrea Hernández Martínez

Optometría

Introducción: Los agroquímicos son sustancias utilizadas con el propósito de prevenir y controlar cualquier tipo de plaga que pueda afectar el sector agrícola. Muchos de estos generan un alto grado de toxicidad, causando daños en la salud de los trabajadores expuestos a pesticidas. Sin embargo, se conoce hasta hace poco que a nivel del sistema visual se puede tener cierta actividad a nivel colinérgico. Por lo cual, se cuestiona como la regulación o cambio en la actividad colinérgica, podría generar cambios a nivel de la superficie ocular. Objetivo general: Determinar el papel de la acetilcolinesterasa y la actividad colinérgica en …


Influence Of Maternal Nano-Titanium Dioxide Inhalation Exposure On Cyclooxygenase Metabolites: Maternal Microvascular And Sexually Dimorphic Feto-Placental Outcomes., Julie Anne Griffith 2023 West Virginia University

Influence Of Maternal Nano-Titanium Dioxide Inhalation Exposure On Cyclooxygenase Metabolites: Maternal Microvascular And Sexually Dimorphic Feto-Placental Outcomes., Julie Anne Griffith

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is an engineered nanomaterial (ENM), which is widely utilized in diverse products like surface coatings, cosmetics, medical devices, and filters. Inhaled nano-TiO2 has been demonstrated to induce pulmonary inflammation, impair microvascular function, and hinder generational reproductive endpoints. These outcomes indicate why it is important to explore gestation, as it requires timely vascular adaptations to support maternal and fetal health and development. Therefore, the central hypothesis of my dissertation is: maternal nano-TiO2 inhalation exposure will impact maternal microvascular function and fetoplacental hemodynamics and function in a sexually dimorphic manner.

The first purpose of …


Deciphering The Salivary Microbiome In Crohn’S Disease Patients With Different Factors Contributing To Dysbiosis, Hala Elzayat 2023 United Arab Emirates University

Deciphering The Salivary Microbiome In Crohn’S Disease Patients With Different Factors Contributing To Dysbiosis, Hala Elzayat

Theses

Crohn’s Disease (CD) is a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), common in the UAE. Microbiota is necessary to maintain a balanced gut environment which is essential for good health. Dysbiosis can predispose to many diseases including CD. The oral cavity has the second largest and most diverse microbiota after the gut harboring over 700 species of bacteria. This study aims to investigate the alterations in the salivary microbiome in patients with CD compared to Healthy controls (HC). It also aims to compare CD patients for salivary microbiome complexity and diversity according to different factors that can contribute to dysbiosis, including …


Epc-Exs Improve Astrocyte Survival And Oxidative Stress Through Different Uptaking Pathways In Diabetic Hypoxia Condition, Manasi Suchit Halurkar, Jinju Wang, Shuzhen Chen, Ji Chen Bihl 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Epc-Exs Improve Astrocyte Survival And Oxidative Stress Through Different Uptaking Pathways In Diabetic Hypoxia Condition, Manasi Suchit Halurkar, Jinju Wang, Shuzhen Chen, Ji Chen Bihl

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

Background: Hyperglycemia contributes to cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. We confirmed that high glucose (HG) induces endothelial dysfunction and cerebral ischemic injury is enlarged in diabetic mice. Stem cell-released exosomes have been shown to protect the brain from ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)-released exosomes (EPC-EXs) can protect endothelial cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and HG-induced injury. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of EPC-EXs on astrocytes under H/R and HG-induced injury and whether miR-126 enriched EPC-EXs (miR126-EPC-EXs) have enhanced efficacy. Methods: EPC-EX uptake and co-localization were measured by fluorescent microscopy using …


Investigating The Role Of The Hedgehog Pathway In Connection To Atrazine Endocrine Disruption, Anusha KV Lakshmi Dharmavathi 2022 Purdue University

Investigating The Role Of The Hedgehog Pathway In Connection To Atrazine Endocrine Disruption, Anusha Kv Lakshmi Dharmavathi

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Developmental Behavioral Alterations Following Lead (Pb) Exposure In The Zebrafish Model System, Jenny Chen 2022 Purdue University

Developmental Behavioral Alterations Following Lead (Pb) Exposure In The Zebrafish Model System, Jenny Chen

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Psychological And Psychiatric Characterization Of Various Groups Of Drugs Users, Daniela-Madalina Ciucă Anghel, Elena-Elisabeta Anghel, Miriana Stan, Gheorghe Tudor, Anca Silvia Dumitriu, Stana Paunica, Daniela Luiza Baconi 2022 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF TOXICOLOGY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Psychological And Psychiatric Characterization Of Various Groups Of Drugs Users, Daniela-Madalina Ciucă Anghel, Elena-Elisabeta Anghel, Miriana Stan, Gheorghe Tudor, Anca Silvia Dumitriu, Stana Paunica, Daniela Luiza Baconi

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Aim. We aimed to assess the differences among various groups of drugs users, especially in the psychiatric and psychological domains. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was carried out in collaboration with C.E.T.T.T `St. Stelian` Institute from Bucharest. There were analyzed the medical records of 604 hospitalized patients with heroin or polydrug addiction. Results. Significant differences in diagnosis at submission among groups were outlined (personality and behavior disorders, p-value = .04298, psychotic disorders, p-value = .004274, schizophrenia, p-value = .000141) as well as significant differences among psychiatric parameters: perception (legal highs, opiates), attention (cannabis), consciousness (legal highs), thinking (legal highs), …


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