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Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the ...


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm ...


How Irish Medical Scientists Can Assist In The Improved Diagnosis Of The Disease Infectious Mononucleosis, Patrick Naughton 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

How Irish Medical Scientists Can Assist In The Improved Diagnosis Of The Disease Infectious Mononucleosis, Patrick Naughton

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background:

The eponymously named Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) is the sole causative agent of the acute illness in humans described either as infectious mononucleosis (IM), or glandular fever. IM, when not clinically silent, can present in patients with at least two of the classic triad of symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Challenges for the clinician arise when atypical cases present. Early, accurate and informed laboratory test results are vital for diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and patient management. A key challenge for the practitioner, particularly in cases where the illness can present atypically, is distinguishing bacterial tonsillitis ...


A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur 2022 Piedmont Macon Medical Center

A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The implications of misdiagnosis can be drastic, especially when the correct diagnosis is treatable. Pulmonary actinomycosis is one of the complications of infection with actinomyces, an anaerobic gram-positive organism that is usually found as a part of the normal flora in the human body infection. It is a very rare disease and is frequently mistaken with other diagnoses owing to its nonspecific presentation. In this report, we present a 67-year-old male with a mass like lesion on a CT scan of his chest that was done due to progressively worsening productive cough, weight loss and fatigue. These symptoms could have ...


Cathelicidin Anti-Microbial Peptide (Camp) Is Toxic During Neonatal Influenza Virus Infection, Nneka Ugwu 2022 Tower Health

Cathelicidin Anti-Microbial Peptide (Camp) Is Toxic During Neonatal Influenza Virus Infection, Nneka Ugwu

St. Chris Research Day

No abstract provided.


Maternal Antepartum Administration Of Lactoferrin Ameliorates Neonatal Infection By Bacteremia-Producing Escherichia Coli In Mice, Charity Dunlop 2022 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Maternal Antepartum Administration Of Lactoferrin Ameliorates Neonatal Infection By Bacteremia-Producing Escherichia Coli In Mice, Charity Dunlop

Research Days

Background: E. coli is a major cause of neonatal sepsis. Vaginal pathogenic E. coli strains ascend into the pregnant uterus infecting the offspring of colonized mothers. Lactoferrin (LF) is an antibacterial and immunomodulatory glycoprotein that has been given to preterm newborns to prevent lateonset sepsis. However, the effects of maternal LF administration to prevent neonatal E. coli invasive infection have not been studied.

Objectives/Goal: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that LF pre-treatment of pregnant mice administered prenatally will significantly reduce the bacterial load in their embryos following infection with E. coli.

Methods/Design: Human LF 100 mcg ...


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti 2022 University of Lynchburg

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription ...


Cellular Dynamics And Disease Outcome Of Type 3 Streptococcus Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Differ Between Strains, Taylor Rae Plunkett White 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Cellular Dynamics And Disease Outcome Of Type 3 Streptococcus Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Differ Between Strains, Taylor Rae Plunkett White

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that continues to be a major cause of disease around the world. It is not only the number one cause of bacterial pneumonia but also the cause of about 15% of the deaths of children under 5 around the world. There is a lot of research done on this organism, but with around 100 known serotypes and each one producing a unique capsule, there is still much more to be studied. The Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study conducted by the CDC observed the burden of hospitalizations caused by pneumonia while determining ...


Arsenic Toxicity On Metabolism And Autophagy In Adipose And Muscle Tissues, Seung-Hyun Ro, Jiyoung Bae, Yura Jang, Jacob Myers, Soonkyu Chung, Jiujiu Yu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Rodrigo Franco, Hyun-Seob Song 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Arsenic Toxicity On Metabolism And Autophagy In Adipose And Muscle Tissues, Seung-Hyun Ro, Jiyoung Bae, Yura Jang, Jacob Myers, Soonkyu Chung, Jiujiu Yu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Rodrigo Franco, Hyun-Seob Song

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Arsenic, a naturally occurring metalloid derived from the environment, has been studied worldwide for its causative effects in various cancers. However, the effects of arsenic toxicity on the development and progression of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and diabetes, has received less attention. Many studies suggest that metabolic dysfunction and autophagy dysregulation of adipose and muscle tissues are closely related to the development of metabolic disease. In the USA, arsenic contamination has been reported in some ground water, soil and grain samples in major agricultural regions, but the effects on adipose and muscle tissue metabolism and autophagy have not been investigated ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


T-Cell Responses To Immunodominant Listeria Epitopes Limit Vaccine-Directed Responses To The Colorectal Cancer Antigen, Guanylyl Cyclase C, John C. Flickinger, Jagmohan Singh, Yanki Yarman, Robert D Carlson, Joshua Barton, Scott A Waldman, Adam E. Snook 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

T-Cell Responses To Immunodominant Listeria Epitopes Limit Vaccine-Directed Responses To The Colorectal Cancer Antigen, Guanylyl Cyclase C, John C. Flickinger, Jagmohan Singh, Yanki Yarman, Robert D Carlson, Joshua Barton, Scott A Waldman, Adam E. Snook

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an emerging platform for cancer immunotherapy. To date, over 30 clinical trials have been initiated testing Lm cancer vaccines across a wide variety of cancers, including lung, cervical, colorectal, and pancreatic. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity of an Lm vaccine against the colorectal tumor antigen GUCY2C (Lm-GUCY2C). Surprisingly, Lm-GUCY2C vaccination did not prime naïve GUCY2C-specific CD8+ T-cell responses towards the dominant H-2Kd-restricted epitope, GUCY2C254-262. However, Lm-GUCY2C produced robust CD8+ T-cell responses towards Lm-derived peptides suggesting that GUCY2C254-262 peptide may be subdominant to Lm-derived peptides. Indeed, incorporating immunogenic Lm peptides into an adenovirus-based GUCY2C ...


Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong 2022 George Washington University

Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Opisthorchiasis is caused by an infection with fish-borne liver flukes of the genus Opisthorchis. Opisthorchiasis frequently leads to chronic inflammation in the biliary tract and is classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer: a definitive risk for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).

METHODS: We used the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect anti-Opisthorchis viverrini IgG and IgG4 subclass antibodies in sera of patients with CCA. The ICT kits were developed based on soluble antigens excreted and secreted by O. viverrini adult worms.

RESULTS: ICT indicated sera was positive for IgG and IgG4 antibodies, respectively ...


Clostridioides Difficile Infection And One Health: An Equine Perspective, Natasza M. R. Hain-Saunders, Daniel R. Knight, Mieghan Bruce, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Clostridioides Difficile Infection And One Health: An Equine Perspective, Natasza M. R. Hain-Saunders, Daniel R. Knight, Mieghan Bruce, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile presents a significant health risk to humans and animals. The complexity of the bacterial–host interaction affecting pathogenesis and disease development creates an ongoing challenge for epidemiological studies, control strategies and prevention planning. The recent emergence of human disease caused by strains of C. difficile found in animals adds to mounting evidence that C. difficile infection (CDI) may be a zoonosis. In equine populations, C. difficile is a known cause of diarrhoea and gastrointestinal inflammation, with considerable mortality and morbidity. This has a significant impact on both the well-being of the animal and, in the case of ...


Four Faces Of Cell-Surface Hla Class-I: Their Antigenic And Immunogenic Divergence Generating Novel Targets For Vaccines, Mepur H Ravindranath, Narendranath M Ravindranath, Senthamil R Selvan, Edward J Filippone, Carly J Amato-Menker, Fatiha El Hilali 2022 Children's Hospital

Four Faces Of Cell-Surface Hla Class-I: Their Antigenic And Immunogenic Divergence Generating Novel Targets For Vaccines, Mepur H Ravindranath, Narendranath M Ravindranath, Senthamil R Selvan, Edward J Filippone, Carly J Amato-Menker, Fatiha El Hilali

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Leukocyte cell-surface HLA-I molecules, involved in antigen presentation of peptides to CD8+ T-cells, consist of a heavy chain (HC) non-covalently linked to β2-microglobulin (β2m) (Face-1). The HC amino acid composition varies across all six isoforms of HLA-I, while that of β2m remains the same. Each HLA-allele differs in one or more amino acid sequences on the HC α1 and α2 helices, while several sequences among the three helices are conserved. HCs without β2m (Face-2) are also observed on human cells activated by malignancy, viral transformation, and cytokine or chemokine-mediated inflammation. In the absence of β2m, the monomeric Face-2 exposes immunogenic ...


Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya SheelaNair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. McCarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury 2022 QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia

Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya Sheelanair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. Mccarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been a mainstay for malaria prevention and treatment. However, emergence of drug resistance has incentivised development of new drugs. Defining the kinetics with which circulating parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) are lost after drug treatment, referred to as the "parasite clearance curve", has been critical for assessing drug efficacy; yet underlying mechanisms remain partly unresolved. The clearance curve may be shaped both by the rate at which drugs kill parasites, and the rate at which drug-affected parasites are removed from circulation.

METHODS: In this context, two anti-malarials, SJ733, and an ACT partner drug, pyronaridine ...


Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P McManus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young 2022 George Washington University

Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P Mcmanus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Urogenital schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide, afflicting > 100 million people. It is characterised by granulomata, fibrosis and calcification in urogenital tissues, and can lead to increased susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. To complement available treatment programs and break the transmission of disease, sound knowledge and understanding of the biology and ecology of S. haematobium is required. Hybridisation/introgression events and molecular variation among members of the S. haematobium-group might effect important biological and/or disease traits as well as the ...


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in ...


Ex Vivo Thrombus Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features And Patient Clinical Data Enable Prediction Of Acute Ischemic Stroke Cause, Spencer D. Christiansen, Junmin Liu, Maria Bres Bullrich, Manas Sharma, Sachin K. Pandey, Melfort Boulton, Sebastian Fridman, Luciano A. Sposato, Maria Drangova 2022 Western University

Ex Vivo Thrombus Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features And Patient Clinical Data Enable Prediction Of Acute Ischemic Stroke Cause, Spencer D. Christiansen, Junmin Liu, Maria Bres Bullrich, Manas Sharma, Sachin K. Pandey, Melfort Boulton, Sebastian Fridman, Luciano A. Sposato, Maria Drangova

Robarts Vascular Research Publications

The cause of ischemic stroke often remains elusive even after full stroke workup is completed. Cardioembolic mechanisms in particular are frequently presumed but challenging to definitively diagnose. Quantitative thrombus texture analysis is emerging as a powerful tool for stroke characterization, having shown the ability to predict response to stroke treatment,1 but its ability to predict stroke cause and complement machine learning models built from standard clinical features has not been studied.2, 3 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of radiomics features extracted from quantitative magnetic resonance images of retrieved ischemic stroke thrombi (R2*(=1 ...


Langerhans Cells And Cdc1s Play Redundant Roles In Mrna-Lnp Induced Protective Anti-Influenza And Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Immune Responses, Sonia Ndeupen, Aurélie Bouteau, Christopher Herbst, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Nicholas E Powers, Zachary Hutchins, Drishya Kurup, Leila Zabihi Diba, Megan Watson, Holly Ramage, Botond Z. Igyártó 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Langerhans Cells And Cdc1s Play Redundant Roles In Mrna-Lnp Induced Protective Anti-Influenza And Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Immune Responses, Sonia Ndeupen, Aurélie Bouteau, Christopher Herbst, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Nicholas E Powers, Zachary Hutchins, Drishya Kurup, Leila Zabihi Diba, Megan Watson, Holly Ramage, Botond Z. Igyártó

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Nucleoside modified mRNA combined with Acuitas Therapeutics' lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) has been shown to support robust humoral immune responses in many preclinical animal vaccine studies and later in humans with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We recently showed that this platform is highly inflammatory due to the LNPs' ionizable lipid component. The inflammatory property is key to support the development of potent humoral immune responses. However, the mechanism by which this platform drives T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and humoral immune responses remains unknown. Here we show that lack of Langerhans cells or cDC1s neither significantly affected the induction of PR8 HA ...


Anti-Cd40 Antibody Fused To Cd40 Ligand Is A Superagonist Platform For Adjuvant Intrinsic Dc-Targeting Vaccines., Valentina Ceglia, Sandra Zurawski, Monica Montes, Mitchell Kroll, Aurélie Bouteau, Zhiqing Wang, Jerome Ellis, Botond Z Igyártó, Yves Lévy, Gerard Zurawski 2022 Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, Dallas, TX, United States; Université Paris-Est Créteil, Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé, Créteil, France; Vaccine Research Institute, The Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité U955, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, Créteil, France

Anti-Cd40 Antibody Fused To Cd40 Ligand Is A Superagonist Platform For Adjuvant Intrinsic Dc-Targeting Vaccines., Valentina Ceglia, Sandra Zurawski, Monica Montes, Mitchell Kroll, Aurélie Bouteau, Zhiqing Wang, Jerome Ellis, Botond Z Igyártó, Yves Lévy, Gerard Zurawski

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

CD40 is a potent activating receptor expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the immune system. CD40 regulates many aspects of B and T cell immunity via interaction with CD40L expressed on activated T cells. Targeting antigens to CD40 via agonistic anti-CD40 antibody fusions promotes both humoral and cellular immunity, but current anti-CD40 antibody-antigen vaccine prototypes require co-adjuvant administration for significant in vivo efficacy. This may be a consequence of dulling of anti-CD40 agonist activity via antigen fusion. We previously demonstrated that direct fusion of CD40L to anti-CD40 antibodies confers superagonist properties. Here we show that anti-CD40-CD40L-antigen fusion constructs retain strong ...


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