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The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski 2021 Susquehanna University

Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski

Senior Scholars Day

In this study, bacteria were analyzed from a near-surface environment impacted by the anthracite coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that the elevated soil temperatures created by the spread of the underground fire would provide an ideal environment for previously unstudied thermophilic bacteria. With nearly 3 million cases of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections annually, the identification of novel bacteria is critical to make new antibiotics. Surface soil samples were taken from boreholes across eight fire-impacted locations. Bacteria were isolated from these samples on actinomycetes isolation agar at an increased temperature of 50°C to mimic the soil environment ...


Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram 2021 University of Louisville

Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) also referred to as the Streptococcus anginosus group. These are Gram-positive, variable hemolysis, catalase negative, microaerophilic, non-motile facultative anaerobes which have been known to cause abscesses in humans. We report a case of empyema caused by Streptococcus anginosus in a patient with an unresolved pneumonia for over a month. In early October 2018, the patient presented to an emergency room with the complaints of shortness of air, productive cough, chills, subjective fever and weight loss for 4 weeks. A chest X-ray revealed a left lower lobe pneumonia. He was treated with 250 mg of azithromycin for ...


Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Hiv-1 Drug Resistance To Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors In Hiv-1 Non-B Subtypes, Emmanuel Ndashimye

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1) has infected over 75 million people and over 35 million have succumbed to virus related illnesses. Despite access to a variety of antiretroviral therapy (ART) options, ART programs have been disproportionally spread in the world with low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) facing challenges to access the most potent ART options. With less potent ART remaining in use in LMICs, HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) presents a growing challenge in LMICs. Since approval of the first-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTIs), Raltegravir (RAL) in 2007, INSTIs remain the best choice as a backbone of ART. Access to second generation ...


Inactivated Rabies Virus Vectored Sars-Cov-2 Vaccine Prevents Disease In A Syrian Hamster Model., Drishya Kurup, Delphine C Malherbe, Christoph Wirblich, Rachael Lambert, Adam J Ronk, Leila Zabihi Diba, Alexander Bukreyev, Matthias J. Schnell 2021 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Inactivated Rabies Virus Vectored Sars-Cov-2 Vaccine Prevents Disease In A Syrian Hamster Model., Drishya Kurup, Delphine C Malherbe, Christoph Wirblich, Rachael Lambert, Adam J Ronk, Leila Zabihi Diba, Alexander Bukreyev, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. Although human disease is often asymptomatic, some develop severe illnesses such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death. There is an urgent need for a vaccine to prevent its rapid spread as asymptomatic infections accounting for up to 40% of transmission events. Here we further evaluated an inactivated rabies vectored SARS-CoV-2 S1 vaccine CORAVAX in a Syrian hamster model. CORAVAX adjuvanted with MPLA-AddaVax, a TRL4 agonist, induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies and generated a strong Th1-biased immune response. Vaccinated hamsters were protected from ...


Integrative Network Analyses Of Transcriptomics Data Reveal Potential Drug Targets For Acute Radiation Syndrome, Robert Moore, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert Powers, Chittibabu Guda, Kenneth W. Bayles, David B. Berkowitz, Tomáš Helikar 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Integrative Network Analyses Of Transcriptomics Data Reveal Potential Drug Targets For Acute Radiation Syndrome, Robert Moore, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert Powers, Chittibabu Guda, Kenneth W. Bayles, David B. Berkowitz, Tomáš Helikar

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Recent political unrest has highlighted the importance of understanding the short- and long-term effects of gamma-radiation exposure on human health and survivability. In this regard, effective treatment for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a necessity in cases of nuclear disasters. Here, we propose 20 therapeutic targets for ARS identified using a systematic approach that integrates gene coexpression networks obtained under radiation treatment in humans and mice, drug databases, disease-gene association, radiation-induced differential gene expression, and literature mining. By selecting gene targets with existing drugs, we identified potential candidates for drug repurposing. Eight of these genes (BRD4, NFKBIA, CDKN1A, TFPI, MMP9 ...


Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang 2021 University of Kentucky

Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Immunization with an insect cell lysate/baculovirus mixture containing recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike protein induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies in both mice and piglets. However, immunization of piglets with this vaccine resulted in enhancement of disease symptoms and virus replication in vaccine recipients exposed to PEDV challenge. Thus, these observations demonstrate a previously unrecognized challenge of PEDV vaccine research, which has important implications for coronavirus vaccine development.


Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari 2021 Wayne State University

Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari

Medical Student Research Symposium

Streptococcus cristatus is a member of the Mitis streptococcus group. Like other members of this group, it resides in mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity but rarely causes disease. We present a case of S. cristatus bacteremia and “possible endocarditis” (per the modified Duke criteria) in a 59-year-old male suffering from end- stage cryptogenic cirrhosis. To date, it is the fifth reported case of disease caused by the microbe, and the first adult case in which S. cristatus was the sole microbe identified. Our patient had a history of dental caries and poor dentition, which were likely the source of ...


Hematopoietic Cell-Mediated Dissemination Of Murine Cytomegalovirus Is Regulated By Nk Cells And Immune Evasion., Shunchuan Zhang, Lauren E Springer, Han-Zhi Rao, Renee G Espinosa Trethewy, Lindsey M Bishop, Meaghan H Hancock, Finn Grey, Christopher M. Snyder 2021 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Hematopoietic Cell-Mediated Dissemination Of Murine Cytomegalovirus Is Regulated By Nk Cells And Immune Evasion., Shunchuan Zhang, Lauren E Springer, Han-Zhi Rao, Renee G Espinosa Trethewy, Lindsey M Bishop, Meaghan H Hancock, Finn Grey, Christopher M. Snyder

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinically important diseases in immune compromised and immune immature individuals. Based largely on work in the mouse model of murine (M)CMV, there is a consensus that myeloid cells are important for disseminating CMV from the site of infection. In theory, such dissemination should expose CMV to cell-mediated immunity and thus necessitate evasion of T cells and NK cells. However, this hypothesis remains untested. We constructed a recombinant MCMV encoding target sites for the hematopoietic specific miRNA miR-142-3p in the essential viral gene IE3. This virus disseminated poorly to the salivary gland following intranasal or footpad infections ...


Dysregulated Anti-Viral Innate Immune Cascade During Aging., Colby Stotesbury, Luis J. Sigal 2021 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States

Dysregulated Anti-Viral Innate Immune Cascade During Aging., Colby Stotesbury, Luis J. Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Aging predisposes to increased morbidity and lethality to infectious diseases, which becomes apparent with the high mortality rates suffered by older people when infected with influenza virus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At the root of this increased susceptibility to infections, is the wide-spread deterioration of the immune system.


Onchocerca Volvulus Bivalent Subunit Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity In Genetically Diverse Collaborative Cross Recombinant Inbred Intercross Mice, Nathan M Ryan, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Benjamin E Leiby, Ayako Shimada, Lei Yu, Amir Yarmahmoodi, Nikolai Petrovsky, Bin Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Benjamin L Makepeace, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Onchocerca Volvulus Bivalent Subunit Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity In Genetically Diverse Collaborative Cross Recombinant Inbred Intercross Mice, Nathan M Ryan, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Fernando Pardo-Manuel De Villena, Benjamin E Leiby, Ayako Shimada, Lei Yu, Amir Yarmahmoodi, Nikolai Petrovsky, Bin Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Benjamin L Makepeace, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

This study tests the hypothesis that an Onchocerca volvulus vaccine, consisting of two recombinant antigens (Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2) formulated with the combination-adjuvant Advax-2, can induce protective immunity in genetically diverse Collaborative Cross recombinant inbred intercross mice (CC-RIX). CC-RIX lines were immunized with the O. volvulus vaccine and challenged with third-stage larvae. Equal and significant reductions in parasite survival were observed in 7 of 8 CC-RIX lines. Innate protective immunity was seen in the single CC-RIX line that did not demonstrate protective adaptive immunity. Analysis of a wide array of immune factors showed that each line of mice have a unique ...


Manganese Exposure In Juvenile C57bl/6 Mice Increases Glial Inflammatory Responses In The Substantia Nigra Following Infection With H1n1 Influenza Virus., Collin M Bantle, C Tenley French, Jason E Cummings, Shankar Sadasivan, Kevin Tran, Richard A Slayden, Richard Jay Smeyne, Ronald B Tjalkens 2021 Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States

Manganese Exposure In Juvenile C57bl/6 Mice Increases Glial Inflammatory Responses In The Substantia Nigra Following Infection With H1n1 Influenza Virus., Collin M Bantle, C Tenley French, Jason E Cummings, Shankar Sadasivan, Kevin Tran, Richard A Slayden, Richard Jay Smeyne, Ronald B Tjalkens

Farber Institute for Neurosciences Faculty Papers

Infection with Influenza A virus can lead to the development of encephalitis and subsequent neurological deficits ranging from headaches to neurodegeneration. Post-encephalitic parkinsonism has been reported in surviving patients of H1N1 infections, but not all cases of encephalitic H1N1 infection present with these neurological symptoms, suggesting that interactions with an environmental neurotoxin could promote more severe neurological damage. The heavy metal, manganese (Mn), is a potential interacting factor with H1N1 because excessive exposure early in life can induce long-lasting effects on neurological function through inflammatory activation of glial cells. In the current study, we used a two-hit model of neurotoxin-pathogen ...


The Intestinal And Oral Microbiomes Are Robust Predictors Of Covid-19 Severity The Main Predictor Of Covid-19-Related Fatality [Preprint], Doyle V. Ward, Shakti Bhattarai, Mayra Rojas-Correa, Ayan Purkayastha, Devon Holler, Ming Da Qu, William G. Mitchell, Jason D. Yang, Samuel Fountain, Abigail Zeamer, Catherine Forconi, Gavin Fujimori, Boaz Odwar, Caitlin Cawley, Beth A. McCormick, Ann M. Moormann, Mireya Wessolossky, Vanni Bucci, Ana Maldonado-Contreras 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Intestinal And Oral Microbiomes Are Robust Predictors Of Covid-19 Severity The Main Predictor Of Covid-19-Related Fatality [Preprint], Doyle V. Ward, Shakti Bhattarai, Mayra Rojas-Correa, Ayan Purkayastha, Devon Holler, Ming Da Qu, William G. Mitchell, Jason D. Yang, Samuel Fountain, Abigail Zeamer, Catherine Forconi, Gavin Fujimori, Boaz Odwar, Caitlin Cawley, Beth A. Mccormick, Ann M. Moormann, Mireya Wessolossky, Vanni Bucci, Ana Maldonado-Contreras

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The reason for the striking differences in clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients is still poorly understood. While most recover, a subset of people become critically ill and succumb to the disease. Thus, identification of biomarkers that can predict the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease is key to help prioritize patients needing urgent treatment. Given that an unbalanced gut microbiome is a reflection of poor health, we aim to identify indicator species that could predict COVID-19 disease clinical outcomes. Here, for the first time and with the largest COVID-19 patient cohort reported for microbiome studies, we demonstrated that the intestinal ...


Immunopathogenesis Of Craniotomy Infection And Niche-Specific Immune Responses To Biofilm, Sharon D.B. de Morais, Gunjan Kak, Joseph P. Menousek, Tammy Kielian 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Immunopathogenesis Of Craniotomy Infection And Niche-Specific Immune Responses To Biofilm, Sharon D.B. De Morais, Gunjan Kak, Joseph P. Menousek, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Bacterial infections in the central nervous system (CNS) can be life threatening and often impair neurological function. Biofilm infection is a complication following craniotomy, a neurosurgical procedure that involves the removal and replacement of a skull fragment (bone flap) to access the brain for surgical intervention. The incidence of infection following craniotomy ranges from 1% to 3% with approximately half caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These infections present a significant therapeutic challenge due to the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm and unique immune properties of the CNS. Previous studies have revealed a critical role for innate immune responses during S ...


Crosstalk Between Staphylococcus Aureus And Innate Immunity: Focus On Immunometabolism, Christopher M. Horn, Tammy Kielian 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Crosstalk Between Staphylococcus Aureus And Innate Immunity: Focus On Immunometabolism, Christopher M. Horn, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infections globally in both healthcare and community settings. The success of this bacterium is the product of an expansive repertoire of virulence factors in combination with acquired antibiotic resistance and propensity for biofilm formation. S. aureus leverages these factors to adapt to and subvert the host immune response. With the burgeoning field of immunometabolism, it has become clear that the metabolic program of leukocytes dictates their inflammatory status and overall effectiveness in clearing an infection. The metabolic flexibility of S. aureus offers an inherent means by which the pathogen could manipulate the ...


Specimens, Sara Kapadia 2020 Claremont Colleges

Specimens, Sara Kapadia

The STEAM Journal

A short rumination on specimens


Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi 2020 MountainView Hospital-Nevada

Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving public health issue that has become globally widespread and an overwhelming pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease include asymptomatic carrier states, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multiorgan dysfunction. Here, we present a unique and rare case of an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an asymptomatic pregnant woman with no predisposing medical illnesses.

Discussion: An 18-year-old G2P1 African American woman at 7 weeks gestational age with no significant medical or family history presenting to the Emergency Department during the initial phases of the pandemic with complaints of new onset left ...


Microbial Load Of Touch Screen Mobile Phones Used By University Students And Healthcare Staff, Abdelraouf Elmanama 2020 Islamic University-Gaza

Microbial Load Of Touch Screen Mobile Phones Used By University Students And Healthcare Staff, Abdelraouf Elmanama

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of our lives. Though they offer plenty of advantages, they are prolific breeding grounds for infectious pathogens in communities and hospitals. The present study seeks to identify the counts and types of bacteria contaminating touch screen mobile phones (TSMP) used by students of the Islamic University-Gaza (IUG) and healthcare workers (HCWs) at Al-Shifa Hospital. It also tries to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to April 2014. Two hundred and fifty swab samples were collected: 100 IUG female students, 100 IUG male students and 50 from ...


Evaluation Of The Lateral Flow Immunoassays And Electrochemiluminescent Technique For Detection Of Hepatitis B, Eidha Hameed 2020 Hadramout University, Yemen

Evaluation Of The Lateral Flow Immunoassays And Electrochemiluminescent Technique For Detection Of Hepatitis B, Eidha Hameed

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common type of viral diseases worldwide; Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the principal target for laboratory tests to diagnose the HBV infection. Therefore, rapid tests for its diagnosis are less costly, and easy to perform and develop recently.

This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of lateral flow immunoassays (LFA) and electrochemiluminescent (ECL) technique for the detection of HBsAg in Hadhramout/Yemen.

A total of 85 serum samples were tested for HBsAg by ECL technique (cobas e 411) and three rapid LFA cassettes (INTEC, ACRO and HEALGEN). Sensitivity and specificity ...


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms ...


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