Report Of The Pathogenesis And Pathophysiology Of Lyme Disease Subcommittee Of The Hhs Tick Borne Disease Working Group, Sam T. Donta, Leith J. States, Wendy A. Adams, Troy Bankhead, Nicole Baumgarth, Monica E. Embers, Robert B. Lochhead, Brian Stevenson
Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications
An understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Lyme disease is key to the ultimate care of patients with Lyme disease. To better understand the various mechanisms underlying the infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Lyme Disease Subcommittee was formed to review what is currently known about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Lyme disease, from its inception, but also especially about its ability to persist in the host. To that end, the authors of this report were assembled to update our knowledge about the infectious process, identify the gaps that exist in our understanding of the ...
Resistance To Lethal Ectromelia Virus Infection Requires Type I Interferon Receptor In Natural Killer Cells And Monocytes But Not In Adaptive Immune Or Parenchymal Cells., 2021 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, United States
Resistance To Lethal Ectromelia Virus Infection Requires Type I Interferon Receptor In Natural Killer Cells And Monocytes But Not In Adaptive Immune Or Parenchymal Cells., Carolina R Melo-Silva, Pedro Alves-Peixoto, Natasha Heath, Lingjuan Tang, Brian Montoya, Cory J Knudson, Colby Stotesbury, Maria Ferez, Eric B. Wong, Luis J. Sigal
Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are antiviral cytokines that signal through the ubiquitous IFN-I receptor (IFNAR). Following footpad infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV), a mouse-specific pathogen, C57BL/6 (B6) mice survive without disease, while B6 mice broadly deficient in IFNAR succumb rapidly. We now show that for survival to ECTV, only hematopoietic cells require IFNAR expression. Survival to ECTV specifically requires IFNAR in both natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes. However, intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not essential for adaptive immune cell responses or to directly protect non-hematopoietic cells such as hepatocytes, which are principal ECTV targets. Mechanistically, IFNAR-deficient NK cells have ...
Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, 2021 University of Mississippi
Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne
Since its emergence in the early 1980’s HIV has killed approximately 32 million people, and continues to kill over half a million people every year. Significant research into potential vaccines and cures for HIV has been ongoing for decades but has been largely unsuccessful. One of the more promising technologies that is being investigated to develop an HIV vaccine is recombinant vaccine technology. The study presented in this thesis aims to use simian varicella virus (SVV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to act as a model for recombinant vaccine development. If a recombinant SVV-SIV vaccine can be proven safe ...
Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey
Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses
Fever is an essential component of the immune response. Fever enhances immune responses as well as creates an environment in which the body has advantages over pathogens. Macrophages are often the first cells that come in contact with pathogens, as they reside in tissues. They are important for their engulfment of pathogens that results in the digestion of the pathogen, but they also produce nitric oxide and cytokines that contribute to immune response in a variety of ways, including initiating adaptive immunity and directing the production and activity of other immune cells. We were curious about macrophages from other temperature ...
Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, 2021 Missouri State University
Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel
MSU Graduate Theses
Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...
Thyreos Completes Seed Funding From Invest Nebraska, Strategic Angel Investors, 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Thyreos Completes Seed Funding From Invest Nebraska, Strategic Angel Investors, Nebraska Combine
Thyreos (https://www.thyreosvaccines.com/), a vaccine company that is developing a novel vaccine platform that protects against a range of herpesviruses, has announced a $750,000 investment round led by Invest Nebraska with participation from other local angel investors in the animal health and veterinary space.
The Role Of Cd4 T Cell Help In Effective Cd8 T Cell Responses During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Role Of Cd4 T Cell Help In Effective Cd8 T Cell Responses During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Yu-Jung Lu
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Tuberculosis (TB), a transmissible disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a global health threat. To design an effective vaccine, we need to better understand how different elements of our immune system collaborate to fight against Mtb. CD4 T cells are crucial in protective immunity to Mtb because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. In contrast, CD8 T cells are thought to play a modest role. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during TB is unknown. We argue CD8 T cells’ role are likely underestimated because CD8 T cell functions are compromised ...
Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, 2021 The University of Western Ontario
Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1) has infected over 75 million people and over 35 million have succumbed to virus related illnesses. Despite access to a variety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) options, ART programs have been disproportionally spread in the world with low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) facing challenges to access the most potent ART options. With less potent ART remaining in use in LMICs, HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) presents a growing challenge in LMICs. Since approval of the first-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTIs), Raltegravir (RAL) in 2007, INSTIs remain the best choice as a backbone of ART. Access to second generation ...
B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences
B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez
Annual Research Symposium
No abstract provided.
The Crosstalk Between Insulin Resistance, Systemic Inflammation, Redox Imbalance And The Thyroid In Subjects With Obesity, 2021 IULIU HAŢIEGANU UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA
The Crosstalk Between Insulin Resistance, Systemic Inflammation, Redox Imbalance And The Thyroid In Subjects With Obesity, Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Nicoleta Valentina Leach, Sorana D. Bolboacă, Maria Loredana Soran, Mirela Flonta, Ana Valea, Andrada-Luciana Lazăr, Cristina Ghervan
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
We aimed at assessing the interaction between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin resistance (IR), circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the thyroid parameters in obese subjects. Methods. Obese subjects without thyroid pathologies or diseases associated with systemic inflammation and OS were recruited. Insulinemia, visceral fat thickness, metabolic and thyroid parameters were assayed. Circulating levels of MCP-1 and MDA were used to quantify inflammation and OS. Results. A number of 160 obese subjects were included. The MCP-1 level increased with the degree of obesity and HOMA-IR. MCP 1 was positively associated with antithyroperoxidase antibody (TPOab) levels ...
D-Dimer Levels And Acute Pulmonary Embolism Development In Covid-19 Patients, 2021 DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCE FATIH SULTAN MEHMET TRAINING AND RESEARCH HOSPITAL, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
D-Dimer Levels And Acute Pulmonary Embolism Development In Covid-19 Patients, Vural Ahmet, Kahraman Ahmet Nedim
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Objective. To identify those who develop pulmonary embolism with Ddimer levels by evaluating pulmonary CT angiographies of patients who are followed up with suspicion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods. Patients who were followed up in a community hospital with suspicion of COVID-19 and underwent Pulmonary CT angiography examination were evaluated. Clinical and demographic parameters and DDimer values for patients with and without pulmonary embolism were evaluated in the pulmonary CT angiogram. Results. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Thorax CT examination was performed in our center for suspicion or follow-up of COVID-19 infection in 3396 patients. Pulmonary CT angiography was applied ...
Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, Brittany Isabella Schwam
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the synovium, articular cartilage, and bone within a joint, but it is a unique form of arthritis wherein effects are systemic. The cause of this autoimmune disease remains unknown, but there are many environmental and genetic factors that play into susceptibility. Research is still far from drug-free remission despite great advancements over the past few decades. The majority of therapies developed rely on immunosuppressant or immunomodulator molecules and come with risk of infection, high costs, and toxic, uncontrolled side effects. Those diagnosed maintain a significant unmet need for targeted therapies.
The Effects Of Myelin On Macrophage Activation Are Phenotypic Specific Via Cpla2 In The Context Of Spinal Cord Injury Inflammation, Timothy J. Kopper, Bei Zhang, William M. Bailey, Kara E. Bethel, John C. Gensel
Physiology Faculty Publications
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces chronic, pro-inflammatory macrophage activation that impairs recovery. The mechanisms driving this chronic inflammation are not well understood. Here, we detail the effects of myelin debris on macrophage physiology and demonstrate a novel, activation state-dependent role for cytosolic phospholipase-A2 (cPLA2) in myelin-mediated potentiation of pro-inflammatory macrophage activation. We hypothesized that cPLA2 and myelin debris are key mediators of persistent pro-inflammatory macrophage responses after SCI. To test this, we examined spinal cord tissue 28-days after thoracic contusion SCI in 3-month-old female mice and observed both cPLA2 activation and intracellular accumulation of lipid-rich myelin debris ...
H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha
H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq
The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections
Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.
Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...
Content Analysis Of Promotional Material For Asthma-Related Products And Therapies On Instagram, 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Content Analysis Of Promotional Material For Asthma-Related Products And Therapies On Instagram, Brent Heineman, Marcella Jewell, Michael Moran, Kolbi Bradley, Kerry A. Spitzer, Peter K. Lindenauer
Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, social media is a source for information about health and disease self-management. We conducted a content analysis of promotional asthma-related posts on Instagram to understand whether promoted products and services are consistent with the recommendations found in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2019 guidelines.
METHODS: We collected every Instagram post incorporating a common, asthma-related hashtag between September 29, 2019 and October 5, 2019. Of these 2936 collected posts, we analyzed a random sample of 266, of which, 211 met our inclusion criteria. Using an inductive, qualitative approach, we categorized the promotional posts and compared each post's ...
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2-Induced Acute Aortic Occlusion: A Case Report, 2021 Thomas Jefferson University
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2-Induced Acute Aortic Occlusion: A Case Report, Artem Minalyan, Franklin L. Thelmo, Vincent Chan, Stephanie Tzarnas, Faizan Ahmed
Department of Medicine Faculty Papers
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can lead to a constellation of viral and immune symptoms called coronavirus disease 2019. Emerging literature increasingly supports the premise that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 promotes a prothrombotic milieu. However, to date there have been no reports of acute aortic occlusion, itself a rare phenomenon. We report a case of fatal acute aortic occlusion in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019.
Case report: A 59-year-old Caucasian male with past medical history of peripheral vascular disease presented to the emergency department for evaluation of shortness of breath, fevers, and dry cough ...
Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore
Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canonical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences containing these potential GQ sequences suggested the existence of ...
Laboratory Markers Predictive Of Fulminant Clostridioides Difficile Infection Refractory To Fluid Resuscitation, 2021 University of Kentucky
Laboratory Markers Predictive Of Fulminant Clostridioides Difficile Infection Refractory To Fluid Resuscitation, Omar Ahmad, Timothy N. Crawford, Vaneet Arora, Mitu Karki Maskey
Internal Medicine Faculty Publications
Old age, leucocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated creatinine have been identified as risk factors for fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). High ATLAS scores have also been linked to fatal disease. The affiliated studies, however, involved patients prescribed metronidazole - a regimen no longer standard of care. The variables were thus reassessed in patients prescribed optimal therapy.
Adults hospitalized with CDI at University of Kentucky Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Enrolled subjects were separated according to disease classification i.e. non-severe/severe versus fulminant CDI. Fulminant patients were further subdivided into hypotensive persons responsive to fluid resuscitation, and those with sequent ...
Immunomodulatory Effects Of Azithromycin Revisited: Potential Applications To Covid-19, 2021 University of Kentucky
Immunomodulatory Effects Of Azithromycin Revisited: Potential Applications To Covid-19, Vincent J. Venditto, Dalia Haydar, Ahmed K. Abdel-Latif, John C. Gensel, Michael I. Anstead, Michelle G. Pitts, Jarrod W. Creameans, Timothy J. Kopper, Chi Peng, David J. Feola
Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications
The rapid advancement of the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an accelerated pursuit to identify effective therapeutics. Stages of the disease course have been defined by viral burden, lung pathology, and progression through phases of the immune response. Immunological factors including inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine storm have been associated with severe disease and death. Many immunomodulatory therapies for COVID-19 are currently being investigated, and preliminary results support the premise of targeting the immune response. However, because suppressing immune mechanisms could also impact the clearance of the virus in the early stages of infection, therapeutic success is likely to depend on ...
Characterization Of Abin-1 In The Traumatically Injured Brain, 2021 Wayne State University
Characterization Of Abin-1 In The Traumatically Injured Brain, Aaron Orellana, Alana C. Conti
Medical Student Research Symposium
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with chronic pain and persistent neuroinflammation. Opioids are often prescribed in order to relieve pain symptoms, but recent evidence suggests that their use negatively impacts the neuropathology of TBI leading to behavioral impairments and exacerbated neuroinflammation. The de-ubiquinating enzyme tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein (TNFAIP)3 or A20, inhibits the inflammatory signaling transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB leading to attenuation of the inflammatory response. A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor kB (ABIN-1), which physically interacts with A20, also plays a role in the inhibition of NF-kB and is poorly researched in the central nervous ...