Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,260 Full-Text Articles 4,207 Authors 280,276 Downloads 93 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Cell Biology

Faceted Search

1,260 full-text articles. Page 1 of 49.

Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu 2022 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu

Medical Student Research Symposium

During tumor progression, lysosome function is often maladaptively upregulated to match the high energy demand required for cancer cell hyper-proliferation and invasion. Here, we report that mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1), a lysosomal Ca2+ and Zn2+ release channel that regulates multiple aspects of lysosome function, is dramatically upregulated in metastatic melanoma cells compared with normal cells. TRPML-specific synthetic agonists (ML-SAs) are sufficient to induce rapid (within hours) lysosomal Zn2+-dependent necrotic cell death in metastatic melanoma cells while completely sparing normal cells. ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. While pharmacological inhibition or genetic silencing of TRPML1 ...


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons 2022 University of Maine

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations ...


Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D van Haren, Scott D McCulloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy 2022 Harvard Medical School

Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D Van Haren, Scott D Mcculloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Vaccines have generally been developed with limited insight into their molecular impact. While systems vaccinology enables characterization of mechanisms of action, these tools have yet to be applied to infants, who are at high risk of infection and receive the most vaccines. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) protects infants against disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and TB-unrelated infections via incompletely understood mechanisms. We employ mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics of blood plasma to profile BCG-induced infant responses in Guinea-Bissau in vivo and the US in vitro. BCG-induced lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) correlate with both TLR-agonist- and purified protein derivative (PPD, mycobacterial antigen)-induced blood cytokine production in vitro, raising ...


The Future Of Targeted Kinase Inhibitors In Melanoma, Signe Caksa, Usman Baqai, A E Aplin 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

The Future Of Targeted Kinase Inhibitors In Melanoma, Signe Caksa, Usman Baqai, A E Aplin

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Melanoma is a cancer of the pigment-producing cells of the body and its incidence is rising. Targeted inhibitors that act against kinases in the MAPK pathway are approved for BRAF-mutant metastatic cutaneous melanoma and increase patients' survival. Response to these therapies is limited by drug resistance and is less durable than with immune checkpoint inhibition. Conversely, rare melanoma subtypes have few therapeutic options for advanced disease and MAPK pathway targeting agents show minimal anti-tumor effects. Nevertheless, there is a future for targeted kinase inhibitors in melanoma: in new applications such as adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy and in novel combinations with ...


The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez 2022 University of South Alabama

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer ...


The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez 2022 University of Southern Maine

The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez

Thinking Matters Symposium

In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with ...


Making Invisible Rna Visible: Discriminative Sequencing Methods For Rna Molecules With Specific Terminal Formations, Megumi Shigematsu, Yohei Kirino 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Making Invisible Rna Visible: Discriminative Sequencing Methods For Rna Molecules With Specific Terminal Formations, Megumi Shigematsu, Yohei Kirino

Computational Medicine Center Faculty Papers

Next generation sequencing of RNA molecules (RNA-seq) has become a common tool to characterize the expression profiles of RNAs and their regulations in normal physiological processes and diseases. Although increasingly accumulating RNA-seq data are widely available through publicly accessible sites, most of the data for short non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been obtained for microRNA (miRNA) analyses by standard RNA-seq, which only capture the sncRNAs with 5′-phosphate (5′-P) and 3′-hydroxyl (3′-OH) ends. The sncRNAs with other terminal formations such as those with a 5′-hydroxyl end (5′-OH), a 3′-phosphate (3′-P) end, or a 2 ...


Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing health concern and is the most common type of dementia worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, one of the hallmark features of AD neuropathology, can increase RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity leading to the prevalence and severity of inflammatory osteolysis, e.g., osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Conversely, osteolytic lesions are associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis indicating that there is a direct link between dementia and inflammatory osteolysis. It was demonstrated that the neuronal cells primarily produce interleukin-34 (IL-34) and microglia, macrophages, and osteoclast precursors express colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor ...


Gm1 Ganglioside Modifies Microglial And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Α-Synuclein In The Rat Aav-A53t Α-Synuclein Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Jay S Schneider, Garima Singh, Courtney K. Williams, Vikrant Singh 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Gm1 Ganglioside Modifies Microglial And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Α-Synuclein In The Rat Aav-A53t Α-Synuclein Model Of Parkinson's Disease, Jay S Schneider, Garima Singh, Courtney K. Williams, Vikrant Singh

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Among the pathological events associated with the dopaminergic neurodegeneration characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the accumulation of toxic forms of α-synuclein and microglial activation associated with neuroinflammation. Although numerous other processes may participate in the pathogenesis of PD, the two factors mentioned above may play critical roles in the initiation and progression of dopamine neuron degeneration in PD. In this study, we employed a slowly progressing model of PD using adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of human A53T α-synuclein into the substantia nigra on one side of the brain and examined the microglial response in the striatum on the injected ...


Ocular Adnexal Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update And Comprehensive Literature Review, Tejal Magan, Tejus Pradeep, Madalina Tuluc, Jurij R. Bilyk, Tatyana Milman 2022 Department of Pathology, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Ocular Adnexal Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update And Comprehensive Literature Review, Tejal Magan, Tejus Pradeep, Madalina Tuluc, Jurij R. Bilyk, Tatyana Milman

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the clinical presentation, systemic work-up, and outcomes of all previously reported ocular adnexal (OA) metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: This was a literature review. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for all well-documented cases of OA metastases from RCC. RESULTS: Final analysis identified 44 patients with either biopsy-confirmed (41/44, 93%) or treatment response-documented (3/44, 6%) OA metastases from RCC. Thirty-four (77%) patients were male. The median age was 60 years (mean: 60, range: 22-87 years). The most common presenting signs were proptosis (19/44, 43%) and ...


Intercellular Mitochondrial Transfer Using 3d Bioprinting, Julie Bjerring, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno 2022 Old Dominion University

Intercellular Mitochondrial Transfer Using 3d Bioprinting, Julie Bjerring, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

College of Health Sciences Posters

Mitochondria are one of the most complex and vital organelles in eukaryotic cells. In recent years, it has been shown that through intercellular mitochondrial transfer, this important organelle provides a critical role in tissue homeostasis, damaged tissue repair, and tumor progression under physiological conditions. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial transfer and its effect on various cellular microenvironments has not yet been defined. Understanding the metabolic effects of mitochondrial transfer between cells and exploring the signaling leading to the intercellular mechanisms could provide advancements in both translational medicine and cell therapy for cancer progression and age-related diseases. Our group has studied ...


Patterns Of Crystallin Gene Expression In Differentiation State Specific Regions Of The Embryonic Chicken Lens, Zhiwei Ma, Daniel Chauss, Joshua Disatham, Xiaodong Jiao, Lisa Ann Brennan, A Sue Menko, Marc Kantorow, J Fielding Hejtmancik 2022 National Institutes of Health

Patterns Of Crystallin Gene Expression In Differentiation State Specific Regions Of The Embryonic Chicken Lens, Zhiwei Ma, Daniel Chauss, Joshua Disatham, Xiaodong Jiao, Lisa Ann Brennan, A Sue Menko, Marc Kantorow, J Fielding Hejtmancik

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Purpose: Transition from lens epithelial cells to lens fiber cell is accompanied by numerous changes in gene expression critical for lens transparency. We identify expression patterns of highly prevalent genes including ubiquitous and enzyme crystallins in the embryonic day 13 chicken lens.

Methods: Embryonic day 13 chicken lenses were dissected into central epithelial cell (EC), equatorial epithelial cell (EQ), cortical fiber cell (FP), and nuclear fiber cell (FC) compartments. Total RNA was prepared, subjected to high-throughput unidirectional mRNA sequencing, analyzed, mapped to the chicken genome, and functionally grouped.

Results: A total of 77,097 gene-specific transcripts covering 17,450 genes ...


The Center Of Vaccine Controversy: Wi-38 Cells, Courtney S. Chau 2022 Southeastern University - Lakeland

The Center Of Vaccine Controversy: Wi-38 Cells, Courtney S. Chau

Classical Conversations

Throughout history, there exists no bigger killer than disease. For centuries, families have fought against sickness and death, and ancient culture has spent thousands of years developing their own methods for healing. In the most recent years, the field of medicine has greatly expanded, allowing for cures and medicine to be greatly distributed to the general public. Millions of lives have been saved, and today society can live without fear of lurking diseases snatching away loved ones with a blink of an eye. This senior thesis focuses on the development of vaccines made from the WI-38 cell line. This cell ...


Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson 2022 Liberty University

Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson

Senior Honors Theses

Intracellular calcium as a signaling molecule is a pervasive feature of cellular pathways, especially those that manage internal homeostasis and transitions through the cell cycle, so much so that regulated, responsive calcium flux between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria has been suggested to play a major role in cancer development. Another factor commonly implicated in tumorigenesis is RAS, an oncogene that controls signaling for many pathways that are also regulated by calcium. While both calcium and oncogenic RAS signaling are implicated in cancer development, possible links between them have yet to be determined. The identification of these links ...


Developing Targeted Therapies For T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Jianzhong Hu 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Developing Targeted Therapies For T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Jianzhong Hu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Introduction Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children, and risk-adapted chemotherapies have dramatically improved the outcomes of this disease. Compared to B-cell ALL, T-cell ALL (T-ALL) is more aggressive and has worse outcomes from chemotherapy. There is a great unmet need to develop biomarkers and novel targeted therapies for this type of cancer. Working together with internal and external collaborators, we performed a large-scale pharmacotyping assay in over 300 primary ALL samples. By combining pharmacotypying and genomic profiling of these samples, we identified a substantial T-ALL population that showed strong response to dasatinib, a known ABL1 ...


The Pro-Fibrotic Response Of Mesenchymal Leader Cells To Lens Wounding Involves Hyaluronic Acid, Its Receptor Rhamm, And Vimentin, A. Sue Menko, Alison Romisher, Janice L Walker 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

The Pro-Fibrotic Response Of Mesenchymal Leader Cells To Lens Wounding Involves Hyaluronic Acid, Its Receptor Rhamm, And Vimentin, A. Sue Menko, Alison Romisher, Janice L Walker

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Hyaluronic Acid/Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the provisional matrix deposited by cells post-wounding with roles both in regulating cell migration to repair a wound and in promoting a fibrotic outcome to wounding. Both are mediated through its receptors CD44 and RHAMM. We now showed that HA is present in the provisional matrix assembled on the substrate surface in a lens post-cataract surgery explant wound model in which mesenchymal leader cells populate the wound edges to direct migration of the lens epithelium across the adjacent culture substrate onto which this matrix is assembled. Inhibiting HA expression with 4-MU ...


68-Year Old Man With Progressive Weakness And Ventilator Dependent Respiratory Failure: A Case Report Of Sporadic Late Onset Nemaline Myopathy, P. Kirupaharan, Daniel Kramer, Alan Gandler, Lawrence C. Kenyon, Ross Summer 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

68-Year Old Man With Progressive Weakness And Ventilator Dependent Respiratory Failure: A Case Report Of Sporadic Late Onset Nemaline Myopathy, P. Kirupaharan, Daniel Kramer, Alan Gandler, Lawrence C. Kenyon, Ross Summer

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Background: Neuromuscular pathologies must be considered when caring for patients with persistent or progressive respiratory failure. Pertinent disease states may involve skeletal muscles of respiration or associated neurologic structures including motor neurons, peripheral neurons and the neuromuscular junction. Diagnosis may require pulmonary function testing, neurophysiologic studies, imaging, and/or muscle biopsy.

Case presentation: A 68-year-old male was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU) for management of ventilator dependent respiratory failure. Upon further historical review, he described gradually worsening gait instability and muscle weakness, which was previously attributed to vascular Parkinsonism in the setting of known cerebrovascular disease. Upon arrival ...


Uncontrolled Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Underlies The Pathogenesis Of Neurodegeneration In Micu1-Deficient Mice And Patients, Raghavendra Singh, Adam Bartok, Melanie Paillard, Ashley L. Tyburski, Melanie B Elliott, György Hajnóczky 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Uncontrolled Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Underlies The Pathogenesis Of Neurodegeneration In Micu1-Deficient Mice And Patients, Raghavendra Singh, Adam Bartok, Melanie Paillard, Ashley L. Tyburski, Melanie B Elliott, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is mediated via the calcium uniporter complex that is primarily regulated by MICU1, a Ca2+-sensing gatekeeper. Recently, human patients with MICU1 loss-of-function mutations were diagnosed with neuromuscular and cognitive impairments. While studies in patient-derived cells revealed altered mitochondrial calcium signaling, the neuronal pathogenesis was difficult to study. To fill this void, we created a neuron-specific MICU1-KO mouse model. These animals show progressive, abnormal motor and cognitive phenotypes likely caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the cortex. We found increased ...


Fluorescence Imaging Detection Of Nanodomain Redox Signaling Events At Organellar Contacts, David M. Booth, Péter Várnai, Suresh K Joseph, György Hajnóczky 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Fluorescence Imaging Detection Of Nanodomain Redox Signaling Events At Organellar Contacts, David M. Booth, Péter Várnai, Suresh K Joseph, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

This protocol describes how to visualize, detect, and analyze redox signals (oxidative bursts) at the ER-mitochondrial interface. It uses drug-inducible crosslinking to target the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor Grx1roGFP2 to organellar contact sites to measure local redox changes associated with transient depolarizations of the mitochondrial membrane potential (flickers). The strategy allows imaging of the oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG:GSH) in subcellular regions below the diffraction limit with good temporal resolution and minimum phototoxicity. Moreover, the strategy also applies to diverse parameters including pH, H2O2, and Ca2+.


Targeting Sox10-Deficient Cells To Reduce The Dormant-Invasive Phenotype State In Melanoma, Claudia Capparelli, Timothy J. Purwin, McKenna Glasheen, Signe Caksa, Manoela Tiago, Nicole A. Wilski, Danielle Pomante, Sheera Rosenbaum, Mai Q Nguyen, Weijia Cai, Janusz Franco-Barraza, R. Zheng, MD, Gaurav Kumar, I Chervoneva, Ayako Shimada, Vito W Rebecca, Adam E. Snook, Kim Hookim, Xiaowei Xu, Edna Cukierman, Meenhard Herlyn, A E Aplin 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Targeting Sox10-Deficient Cells To Reduce The Dormant-Invasive Phenotype State In Melanoma, Claudia Capparelli, Timothy J. Purwin, Mckenna Glasheen, Signe Caksa, Manoela Tiago, Nicole A. Wilski, Danielle Pomante, Sheera Rosenbaum, Mai Q Nguyen, Weijia Cai, Janusz Franco-Barraza, R. Zheng, Md, Gaurav Kumar, I Chervoneva, Ayako Shimada, Vito W Rebecca, Adam E. Snook, Kim Hookim, Xiaowei Xu, Edna Cukierman, Meenhard Herlyn, A E Aplin

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Cellular plasticity contributes to intra-tumoral heterogeneity and phenotype switching, which enable adaptation to metastatic microenvironments and resistance to therapies. Mechanisms underlying tumor cell plasticity remain poorly understood. SOX10, a neural crest lineage transcription factor, is heterogeneously expressed in melanomas. Loss of SOX10 reduces proliferation, leads to invasive properties, including the expression of mesenchymal genes and extracellular matrix, and promotes tolerance to BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors. We identify the class of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1/2 (cIAP1/2) inhibitors as inducing cell death selectively in SOX10-deficient cells. Targeted therapy selects for SOX10 knockout cells underscoring their drug tolerant properties ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress