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Reno-Protective And Immune Effects Of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 In Obesity-Related Kidney Disease, Jessie T. Sullivan 2022 University of South Dakota

Reno-Protective And Immune Effects Of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 In Obesity-Related Kidney Disease, Jessie T. Sullivan

Honors Thesis

According to the World Health Organization, worldwide obesity has tripled since 1975 and is still on the rise, putting people at a higher risk of some cardiovascular diseases and kidney disease. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-responsive cytokine that has been studied recently for its role in multiple biological processes and diseases. The member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) family has been investigated as a therapeutic agent and biomarker for obesity and associated cardiovascular diseases, stroke, diabetes, osteoarthritis, cancer, and kidney disease. Studies have shown the anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects of GDF15, but few have ...


Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons 2022 University of Mississippi

Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons

Honors Theses

Epileptic disorders like Dravet Syndrome require novel studies to determine the most ideal treatment. New research linking the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to epileptic disorders is arising, but there is still much to be discovered about the function and regulatory impact of the endocannabinoid system and its receptors in epilepsies like Dravet. In this study, knockout models of larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to investigate the roles of cannabinoid receptors 1 & 2 in behavior, brain mitochondrial metabolism, and seizure-induced activity following exposure to THC and CBD. Larval zebrafish which lacked cannabinoid receptor 1 exhibited increased locomotion compared to ...


Targeting Metabolic Adaptations To Anti-Angiogenic Therapy In Ovarian Cancer, Deanna M. Glassman, Deanna Glassman 2022 UT MD Anderson Cancer Center

Targeting Metabolic Adaptations To Anti-Angiogenic Therapy In Ovarian Cancer, Deanna M. Glassman, Deanna Glassman

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

ABSTRACT

Background: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite modest clinical improvements with anti-VEGF antibody (AVA) therapy, adaptive resistance is nearly ubiquitous and additional therapeutic options are limited. A dependence on glutamine metabolism, via the enzyme glutaminase (GLS), is a known mechanism of adaptive resistance.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a glutaminase inhibitor as a means of exploiting the metabolic vulnerability of glutamine dependence that develops as a result of adaptive resistance to AVA therapy.

Experimental Design: We used a glutaminase inhibitor (GLSi) synthesized at MD Anderson Cancer Center for all in vitro and in vivo experiments ...


Associations Of Lifestyle And Sociodemographic Factors With Dietary Supplement Use In College Students, Sydney Chratian 2022 University of Rhode Island

Associations Of Lifestyle And Sociodemographic Factors With Dietary Supplement Use In College Students, Sydney Chratian

Senior Honors Projects

Background: Dietary supplement use has been shown to be significantly prevalent in the United States, especially among the young adult population. Studies have reported increasing use of dietary supplements among college students in the US. However, little research has investigated the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with dietary supplement use in this population.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of dietary supplement use and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with dietary supplement use in college students and examine the attitudes and beliefs of college students on dietary supplements.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted ...


Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek 2022 East Tennessee State University

Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hypoxia is a significant low oxygen state that has complex and diverse impacts on organisms. In aerobes, various adaptive responses to hypoxia are observed that vary depending on the level of oxygen depletion and previous adaptation, hence the continued attention to hypoxia as an important abiotic stressor. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are primarily governed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which activate downstream genetic pathways responsible for oxygen transport and metabolic plasticity. In aquatic habitats, oxygen availability can vary greatly over time and space. Therefore, aquatic organisms’ adaptation to hypoxia is likely pervasive, especially in genotypes originating from waterbodies prone to ...


Injection Options For Non-Surgical Knee Pain Patients: A Quality Improvement Project, alicia emery 2022 East Tennessee State University

Injection Options For Non-Surgical Knee Pain Patients: A Quality Improvement Project, Alicia Emery

Epsilon Sigma at-Large Research Conference

Purpose: In an Orthopedic office in Northeast Tennessee clinical decision making about injection options for non-surgical candidates with knee osteoarthritis is unclear.

Aims: This quality improvement project will develop a clinical guideline so that providers know criteria for choosing optimal knee alternative treatments for non-surgical knee patients.

Outcome measures: An expert panel gave feedback and advice on the information presented for the injection types of Platelet Rich Plasma, Corticosteroids, Amniotic Allograft and Hyaluronic Acid. They edited the guideline then sent the edits back to be complied and edited using the Delphi method.

Process and Methods: The expert feedback was then ...


Determining The Genomic Localization And Binding Partners Of Zinc Finger Protein 410, Mariko Locke 2022 Liberty University

Determining The Genomic Localization And Binding Partners Of Zinc Finger Protein 410, Mariko Locke

Senior Honors Theses

The results of a folate deficiency study affecting cognition in mice suggested the altered genes may be controlled by a transcription factor known as Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to a lack of literature on Zfp410’s interacting proteins and DNA-binding location, our study aims to further elucidate the role Zfp410 plays in affecting cognition. A custom antibody was used to determine the Zfp410 isoforms present in mouse and rat brains. Moreover, the antibody was used to determine the binding partners of Zfp410 in the brain and locate specific genomic regions/sequences with which it associates in vivo. These ...


Vitamin C Reduces Igf-1 And Vegf Signaling In Retinal Endothelial Cells, Jonathon Reynolds 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Vitamin C Reduces Igf-1 And Vegf Signaling In Retinal Endothelial Cells, Jonathon Reynolds

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Macronutrient Intake: A Multi-Sport Study Of Female Division I Collegiate Athletes, Ffion Price 2021 Mississippi State University

Macronutrient Intake: A Multi-Sport Study Of Female Division I Collegiate Athletes, Ffion Price

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Macronutrients play a critical role within collegiate athletes’ performance and health, with carbohydrates providing most of the energy needs for most athletes. There is little research examining the macronutrient intake of healthy collegiate female athletes across sports. The aim of the present study was to compare macronutrient intakes of female collegiate athletes within different sports and compare their intakes to recommendations. Methods: An observational study was conducted to determine whether a sample of female collegiate athletes (n=26) consumed the IOC nutritional recommendations. Sports included within the study were soccer, basketball, volleyball, and cross-country. Athletes were asked to complete ...


Associations Of Diet With Cardiometabolic And Inflammatory Profiles In Pregnant Women At Risk For Metabolic Complications, Kataryna Jaworsky, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Petar Planinic, Arpita Basu 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Associations Of Diet With Cardiometabolic And Inflammatory Profiles In Pregnant Women At Risk For Metabolic Complications, Kataryna Jaworsky, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Petar Planinic, Arpita Basu

Dental Medicine Faculty Publications

Dietary intakes play an important role in the development of metabolic complications during pregnancy. While reported observational studies reveal an inverse association of healthy diets with weight gain, gestational diabetes, and hypertensive complications during pregnancy, there is a paucity of studies conducted among women of specific ethnicities vulnerable to higher risks of pregnancy complications. This is a secondary cross sectional analysis using baseline data from a previously reported clinical trial. We aim to identify associations of maternal habitual dietary intakes with cardiometabolic risks and inflammatory profiles in primarily African American (AA) and Hispanic women in the first half of pregnancy ...


Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang 2021 Tennessee State University

Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the ...


Applicability Of Small-Molecule Inhibitors In The Study Of Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 2 (Pad2) And Pad4, Maria Teresa. Martin Monreal, Alexandra Stripp Rebak, Laura Massarenti, Santanu Mondal, Ladislav Senolt, Niels Odum, Michael L. Nielsen, Paul R. Thompson, Claus H. Nielsen, Dres Damgaard 2021 Copenhagen University Hospital

Applicability Of Small-Molecule Inhibitors In The Study Of Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 2 (Pad2) And Pad4, Maria Teresa. Martin Monreal, Alexandra Stripp Rebak, Laura Massarenti, Santanu Mondal, Ladislav Senolt, Niels Odum, Michael L. Nielsen, Paul R. Thompson, Claus H. Nielsen, Dres Damgaard

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Citrullination, the conversion of peptidyl-arginine into peptidyl-citrulline, is involved in the breakage of self-tolerance in anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis. This reaction is catalyzed by peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs), of which PAD2 and PAD4 are thought to play key pathogenic roles. Small-molecule PAD inhibitors such as the pan-PAD inhibitor BB-Cl-amidine, the PAD2-specific inhibitor AFM-30a, and the PAD4-specific inhibitor GSK199 hold therapeutic potential and are useful tools in studies of citrullination. Using an ELISA based on the citrullination of fibrinogen, we found that AFM-30a inhibited the catalytic activity of PADs derived from live PMNs or lysed PBMCs and PMNs and of PADs in ...


Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL LABORATORY AND FOOD HYGIENE, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The aim of this study was to identify potentially toxic contaminants in milk powder. Powdered milk contains a range of toxic and non-toxic substances that are present in a wide variety, also having very different origins. A number of seven milk powder samples from different producers sold on the Romanian market were analyzed, the samples that were collected from the original packaging: P1, P 2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. The concentration of the following elements was analyzed using the X-ray (XRF) fluorescence method: potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and aluminum (Al). The vast majority of ...


Output Consistency Scale To Standardize Ostomate Output Description In Clinical Practice And Studies, lisa Whisenhunt, Linda Xu, Fan Yang, Jacques Izard 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Output Consistency Scale To Standardize Ostomate Output Description In Clinical Practice And Studies, Lisa Whisenhunt, Linda Xu, Fan Yang, Jacques Izard

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Stool descriptors have become popular due to the large diffusion of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) via clinical studies, clinical trials, and social media. The applications have been numerous and centered around standardization of terminology that can be used by health care professionals and patients alike, as well as individuals interested in their wellness and the associated partners in the wellness industry. For a portion of the population, the digestive content is rerouted to an external manufactured pouch or bag, making the use of the BSFS visual descriptors of stool difficult. From day one post-resection surgery, ostomates are challenged ...


Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei 2021 Portland State University

Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei

University Honors Theses

Trained immunity is long-term innate immune memory induced by a primary stimulus, which leads to hyper-inflammation upon secondary stimulation with a homologous or heterologous ligand. Trained immunity is mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of the target cell and leads to modification of gene expression and cellular function. Classically, trained immunity is initiated by β-glucans, an inflammatory molecule found on the exterior of fungal species. Interestingly, our lab has recently described that dietary fatty acids can initiate trained immunity, working through similar pathways as β-glucans. Specifically, our data show that a pre-treatment with a specific dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA ...


Analyses Of Hiv Proteases Variants At The Threshold Of Viability Reveals Relationships Between Processing Efficiency And Fitness, Gily S. Nachum, Julia Flynn, David Mavor, Celia A. Schiffer, Daniel N. Bolon 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Analyses Of Hiv Proteases Variants At The Threshold Of Viability Reveals Relationships Between Processing Efficiency And Fitness, Gily S. Nachum, Julia Flynn, David Mavor, Celia A. Schiffer, Daniel N. Bolon

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Investigating the relationships between protein function and fitness provides keys for understanding biochemical mechanisms that underly evolution. Mutations with partial fitness defects can delineate the threshold of biochemical function required for viability. We utilized a previous deep mutational scan of HIV-1 protease (PR) to identify variants with 15-45 per cent defects in replication and analysed the biochemical function of eight variants (L10M, L10S, V32C, V32I, A71V, A71S, Q92I, Q92N). We purified each variant and assessed the efficiency of peptide cleavage for three cut sites (MA-CA, TF-PR, and PR-RT) as well as gel-based analyses of processing of purified Gag. The cutting ...


Gestational Diabetes: What About Your Exercise?, andreana henry 2021 Kennesaw State University

Gestational Diabetes: What About Your Exercise?, Andreana Henry

Symposium of Student Scholars

Previous research on exercise as a form of preventative care to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes has produced conflicting views. When and why exercise is the most beneficial during pregnancy has been widely debated, as well as which trimester exercise is the most effective to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. It has been argued that if a woman has not previously incorporated exercise into her lifestyle, during pregnancy is not the ideal time to start. Conversely, light to moderate exercise is encouraged to decrease the chances of gestational diabetes, but which gestation period exercise will have the greatest ...


A Cancer Ubiquitome Landscape Identifies Metabolic Reprogramming As Target Of Parkin Tumor Suppression, Ekta Agarwal, Aaron R Goldman, Hsin-Yao Tang, Andrew V Kossenkov, Jagadish C Ghosh, Lucia Languino, Valentina Vaira, David W Speicher, Dario C Altieri 2021 The Wistar Institute

A Cancer Ubiquitome Landscape Identifies Metabolic Reprogramming As Target Of Parkin Tumor Suppression, Ekta Agarwal, Aaron R Goldman, Hsin-Yao Tang, Andrew V Kossenkov, Jagadish C Ghosh, Lucia Languino, Valentina Vaira, David W Speicher, Dario C Altieri

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Changes in metabolism that affect mitochondrial and glycolytic networks are hallmarks of cancer, but their impact in disease is still elusive. Using global proteomics and ubiquitome screens, we now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase and key effector of mitophagy altered in Parkinson's disease, shuts off mitochondrial dynamics and inhibits the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. This blocks tumor cell movements, creates metabolic and oxidative stress, and inhibits primary and metastatic tumor growth. Uniformly down-regulated in cancer patients, Parkin tumor suppression requires its E3 ligase function, is reversed by antioxidants, and is independent of mitophagy. These ...


Thermal Properties Of 18f-Fdg Uptake And Imaging In Positron Emission Tomography Scans Of Cancerous Cells, Carleigh R. Eagle 2021 University of North Florida

Thermal Properties Of 18f-Fdg Uptake And Imaging In Positron Emission Tomography Scans Of Cancerous Cells, Carleigh R. Eagle

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans can utilize a radioactive tracer, in this case 2-deoxy2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), to visualize malignant tumors in cancer patients. The uptake was compared to glucose to understand the difference in thermal properties, which contribute to the ability to image the cancerous cells. The uptake of 18F-FDG by cancer cells and the imaging process of positron emission tomography were reviewed from a thermodynamic perspective. Gastrointestinal and neurological imaging techniques were reviewed to understand the role of PET imaging in different areas of the human body.


Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino 2021 Missouri State University

Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino

MSU Graduate Theses

Recent insights into the pathological role of Nucleotide P2Y2 receptor suggest P2Y2R involvement in high fat diet-induced obesity and potentiates insulin resistance. However, these recent insights do not demonstrate how P2Y2R modulates glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Further, it remains unknown how sex biological factors influence P2Y2R receptor signaling in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The research objective for the present study is to elucidate the novel roles of P2Y2 in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance (basal insulin sensitivity) under resting conditions in males and females. We expected that under physiological ...


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