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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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The Antisaccade Task: Visual Distractors Elicit A Location-Independent Planning 'Cost', Jesse C. DeSimone 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Antisaccade Task: Visual Distractors Elicit A Location-Independent Planning 'Cost', Jesse C. Desimone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prosaccades are rapid eye movements with direct stimulus and response relations and are designed to bring the fovea onto a target or area of interest. In contrast, antisaccades require the inhibition of a prosaccade and the evocation of a saccade to a target’s mirror-symmetrical location. Previous work has shown that a remote (i.e., midline, contralateral) – but not proximal (i.e., ipsilateral) – task-irrelevant distractor relative to a visual target delays prosaccade reaction times (RT) (i.e., remote distractor effect: RDE). To my knowledge, however, no work has examined whether antisaccade RTs are similarly influenced by a RDE. Accordingly, I ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Plantar Weight Distribution And The Condition Of Osteoarthritic Knees During Quiet Standing, Brian Joseph Sutterer 2014 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Plantar Weight Distribution And The Condition Of Osteoarthritic Knees During Quiet Standing, Brian Joseph Sutterer

Graduate Theses - Biology & Biomedical Engineering

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a damaging disease that commonly affects the knee and can impact function of the lower limb. This study examined how plantar weight distribution is related to the changes in knee alignment and various types of joint damage in patients with OA. A force mat was used to measure plantar weight distribution on 37 patients with knee OA, and the internal condition of the knee was evaluated during surgery. Analysis showed a relationship between medial plantar weight distribution and an increase in knee alignment angle (0.20, p < 0.001). For the damage models, an indirect relationship was found between medial weight distribution and ACL damage (-0.14, p=0.029). No relationship was found for the other types of OA damage. It is reasonable to believe they do exist, however. This study found a connection between weight distribution and alignment, and previous research has shown one between alignment and OA.


Roles Of P2x7 Receptors In Adipose And Skeletal Tissues Of Mice, Kim L. Beaucage 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Roles Of P2x7 Receptors In Adipose And Skeletal Tissues Of Mice, Kim L. Beaucage

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

P2X7 is an ATP-gated ion channel in the plasma membrane of a number of cell types. Previous in vitro studies show that P2X7 plays a role in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes from mesenchymal precursors, as well as cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, P2X7 has been implicated in mediating the effects of mechanical stimuli in bone. Our objective was to investigate the roles of P2X7, mechanical vibration, and their possible interaction in regulating body composition in vivo. We developed a novel method to monitor body composition during growth and aging in mice using micro-computed tomography (Chapter 2 ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Ampk Activation: A Therapeutic Target For Type 2 Diabetes?, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy Valentine, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha 2014 Boston University

Ampk Activation: A Therapeutic Target For Type 2 Diabetes?, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy Valentine, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha

Rudy Valentine

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing
effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it ...


Analysis Of Bip Expression In The Cervical And Lumbar Spinal Cord Following Painful Whole-Body Vibration, Kosuke Tanaka 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Analysis Of Bip Expression In The Cervical And Lumbar Spinal Cord Following Painful Whole-Body Vibration, Kosuke Tanaka

Dental Theses

No abstract provided.


A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel O. Agu 2014 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel O. Agu

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

A sedentary lifestyle involves irregular or no physical activity. In this kind of lifestyle, people’s activities do not increase their energy expenditure substantially above resting levels. Long periods of sitting, lying, watching television, playing video games, and using the computer are typical examples. Energy expenditures at 1.0-1.5 Metabolic Equivalent Units (METs) are considered sedentary behaviors. A recent study of sedentary lifestyles found that the length of sedentary times is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In this study, we developed a smartphone application called “On11”, which continuously tracks and ...


Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel O. Agu, Diane M. Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder C. Pedersen 2014 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel O. Agu, Diane M. Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder C. Pedersen

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Running is a popular physical activity that improves physical and mental wellbeing. Unfortunately, up-to- date information about runners’ performance and psychological wellbeing is limited. Many questions remain unanswered, such as how far and how fast runners typically run, their preferred running times and frequencies, how long new runners persist before dropping out, and what factors cause runners to quit. Without hard data, establishing patterns of runner behavior and mitigating the challenges they face are difficult. Collecting data manually from large numbers of runners for research studies is costly and time consuming. Emerging Social Networking Services (SNS) and fitness tracking devices ...


Performance Evaluation Of Material Decomposition Using Rapid Kvp-Switching Dual-Energy Ct For Assessing Bone Mineral Density, John M. Wait 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Performance Evaluation Of Material Decomposition Using Rapid Kvp-Switching Dual-Energy Ct For Assessing Bone Mineral Density, John M. Wait

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Osteoporosis is diagnosed by assessing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the trabecular bone, and has previously been characterized with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or single-energy computed tomography (SECT). Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is able to create two three-dimensional sets of images representing the densities of two materials in a given basis pair. DECT is theoretically capable of providing a true density measurement of trabecular bone material with the proper material basis pair.

Using the rapid kVp-switching GE HD750 scanner, the concentrations of various solutes were assessed in two-material syringe-phantoms in different experimental conditions with DECT material density images, SECT ...


Clay Modeling Of The Musculoskeletal System: Does Active Learning Increase Retention And Comprehension, Kelly Massey 2014 Georgia College

Clay Modeling Of The Musculoskeletal System: Does Active Learning Increase Retention And Comprehension, Kelly Massey

Interdisciplinary STEM Teaching & Learning Conference (2012-2019)

The focus of a Structural Kinesiology course is a detailed study into the musculoskeletal system and joint action. The course contains a lot of memorization: skeletal muscle origin, insertions, innervations and muscle/joint actions but there is also an applied component for the content. Group study has been incorporated into the course to increase knowledge retention and comprehension however group interaction has been seen to be minimal. Two studies have looked at group construction of skeletal muscle models using clay during class time in assisting with the active learning of muscle origin, insertion and actions (Cruz-Espaillat et al., 2010 & Waters ...


Acetaminophen Improves Protein Translational Signaling In Aged Skeletal Muscle, Miaozong Wu, Hua Liu, Jacqueline Fannin, Anjaiah Katta, Yeling Wang, Ravi Kumar Arvapalli, Satyanarayana Paturi, Sunil K. Karkala, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough 2014 Marshall University

Acetaminophen Improves Protein Translational Signaling In Aged Skeletal Muscle, Miaozong Wu, Hua Liu, Jacqueline Fannin, Anjaiah Katta, Yeling Wang, Ravi Kumar Arvapalli, Satyanarayana Paturi, Sunil K. Karkala, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough

Ravi K. Arvapalli

Background: Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by increased oxidative stress, diminished Akt enzymatic function, and reduced phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which can be attenuated by chronic acetaminophen ingestion. Here we hypothesize that age-related impairments in Akt/ mTOR function are associated with reduced protein translational signaling, and that these changes, if present, can be attenuated by acetaminophen treatment. Results: Compared to 6- and 27-month old animals, the expression of the mTOR-complex proteins raptor and GbL and the phosphorylation of tuberin/TSC2 (Thr1462) were reduced in the soleus muscles of very aged rats (33 months old). These changes ...


Effects Of Body Armor And Load Carriage On Lower Limb Joint Movement, Huiju Park, Donna Branson, Adriana Petrova, Semra Peksoz, Carla Goad, Aric J. Warren, Bert Jacobson, Panagiotis Kamenidis 2014 Cornell University

Effects Of Body Armor And Load Carriage On Lower Limb Joint Movement, Huiju Park, Donna Branson, Adriana Petrova, Semra Peksoz, Carla Goad, Aric J. Warren, Bert Jacobson, Panagiotis Kamenidis

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

This study investigated the impact of body armor weight and load magnitude and distribution on the lower extremities during walking. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed while seven healthy, male, right-handed, military university students walked while wearing seven different garments of varying weights (0.06 kg, 9 kg, 18 kg, and 27 kg) and load distributions. Decreased pelvic rotation found with an increase in weight implies decreased mobility by restricting the leg’s swing to propel the body forward. Increased ROM for pelvic tilt found with increased weight results from increased forward inclination suggesting an increased possibility for fatigue and ...


Gender Differences In High Sensitivity C - Reactive Protein And Self-Reported Muscle Strengthening Activity Among U.S. Adults, Michael R. Richardson 2014 University of North Florida

Gender Differences In High Sensitivity C - Reactive Protein And Self-Reported Muscle Strengthening Activity Among U.S. Adults, Michael R. Richardson

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: We sought to examine the gender differences between C - reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA) in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age)

Background: Elevated levels of CRP have been shown to be associated with an increase in risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies analyzing the relationship between physical activity (PA) and CRP by gender have produced mixed results.

Methods: The sample (n=9,135) included participants in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Three categories of reported MSA participation were created: no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to/wk), and meeting the ...


Evaluation Of Tissue-Engineered Tendon Enthesis Polymer Constructs, Joshua A. Bundy BS, Mary Beth Wade PhD, Hitomi Nakao MD, Phillip McClellan PhD, Qing Yu PhD, Robin Jacquet-Childs MS, William J. Landis PhD 2014 The University of Akron

Evaluation Of Tissue-Engineered Tendon Enthesis Polymer Constructs, Joshua A. Bundy Bs, Mary Beth Wade Phd, Hitomi Nakao Md, Phillip Mcclellan Phd, Qing Yu Phd, Robin Jacquet-Childs Ms, William J. Landis Phd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Both scientists and clinicians have proposed tissue engineering as the future of medicine. The possibilities for tissue engineering, that is, fabrication of tissues and organs in the laboratory and their translation to patients, appear to be endless, and many believe that this new approach in medicine will result in abolishing many common ailments, injuries, and congenital defects. Injuries to a tendon enthesis, the normal tissue connection between tendon and bone, are of particular concern to clinicians because of their frequency and failure to repair as a result of surgery. While these injuries may not be life threatening, they can certainly ...


Transmural Heterogeneity Of Cellular Level Cardiac Contractile Properties In Aging And Heart Failure, Premi Haynes 2014 University of Kentucky

Transmural Heterogeneity Of Cellular Level Cardiac Contractile Properties In Aging And Heart Failure, Premi Haynes

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

The left ventricle of the heart relaxes when it fills with blood and contracts to eject blood into circulation to meet the body’s metabolic demands. Dysfunction in either relaxation or contraction of the left ventricle can lead to heart failure. Transmural heterogeneity is thought to contribute to normal ventricular wall motion but it is not well understood how transmural modifications affect the failing left ventricle. The overall hypothesis of this dissertation is that normal left ventricles exhibit transmural heterogeneity in cellular level contractile properties and with aging and heart failure there are region-specific changes in cellular level contractile mechanisms ...


Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (Omm) And Reduction Of Nsaid Use In Low Back Pain: A Pilot Study, Kristopher Kelly 2014 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (Omm) And Reduction Of Nsaid Use In Low Back Pain: A Pilot Study, Kristopher Kelly

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

This randomized controlled pilot study is to determine if a combination of muscle energy and soft tissue techniques can reduce the amount of daily NSAID use in patients suffering from chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP). Osteopathic manipulative treatment has been shown to be useful in treating low back pain. However, its role in reducing daily NSAID use in CNSLBP patients is unclear. This study was conducted at PCOM from January 2014 to April 2014. By design, patients were to be randomized into either a treatment group consisting of OMT or a control group consisting of a sham OMT. Of ...


Effect Of Head And Limb Orientation On Trunk Muscle Activation During Abdominal Hollowing In Chronic Low Back Pain, Kevin Parfrey, Sean G. Gibbons, Eric J. Drinkwater, David G. Behm 2014 Edith Cowan University

Effect Of Head And Limb Orientation On Trunk Muscle Activation During Abdominal Hollowing In Chronic Low Back Pain, Kevin Parfrey, Sean G. Gibbons, Eric J. Drinkwater, David G. Behm

ECU Publications Post 2013

Background: Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manœuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre. Methods. This study compared surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and ...


Sympathetic Nerve Modulation Of Joint Pathology In Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis, Carlo Anthony Wood 2013 Loma Linda University

Sympathetic Nerve Modulation Of Joint Pathology In Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis, Carlo Anthony Wood

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Background: There is increasing data suggesting a net increase in sympathetic tone plays an important role in rheumatoid arthritis. Several studies have reported altered distribution and density of autonomic nerves in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and animal models for the disease. This provides anatomical evidence that supports a neurally-mediated drive in inflammation and joint destruction. Methods: Adult rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant. At 12 days post immunization, animals were randomly placed into a drug treatment group (SH1293, which interacts with - and ß2-ARs), an adjuvant arthritic group, or a control group. These animals were sacrificed at 14, 21 ...


Shoulder Pain In Primary Care: Diagnostic Accuracy Of Clinical Examination Tests For Non-Traumatic Acromioclavicular Joint Pain, Angela Cadogan, Peter McNair, Mark Laslett, Wayne Hing 2013 Auckland University of Technology

Shoulder Pain In Primary Care: Diagnostic Accuracy Of Clinical Examination Tests For Non-Traumatic Acromioclavicular Joint Pain, Angela Cadogan, Peter Mcnair, Mark Laslett, Wayne Hing

Wayne Hing

Background: Despite numerous methodological flaws in previous study designs and the lack of validation in primary care populations, clinical tests for identifying acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain are widely utilised without concern for such issues. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ACJ tests and to compare their accuracy with other clinical examination features for identifying a predominant ACJ pain source in a primary care cohort. Methods: Consecutive patients with shoulder pain were recruited prospectively from primary health care clinics. Following a standardised clinical examination and diagnostic injection into the subacromial bursa, all participants received ...


Joint-Specific Changes In Locomotor Complexity In The Absence Of Muscle Atrophy Following Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury, Brian K. Hillen, Gary T. Yamaguchi, James J. Abbas, Ranu Jung 2013 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W Flagler St, EC 2602, Miami, FL; Center for Adaptive Neural Systems, Arizona State University, 1100 E. University Dr., Ste. 116, Tempe, AZ

Joint-Specific Changes In Locomotor Complexity In The Absence Of Muscle Atrophy Following Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury, Brian K. Hillen, Gary T. Yamaguchi, James J. Abbas, Ranu Jung

Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

ackground

Following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), descending drive is impaired, possibly leading to a decrease in the complexity of gait. To test the hypothesis that iSCI impairs gait coordination and decreases locomotor complexity, we collected 3D joint angle kinematics and muscle parameters of rats with a sham or an incomplete spinal cord injury.

Methods

12 adult, female, Long-Evans rats, 6 sham and 6 mild-moderate T8 iSCI, were tested 4 weeks following injury. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor score was used to verify injury severity. Animals had reflective markers placed on the bony prominences of their limb joints and were ...


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