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A Single-Center, Assessor-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial To Test The Safety And Efficacy Of A Novel Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (Bci-Fes) Intervention For Gait Rehabilitation In The Chronic Stroke Population, Piyashi Biswas, Lucy Dodakian, Po T. Wang, Christopher A. Johnson, Jill See, Vicky Chan, Cathy Chou, Wendy Lazouras, Alison L. McKenzie, David J. Reinkensmeyer, Danh V. Nguyen, Steven C. Cramer, An H. Do, Zoran Nenadic 2024 University of California, Irvine

A Single-Center, Assessor-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial To Test The Safety And Efficacy Of A Novel Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (Bci-Fes) Intervention For Gait Rehabilitation In The Chronic Stroke Population, Piyashi Biswas, Lucy Dodakian, Po T. Wang, Christopher A. Johnson, Jill See, Vicky Chan, Cathy Chou, Wendy Lazouras, Alison L. Mckenzie, David J. Reinkensmeyer, Danh V. Nguyen, Steven C. Cramer, An H. Do, Zoran Nenadic

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

In the United States, there are over seven million stroke survivors, with many facing gait impairments due to foot drop. This restricts their community ambulation and hinders functional independence, leading to several long-term health complications. Despite the best available physical therapy, gait function is incompletely recovered, and this occurs mainly during the acute phase post-stroke. Therapeutic options are limited currently. Novel therapies based on neurobiological principles have the potential to lead to long-term functional improvements. The Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system is one such strategy. It is based on Hebbian principles and has shown promise …


The Brainstem As A Conserved System For Consciousness: Integrating Phylogeny, Neurology, And Psychology, Shadia Kawkabani, Kevin P. Kaut 2024 University of Akron

The Brainstem As A Conserved System For Consciousness: Integrating Phylogeny, Neurology, And Psychology, Shadia Kawkabani, Kevin P. Kaut

Journal of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Processes

Historically, scientists and physicians have taken a corticocentric view of consciousness, emphasizing the need for a cortex in producing the conscious experience. The preserved consciousness observed in hydranencephalic children and decorticated rats suggests that some form of consciousness may be produced by a subcortical network. The brainstem, a phylogenetically conserved brain system, could serve as the major integrative network to produce this form of consciousness—referred to as ‘affective consciousness’, the evolutionary antecedent to the reflective consciousness allowing humans to reflect on experiences. The functional integration of the brainstem with the amygdala, motor network, and other subcortical structures provides the architecture …


Fos Expression In Lateral Hypothalamus/Perifornical Area Is Correlated With Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine-Seeking Behavior In A Sex-Specific Manner, Milena Sudarikov, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Daniel F. Manvich 2024 Rowan University

Fos Expression In Lateral Hypothalamus/Perifornical Area Is Correlated With Psychosocial Stress-Induced Cocaine-Seeking Behavior In A Sex-Specific Manner, Milena Sudarikov, Nicole M. Hinds, Ireneusz D. Wojtas, Desta M. Pulley, Daniel F. Manvich

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Cocaine Use Disorder persists as a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent epidemiological data indicate that rates of cocaine-involved overdose deaths are rising, and treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder is challenging due to a lack of FDA-approved medications to help patients achieve abstinence and avoid relapse. Stress can precipitate cocaine craving and trigger relapse episodes, however the underlying neural circuitry by which stressors drive cocaine seeking is not completely understood. Our laboratory has recently identified the potential involvement of the rostrolateral aspect of the periaqueductal gray (rlPAG) in psychosocial stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior using a rodent model of …


A Preliminary Report On The Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating The Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In A Rodent Model Of Acute Inflammation With Impaired Cerebrovasculature, Minjal Patel, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, George G. Godsey, Mary C. Kosciuk, Ana Rodriguez, Bernd Spur, Kingsley Yin, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G. Nagele, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

A Preliminary Report On The Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating The Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In A Rodent Model Of Acute Inflammation With Impaired Cerebrovasculature, Minjal Patel, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, George G. Godsey, Mary C. Kosciuk, Ana Rodriguez, Bernd Spur, Kingsley Yin, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G. Nagele, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis and ultimately proper neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB, leading to increased BBB permeability, has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Lipoxins (LXs) are a class of arachidonate-derived eicosanoids, which are a class of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs). SPMs are known to inhibit immune response through inhibition of cellular infiltration, downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and upregulation of anti-inflammatory mediators. Hence, LXs are recognized as “breaking signals” in the inflammatory process. One form of LXs, Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) …


How Does Schizophrenia Affect The Expression Of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In The Brain?, Shruti Varshney, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

How Does Schizophrenia Affect The Expression Of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In The Brain?, Shruti Varshney, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder with a pathophysiology that has not yet been fully understood. This mental illness is characterized by disruptions in cognition, social activity, affect, and perception, and affects approximately 0.085% of individuals worldwide. The Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (α7nAChR) has been connected to auditory function gating deficits. The purpose of this review is to understand the current literature in how the levels of α7nAChR expression and function are affected by SZ, information that could be used to develop therapies to modulate auditory hallucinations in patients with SZ. A literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed journal …


The Neuroprotective Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating Blood Brain Barrier Integrity In Neuroinflammatory Disease Processes, Minjal Patel, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

The Neuroprotective Role Of Lipoxin A4 In Reinstating Blood Brain Barrier Integrity In Neuroinflammatory Disease Processes, Minjal Patel, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the vascular endothelium, astrocytic foot processes, pericytes, is a highly selective barrier that is responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis and ultimately proper neuronal function. Disruption of the BBB, leading to increased BBB permeability, has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI).1 Loss of BBB integrity leads to the proliferation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFɑ, IL-1β, and IL-6.2 Moderate inflammation has a beneficial response in the system following an acute injury. However, prolonged inflammation has been known to perturb homeostasis and have …


Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expression In The Hippocampus Of Patients With Schizophrenia, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, Minjal Patel, Mary Kosciuk, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert Nagele, Eric Goldwaser, Nimish Acharya 2024 Rowan University

Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expression In The Hippocampus Of Patients With Schizophrenia, Shruti Varshney, Ananya Nethikunta, Minjal Patel, Mary Kosciuk, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert Nagele, Eric Goldwaser, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heterogenous psychiatric condition characterized by disruptions in cognition, social activity, affect, and perception often associated with a varied combination of positive and negative symptoms. The pathophysiology behind SZ remains poorly elucidated. Earlier reports have cited the importance of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) in the hippocampus and the receptor’s association with auditory sensory gating and cognitive function. Specifically, variations in the expression and functionality of α7nAChR can be linked to auditory hallucinations experienced by patients with SZ and several therapies have been researched that target α7nAChRs. However, there are very few primary research …


The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Noradrenergic Innervation Of The Prefrontal Cortex, Jil P. Modi, Christopher P. Knapp, Rachel L. Navarra 2024 Rowan University

The Impact Of Traumatic Brain Injury On Noradrenergic Innervation Of The Prefrontal Cortex, Jil P. Modi, Christopher P. Knapp, Rachel L. Navarra

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in the United States, and it can occur due to varied reasons including motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, and falls. Following TBIs, patients are often left with lifelong disabilities and cognitive problems that can lead to increased risk-taking behaviors. The main goal of my research was to understand the neural mechanisms that drive increased risk-taking behaviors due to TBIs. The specific areas of the brain I was interested in looking at were the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and/or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the prefrontal …


Pediatric Neurotropic Infection Alters Synaptic Development In The Developing Brain, Anuoluwapo Grace Fadare, Yashika S. Kamte, Manish N. Chandwani, Lauren A. O'Donnell 2024 Rowan University

Pediatric Neurotropic Infection Alters Synaptic Development In The Developing Brain, Anuoluwapo Grace Fadare, Yashika S. Kamte, Manish N. Chandwani, Lauren A. O'Donnell

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Many neurotropic viruses cause more significant pathology in younger hosts as their brains are still developing. This experiment asked how central nervous system (CNS) viral-infections affect the development of synapses in the pediatric brain during infection and post-infection. Synaptogenesis is at its peak in pediatric mice (10 days old) and we hypothesized that a neurotropic infection could disrupt synaptic proteins. We used a transgenic mouse model where measles virus (MV) infects only mature neurons, leading us to question whether synapses were impacted. We examined synaptic markers in the cerebellum and hippocampus in MV-infected and uninfected mice 9 days and 90 …


Intra-Accumbens Microinfusion Of The Dopamine D3 Receptor Partial Agonist (±)Vk4-40 Does Not Affect Basal Locomotion In Mice, Yeonwoo Sim, Nicole M. Hinds, Amy Hauck Newman, Daniel F. Manvich 2024 Rowan University

Intra-Accumbens Microinfusion Of The Dopamine D3 Receptor Partial Agonist (±)Vk4-40 Does Not Affect Basal Locomotion In Mice, Yeonwoo Sim, Nicole M. Hinds, Amy Hauck Newman, Daniel F. Manvich

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

The opioid epidemic remains a pressing public health crisis, prompting the search for alternative pharmacotherapies for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). This study explores the potential of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) partial agonist, (±)VK4-40, as a novel treatment option. We investigated the impact of intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) microinfusion of VK4-40 on basal locomotion in mice. Results indicate that VK4-40 did not significantly alter basal locomotion, suggesting that its therapeutic effects may not be mediated through disruptions in generalized motor function. Future research will focus on elucidating the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying VK4-40's therapeutic actions and exploring its effects on psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion. …


Interactions Between Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Methylphenidate Administration On Catecholamine Transporter Protein Levels Within The Rodent Prefrontal Cortex, Anna Abrimian, Eleni Papadopoulos, Christopher P. Knapp, J. Loweth, Barry Waterhouse, Rachel Navarra 2024 Rowan University

Interactions Between Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury And Methylphenidate Administration On Catecholamine Transporter Protein Levels Within The Rodent Prefrontal Cortex, Anna Abrimian, Eleni Papadopoulos, Christopher P. Knapp, J. Loweth, Barry Waterhouse, Rachel Navarra

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

It is theorized that low concentrations of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) within in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to increased risky behavior. Our lab has shown that repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) sex-differentially increases risky behavior in a rodent model. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant drug used to treat symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also driven by a hypo-catecholaminergic PFC. MPH elevates catecholamine levels by blocking DA and NE transporters, DAT and NET. While the potential of psychostimulants to treat post-TBI symptoms have been explored, the effects of sub-chronic MPH on transporter levels following …


Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes 2024 East Tennessee State University

Perinatal Buprenorphine Effects On Offspring Growth, Opioid Withdrawal, And Brain Morphology In Rats, Parker Barnes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Opioid use disorder (OUD) impacts 5.6 million people in the US. Buprenorphine (BUP) is a commonly prescribed opioid medication used to treat OUD, including in pregnant women. However, opioid use during pregnancy is associated with poorer infant outcomes including reduced fetal growth, neurodevelopmental deficits, and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Recent clinical data suggests that providing mothers with a lower dose of BUP may result in fewer negative outcomes in infants. Here, a preclinical rodent model of low-dose perinatal BUP exposure was used to study offspring health outcomes in the neonate, juvenile, and adolescent offspring. Dams were given clinically relevant …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Sex And Age Differences In Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Responses And The Resulting Influences On Cognition, Miranda K. Traylor 2024 University of South Alabama

Sex And Age Differences In Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Responses And The Resulting Influences On Cognition, Miranda K. Traylor

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

Vascular dysfunction is the earliest known marker of neurodegeneration. However, limited research has been conducted to determine if changes in peripheral vascular function track differences in brain health. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if previously reported sex differences in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) vascular occlusion test (VOT) parameters persist across the lifespan and if these differences track age- and sex-related differences in a cognitive task. Ninety-nine healthy, cognitively intact adults (50 women, 49 men) across the adult lifespan (19-81 yrs) were used for analysis. The combination of NIRS-VOT was used to quantify microvascular function. Cognition was defined as the time …


Single Case Experimental Design Examining Cognitive Behavioural Therapy For Post-Stroke Depression, Liam Alexander MacKenzie Myles, Emma Jones 2024 University of Oxford, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK

Single Case Experimental Design Examining Cognitive Behavioural Therapy For Post-Stroke Depression, Liam Alexander Mackenzie Myles, Emma Jones

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is common in older-age adults and is typically treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). However, research has ascertained mixed findings regarding the efficacy of CBT for PSD in older-age adults, with limited evidence in people from global majority backgrounds. Materials and Methods. This case study used single case experimental design methodology to examine the effectiveness of CBT for PSD in a black, older-age man. The effects of health conditions, cohort beliefs, transitions in role investments, socio-cultural context and early experiences on the client’s thoughts, emotions, physical sensations and behaviours were formulated, before behavioural activation was used to …


Advancing Brain Tumor Segmentation With Spectral–Spatial Graph Neural Networks, Sina Mohammadi, Mohamed Allali 2024 Chapman University

Advancing Brain Tumor Segmentation With Spectral–Spatial Graph Neural Networks, Sina Mohammadi, Mohamed Allali

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

In the field of brain tumor segmentation, accurately capturing the complexities of tumor sub-regions poses significant challenges. Traditional segmentation methods usually fail to accurately segment tumor subregions. This research introduces a novel solution employing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), enriched with spectral and spatial insight. In the supervoxel creation phase, we explored methods like VCCS, SLIC, Watershed, Meanshift, and Felzenszwalb–Huttenlocher, evaluating their performance based on homogeneity, moment of inertia, and uniformity in shape and size. After creating supervoxels, we represented 3D MRI images as a graph structure. In this study, we combined Spatial and Spectral GNNs to capture both local and …


Mapping The Maze Of Time: Unraveling Chronological Age-Induced Structural Transformations In The C57bl6 Mouse Brain, Angelica Arshoun, Adam Jasper, Ella D'Amico, Frank Yeh, Kirk Erickson, Amrita Sahu, Fabrisia Ambrosio 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Mapping The Maze Of Time: Unraveling Chronological Age-Induced Structural Transformations In The C57bl6 Mouse Brain, Angelica Arshoun, Adam Jasper, Ella D'Amico, Frank Yeh, Kirk Erickson, Amrita Sahu, Fabrisia Ambrosio

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Apigenin Alleviates Autistic-Like Stereotyped Repetitive Behaviors And Mitigates Brain Oxidative Stress In Mice, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Rami Beiram, Murat Oz, Bassem Sadek 2024 United Arab Emirates University

Apigenin Alleviates Autistic-Like Stereotyped Repetitive Behaviors And Mitigates Brain Oxidative Stress In Mice, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Rami Beiram, Murat Oz, Bassem Sadek

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Studying the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically α7-nAChRs, in neuropsychiatric brain disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has gained a growing interest. The flavonoid apigenin (APG) has been confirmed in its pharmacological action as a positive allosteric modulator of α7-nAChRs. However, there is no research describing the pharmacological potential of APG in ASD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the subchronic systemic treatment of APG (10–30 mg/kg) on ASD-like repetitive and compulsive-like behaviors and oxidative stress status in the hippocampus and cerebellum in BTBR mice, utilizing the reference drug aripiprazole (ARP, 1 …


The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig III, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman III 2024 Loma Linda University

The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig Iii, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman Iii

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

When perceived as threatening, social interactions have been shown to trigger the sympathoadrenal medullary system as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in a physiologic stress response. The allostatic load placed on human health and physiology in the context of acute and chronic stress can have profound health consequences. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for a lab-based stress stimulus using social-evaluative threat. While several valid, stress-stimulating protocols exist, we sought to develop one that triggered a physiologic response, did not require significant lab resources, and could be completed in around 10 min. We included 53 …


Neuromodulation Of Mouse Auditory Cortex Using Focused Ultrasound, Jacob Hehir 2024 Touro College and University System

Neuromodulation Of Mouse Auditory Cortex Using Focused Ultrasound, Jacob Hehir

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

Neurological diseases impose a large health and financial burden for nations worldwide. Current treatments for many conditions are limited to pharmacological or invasive surgical approaches. Neuromodulation is an alternative therapy wherein electrical currents, magnetic fields, or electromagnetic waves are used to noninvasively modify brain function. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been shown to alter neural activity, theoretically with much higher spatial resolution than other neuromodulation techniques. However, these predictions assume that neuromodulatory effects are constrained to the acoustic focus. Given that the architecture of neural circuitry in the cerebral cortex supports delicately balanced lateral processing on spatial scales that may exceed …


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